Components of fitness - nceftutorsupport.net

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Module 3
Health Related
Physical Fitness
Assessment and
Programme Design
(HRPF)
Aims and Objectives
To equip the HFI with the knowledge,
application of and experience in recognising
and evaluating the health related physical
fitness components, and with the
appropriate skills for the development of a
framework for planning, implementing and
evaluating safe exercise programmes
To provide a basic understanding of the
principles of training to enable the
instructor to prescribe, plan and
implement safe and effective exercise
programmes
To define the health related fitness
components and to describe and
administer appropriate techniques for
fitness assessments
To define the principles of training and to
describe and demonstrate their
application to exercise programming
Course
Content
Unit 1: Components of fitness. Principles of
training. Principles of overload.
Unit 2: LME/strength. CV endurance.
Intensity.
Unit 3: Warm-up/cool-down. Flexibility. Body
composition.
Unit 4 : Screening procedures. Stages of
screening. Forms. Informed consent. Risk
factors. Guidelines for referral.
Unit 5: Fitness assessment: Body
composition, skinfold measurement.
Unit 6: Cardiovascular endurance: (1) Shuttle
run. (2) Rockport walk test. (3) Bike test. (4)
Treadmill test.
Unit 7: Testing for muscular strength/endurance.
(1) Curl-ups. (2) Push-ups. (3) 1RM. (4) Estimated
1 RM. (5) 10 RM
Unit 8: Flexibility tests: (1) Sit and reach. (2)
Shoulder elevation. (3) Back extension.
Unit 9: Programme planning: stages of planning.
Case studies.
Continuous Assessment: Practical 70%
Written 30%
Session 1
Objectives
At the end of this session, students
will be able to:
• describe the general aims and purpose of
module 4
• understand the continuous assessment
procedures for module 4
Session 1
• list the health and skill related
components of fitness
• define the health related
components of fitness
• list and describe the principles of
training and their application to
the HR components of fitness
What is Fitness?
TOTAL FITNESS
E
S
S
M
E = Emotional fitness
S = Social fitness
S = Spiritual fitness
M = Mental fitness
P = Physical fitness
P
Components of Physical Fitness
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Skill Related
Agility
Balance
Co-ordination
Reaction Time
Power
Speed
Health Related
1. Body composition
2. Cardiovascular fitness
3. Flexibility
4. Muscular endurance
5. Muscular Strength
These are the five
components of fitness this
course is concentrating on.
Health Related
Components of Fitness
Cardiovascular Endurance: The ability of the
heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the
working muscles during continuous exercise
Local Muscular Endurance: The ability of a
muscle or a group of muscles to sustain
exercise over a period of time without
fatigue setting in
Strength: The ability to exert force in a single
effort
Flexibility: The ability to move or stretch
through a large range of motion around a joint
(ROM)
Body Composition: Ratio of muscle and bone
weight to fat weight
Principles of Training
 Overload
 Frequency: How
often?Intensity: How
hard?Time: How
long?Type: Circuits,
aerobics, weights etc





Progression
Specificity
Reversibility
Placement
Individual
Differences
 Adaptation
Principles of
Training
• Overload: In order to improve your fitness levels, you
must work the particular component against a load
greater than normal.
• Progression: As a person becomes fitter, a higher
intensity of exercise is needed to create an overload.
• Specificity: The result of the type of exercise performed
is specific both to the muscle groups being used and to
the energy system involved.
• Reversibility: Training effects gained are reversible if
workouts stop.
Principles of Training
• Placement: The scheduling of the training, both
within a week/month etc. and within each
session.
• Individual Differences: Each person will have
different capabilities and will adapt in a
different manner to an exercise programme.
There is no ‘one for all’ programme.
• Adaptation: The way the body changes as a
result of training, e.g. muscles may become
stronger.
Cardiovascular
Endurance:
The FITT Principles




Frequency: 3 to 5 times per week
Intensity: 60% to 85% MHR
Time: 20 min (minimum)
Type: Aerobic: running, cycling, swimming etc.
Flexibility:
The FITT
Principles




