op5.4 - csio

Spinal Posture Analysis
technique using Diagnostic
 In today’s fast changing world
and sedentary several new
diseases are evolving.
 linked with improper posture of
 Diseases like
low back pain,
pelvic tilt,
and lordosis can be related to
abnormal spine posture.
 Scoliosis is defined as curvature of the spine greater than
10 degrees, as measured on an X-ray. Anything less is
simply due to normal variation.
One shoulder may appear higher than the
One hip may appear higher than the other.
The child's head is not centered over his or
One shoulder blade may stick out more than
the other.
The ribs are higher on one side when the child bends
forward from the waist.
The waistline may be flat on one side.
 Diagnosis of any disease requires correct estimation
of vital parameters.
 Diagnostic medical tests are further classified as
imaging and non-imaging type.
X-ray, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed tomography,
and Ultrasound
Choice of particular technology is depends on the location, and
required accuracy. Cost and availability are other
important factors in developing countries
 X-ray is most widely used method for diagnosing
orthopedic diseases.
80% of the diseases are diagnosed with X-ray.
X-ray causes several side effects which are harmful to
body, like excessive exposure to X-ray can cause skin
Several technological limitation also, like the under or
over exposure, quality of the film, developing material
and also X-ray source’s life.
Because of cheap test cost and widely availability these
are used in developing countries.
Examination Methods
 Shoulders are different heights—one
shoulder blade is more prominent than
the other
Head is not centered directly above the
Appearance of a raised, prominent hip
Rib cages are at different heights
Uneven waist
Changes in look or texture of skin
overlying the spine (dimples, hairy
patches, color changes)
Leaning of entire body to one side
Examination Methods
 Adam's Forward Bend Test
For this test, the patient is asked to lean forward with his
or her feet together and bend 90 degrees at the waist. The
examiner can then easily view from this angle any
asymmetry of the trunk or any abnormal spinal
curvatures. It should be noted that this is a simple
screening test that can detect potential problems, but
cannot determine accurately the exact severity of the
Cobb angle
 Cobb's angle, a measurement used for evaluation of
curves in scoliosis on an AP radiographic projection
of the spine
 The angle between these two lines (or lines drawn
perpendicular to them) is measured as the Cobb
Cobb angle
 Cobb's angle is found by measuring the angle of the
two intersecting perpendicular lines.
 As a general rule a
Cobb angle of 10 is regarded as a minimum angulations to
define scoliosis.
If the Cobb's angle for your scoliosis is 15 degrees or less, it's
likely that all you will need are regular check-ups to see if the
curve is progressing.
If it is between 20 and 40 degrees, you will probably need a
back brace. If it is over 40, your doctor will likely recommend
 Authors conceptualize a novel method based on the
diagnostic imaging to diagnose abnormal spine posture.
The method is free from all limitation and harmful effect
of X-ray examination and therefore can be done
The 2D images of bare back are averaged and
interpolated to reconstruct the patient spine.
The 3D image data are analyzed over a software platform
like LabVIEW and Matlab.
This analysis can give the early estimation of abnormal
posture related diseases.
Estimation of Cobb Angle
Pat 1
Pat 2
Pat 3
Cobb angle estimation
Pat 4
LabVIEW based tool for Cobb Angle Estimation
LabVIEW based tool for Cobb Angle Estimation
Estimated Cobb Angle
Pat 1
Pat 2
Pat 3
Pat 4
Instrumentation scheme
Marker Set
Normal Red LEDs were earlier used,
with each marker made up of an
array of 4 red LEDs arranged so that
they appear as a big and single bright
circle when viewed from some
Data Acquisition: Experimental Setup
Image data
Calibration Images
 System will be effective than X-ray based simple
measurement systems and generates a complete capture
of the shape of the back (volume measurement).
All the diagnostic measurement and limitations resulting
from X–ray scanning techniques will be improved in the
presented method.
Able to quantify the spinal and postural parameters and
will helps in diagnosing diseases like scoliosis, kyphotic,
and lordosis etc.
Estimates the spinal parameters using the advanced
image processing techniques.
It will be a computerized system will be focused to extend
the leading position in the field of biomechanics analysis.
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