Frequency: 3 times per week upwards
Intensity: To the point of tension
Time: 15 to 30 secs
Type: Stretching: passive, static, active, active
assisted, PNF.
Muscular
Endurance:
The FITT Principles
 Frequency : 3 to 5 times per week
 Intensity: 60% to 70% 1 RM
 Time: As long as it takes to do 15 to 30 reps
 Type: Weights, circuits etc.
Strength:
The FITT
Principles
 Frequency: 3 to 4 times per week
 Intensity: 70% to 90% 1 RM
 Time: As long as it takes to do between 2 and
10 reps
 Type: Resistance training (weights )
Body Composition:
The FITT
Principles
 Frequency: 3 to 5 times per week
 Intensity: 55-65% MHR
 Time: 20 to 60 mins aerobic activity (continuous
or intermittent)
 Type: Aerobic (primarily), LME, any activity that
uses large muscle groups
Health Benefits of
Improved Cardiovascular
Endurance
Stronger heart rate
Lower heart rate
Possible reduction in BP
Possible resistance to arteriosclerosis
Possible improved periphery circulation
Quicker recovery after hard work
Improved coronary circulation
Less chance of heart attack
Greater chance of surviving heart attack
Increased protective HDLs
Increased O2 carrying capacity
of the blood
Health Benefits of Improved
Muscular Strength and
Endurance
Greater work efficiency
Less chance of muscle injury
Decreased chance of low
back problems
Improved performance in
sports
Health Related Benefits of
Improved Flexibility and Body
Composition




Flexibility
Good joint mobility
Less chance of muscle
injury
Prevents low back
problems
Helps maintain good
posture alignment
Body Composition
 Improved
appearance
 Muscle is more
metabolically active
than fat
 Reasonable fat
weight = less strain
on heart/joints
What is Fitness
Assessment?
Fitness Assessment is a vital part of
the total professional service
offered to clients and is the
method used to evaluate the
health fitness status of the client.
Uses and Purpose of
Fitness Assessment
 Individual diagnosis
 Exercise prescription
 Achievement of individual
goals
 Motivation
 Measure improvements
 Educational purposes
 Programme evaluation
 Protect against
litigation
 Instructor credibility
 Lines of
communication - GP
Stages of
Health/Fitness
Assessment
Stage 1: Screening:
 Health history
 Health behaviours
 Risk factors
 Informed consent
Stage 2: Physical measures:
 Resting heart rate
 Resting blood pressure
 Height
 Weight
 Cholesterol
Stage 3: Fitness testing:
 Core tests
WHY SCREEN?
1. Identify persons who need
special attention
2. Identify persons who
should exercise in a special
way
3. Identify persons who
should not be exercising at
all
4. Helps HFI gain knowledge
of physical ability of clients
5. Enhances credibility
of HFI as
professional
6. Can help protect HFI
- legal problems
7. Helps to open lines
of communication
between GP and HFI
Health/Fitness
Assessment
Stage 1 - Screening
Screening by questionnaire:
Medical history
Physical activity pattern in life
Risk factors the client may be subject to
Informed consent
Stage 2
Physical
Measurements
A.
Resting heart rate
B.
Resting blood pressure
C.
Height
D.
Weight
E.Cholesterol (if possible)
ACSM Guidelines page 134 of
Student Manual
Referral
Cardiovascular
Endurance
• The ability of the heart and lungs to supply
oxygen to the working muscles during continuous
exercise
Oxygen Uptake
 Amount of oxygen taken up and used by the body.
 Reflects total amount of work being done by the
body.
 During strenuous exercise, VO2 max increases
linearly with increases in the intensity of exercise.
 Approaching exhaustion, VO2 reaches a max
above which it will not increase further: VO2 max largest amount of oxygen body can use during
maximal exercise
Maximum Oxygen
Uptake (VO2 max)
VO2 max: the greatest rate at which oxygen
can be consumed during exercise at sea
level!
V: the volume of oxygen used per minute
O2:the oxygen
max: maximal exercise conditions
VO2 Max
 VO2 max is the highest rate of oxygen
consumption that a person is capable of using
during maximal exercise
 Referred to as maximal aerobic power or
maximal oxygen uptake
 Usually expressed in ml/kg/min
VO2 Max
Best measured in lab during
maximal exercise test in which the
oxygen consumed is measured by
a computerised metabolic chart
Maximum
Oxygen Uptake
VO2 max is used(VO
as the most
2) accurate measure of
a person’s aerobic power or fitness
A higher VO2 maximum reflects an increased
ability of:
 heart to pump blood
 lungs to ventilate large volumes of air
 muscles to take up oxygen and remove carbon
dioxide
Laboratory measurement of VO2 max is:
 expensive
 time consuming
 requires highly trained personnel
 not practical for mass testing situations
Therefore, various tests have been developed as
substitutes.
Steady State
Where oxygen supply equals demand
Lactate Threshold
……. is the highest exercise
intensity or level of oxygen uptake
beyond which there is an irregular
rise in lactic acid production.
Types of Tests
Maximal: Begin at low intensity and gradually
bring the subject to volitional exhaustion.
Normally provides a more accurate estimation
of VO2 max than sub-maximal tests, but they
induce greater cardiovascular stress.
Sub-maximal: Based on the assumption that
heart rate is a linear function of VO2 max.
Induces less cardiovascular stress.
Types of Tests
Field tests: Suitable for use with large numbers.
Performed outside the laboratory, are
practical, inexpensive, less time-consuming
and easy to administer.
Stop the
test if ...
 subject requests to stop
 dizziness, mental confusion, staggering or
unsteadiness
 angina - chest pain
 Nausea
 difficult or laboured breathing (dyspnea)
 pallor (paleness)
Stop the test
if ...





cyanosis
severe fatigue (facial distress)
no steady state heart rate
HR in excess of 85% maximum HR
malfunction of equipment
CV Tests





Walk test
Shuttle run test
Bike test
Treadmill tests
Step tests
Testing for
Flexibility
Flexibility can be measured by means of the following
tests:
 Sit and Reach
 Straight Leg Raise
 Shoulder Elevation
 Back Extension
Sit and Reach
(Low back &
 SpecificHamstrings)
warm up
 Remove shoes and place feet at the special
box where 23cms is at the level of the feet
 Keep knees straight and place one hand on
top of the other
 Bend forward at the trunk, keeping the
knees straight and reach forward as far as
possible.
 Three attempts and record the best. Check
table for standards.
Straight Leg Raise
(Hamstrings)
 Lie flat on a table making sure that the low
back is flat
 Stabilise the leg that is not being lifted
 Lift one leg with knee straight and evaluate
the angle of the hip.
 Check Table for standards
Shoulder
Elevation
 Lie on tummy, keeping arms straight and
shoulder width apart, raise a stick as high as
possible while keeping the chin on the floor
and wrists and elbows straight
 Measure in inches from the bottom of the
stick to the floor(best of three attempts)
 Multiply result by 100 and divide by the arm
length in inches(Hold stick in both hands and
measure from the shoulder to the upper
surface of the stick)
Back Extension
(Extension of the spine)
 Lie prone on the floor
 Place hands under shoulders.Keep hips
down all the time.
 Raise the chest slowly using the arms not
the back.
 Measure in cm from the suprasternal
notch to the floor. Check the table for
standards.
Muscular
Endurance
 The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to
exert a sub-maximal force repeatedly or
continuously over time
Muscular Endurance
Tests




New crunch curl-up
Push up
Modified push up
Bench press
New Crunch Curl
 The subject lies supine.
 Knees bent at 90. Finger tips touching strips of
masking tape placed perpendicular to the body.
 A second strip of tape is placed parallel to the
strip, 8 cm apart.
 A metronome is set at 40 beats per minute (3
secs per curl-up, 20 curl-ups per minute).
 Stomach is kept firm to keep lower back on
ground.
New Crunch Curl
 Subject curls the upper spine until the finger
tips touch the second strip of tape and returns
to the starting position.
 The movement is slow and continuous.
 The individual performs as many curl-ups as
possible to the set cadence without pausing,
up to a maximum of 60 secs (3 mins).
 Check table for scores.
Press Up
 The subject starts in the up position, arms
straight, hands just outside shoulder width.
 For push-ups, your body is supported by your
hands and feet. For modified press-ups, your
body is supported by your hands and the
thighs just above the knee.
 Your back should be straight and fingers
pointed forward.
 Your body should be linear from shoulders to
end point of contact with ground.
Press
Up
 The subject lowers his/her body until the
chest touches the tester’s fist, which is on the
ground, and then raises back to the ‘up’
position.
 The back must be kept straight. The
abdominal muscles need to be contracted to
stabilise the back.
 The client should breathe out on the effort
and in on the way down.
 The score is the maximum number of
correctly completed push-ups.
 Refer to the scoring table.
Bench
Press
 Subject should have technique practice on previous
days
 Subject should warm up
 Subject lies supine on a bench - knees bent, feet on
floor
 Subject grips the bar - hands wider than shoulder
width, wrists straight and directly overhead the
elbows - in the down position.
 Subject then extends the arms, pressing the barbell
up, and repeats the movement to the rhythm of the
metronome.
Bench
Press




Subject should breathe regularly.
Score the number of successful
repetitions.
The test is finished when the subject is
unable to reach full extension or breaks
the rhythm.
Refer to the scoring tables.
Muscular
Strength
Strength is measured by means of
 1RM Strength to BW ratio
 Estimated 1RM
 10RM
1RM Strength to BW
Ratio





Select muscle group
Subject should be familiar with technique
Establish wt. that can only be lifted once
Allow rest between trials
Record wt. lifted in lbs and divide by subjects
wt. in lbs.
 Refer to table for standards
Estimated 1
RM
 Familiarise subject with technique
 Record subjects’ BW in lbs.
 Start loads at .25% to .33% of BW for upper body and
.55% to .66% for lower body
 Perform the lift aiming to lift between 2 and 10 reps.If
more than 10 lifts then increase the weight.
 Calculate the 1RM by the following equation :
Weight Lifted
1.0278 - .0278(x) X = No. of Reps
10
RM
 Familiarise subject with technique
 Find a weight subject can lift no more
than 10 times
 10RM = 75% 1RM
EG. Subject lifts 75KG 10 times.
1Rm = 100KGs
Measuring Body
Composition





Hydrostatic weighing
Bioelectrical impedance
Body mass index
Waist to hip ratio
Skinfold callipers
Body
Composition
Hydrostatic weighing: Archimedes principle:
fat is less dense than water/muscle and bone
is more dense, so a person with more bone
and muscle mass and less fat will weigh more
in water and have a greater density i.e. a
lower % body fat and a greater % FFM.
Bioelectric
Impedance
The resistance to an applied electric current
is inversely related to the amount of the
FFM. FFM has a greater water and
electrolyte content and therefore greater
conductivity than adipose tissue and bone.
The greater the FFM, the greater the
conductivity. % fat can be calculated by:
% fat = ((weight - FFM)/weight) .100
Body Mass Index
Measure body weight (kg)
Measure body height (m), convert ins to cms
by multiplying by 2.54. Divide by 100 to
convert to metres.
Square metres to convert to m2
Use formula kg/m2 and refer to table
Desirable range =20-25 kg/m2
Grade 1 Obesity =25-29.9 kg/m2
Grade 2 Obesity =30-40 kg/m2
Grade 3 Obesity=>40 kg/m2
Waist to Hip Ratio
Record measurements in cms or ins
Waist circ. (most narrow girth at umbilicus)
Hip circ. (Largest girth of the buttocks)
Waist circ./Hip circ.
Standards: >.95(men) >.85(women) =
increased risk of heart disease
Body Composition
Skinfold Measurement Procedures
 Take at right hand side of the body
 Grasp skinfold by the thumb and index finger
 Place calliper 1 cm below fingers
 Take two scores with a required accuracy of 1
mm; record average value
 Testers should have short nails
 Measure when skin is dry
PROGRAMME PLANNING




FOUR STAGES
Needs analysis
Programme prescription
Programme implementation
Programme evaluation
NEEDS ANALYSIS
Screening/informed
consent
 Medical history
 Current injuries
 Referral criteria
 Exercise history
 Medications
 Contact numbers
 Clients own goals
 What are the client’s
personal goals?
Fitness testing
 Motivation
 Relationship building
 Education
 Components (helps
identify)
 Appropriateness
 Accuracy
 Recording
 Age
 Experience (determines
test choice)
Needs Analysis contd.
Time Available
 Time client is prepared to
prioritise components
 Start small
 Work at home
Preferred Activities
 What client likes/dislikes
 Past experience
Education
 Explode myths and
misconceptions
 ‘Sell’ the programme
Lifestyle Habits
 Smoking
 Diet/nutrition
 Stress
 Drinking habits
Programme Prescription
Exercise selection
• List of activities
• Adaptations/progres
sions
Equipment/facilities
 Range
 Home equipment
Components of fitness
 Aerobic fitness
 LME
 Strength
 Flexibility
 Body composition
Programme Prescription
FITT PRINCIPLES
 Frequency
 Intensity
 Time
 Type
WARM-UP/COOLDOWN
 Elements of a
good warm-up
 Elements of a
good cool-down
Programme
Implementation
Motivation/adherence
 Physician support
 Individual needs
 Short-term goals
 Encourage groups
 Logging
 Emphasise fun
 Regular fitness testing
 Positive leaders
Safety/injury prevention
 Warm up and cool down
 Stress rest periods
 Check nutrition
Teaching/safety points
 Small number at a time
 Meet the client to
reinforce
 Observation/correction
Programme
Implementation
Discussion
 Exercise to go over
 Exercises client not
comfortable with
 How they feel about
the programme
 New aches/pains
 Time/length of
programme
Record keeping
Progression
 Does the client know
to progress?
 Have you set a target
for them?
Evaluation







Re-test
Record and compare results
Analyse results
Evaluate programme
Need for change
Consult with client
Part/whole change
Case Study Guidelines
 Underline key words
 Identify component of fitness
 Be realistic - equipment, time, facilities,
lifestyle, accessibility
 Be systematic - FITT principles - change one at
a time
 Justify your answer - give reasons why
 Screening procedures - primary and secondary
risk factors
 Keep to the point - short & concise
Case Study Guidelines







Needs analysis - individual goals
Risk factors - injuries
Frequency/time
Availability/accessibility
Nutrition
Lifestyle changes
Use point form
Individual Case Study
Case Study
John (42) has just given up smoking and after a
medical examination he has
been advised to take up exercise. His goals are to
lose weight and improve
his overall health.
(a) Outline 3 fitness assessments that would be
suitable to conduct on John. Give a detailed
explanation why you consider your choice of
assessments to be appropriate for John
(Answer 15-20 lines approx) (20 marks)
Individual Case Study
 Outline a 12-week programme using the FITT
principles that will help him to achieve his
goals.
(Answer 20-25 lines approx or table format)
(25marks)
 Describe in detail one session in week 4 and
one session in week 8 of John's programme.
(Answer 20-25 lines approx or table format)(30 marks)
Group Case
Study
Group Case Study
A group of off-season hockey players male and
female wish to take
part in a circuit-training programme for general
overall fitness. They range in age
from 20 yrs - 35 yrs.
 Describe the screening procedures you would
conduct with this group.
(Answer approx 15 lines) (15 marks)
 Outline a series of 4 fitness tests suitable for this
group and explain in DETAIL why you chose
these tests for this particular group. (Answer
approx 20-25 lines) (20 marks)
Group Case
Study
 Design a circuit suitable for this group under
the headings: exercises, muscle
groups, reps, work rest ratio, sequencing,
adaptations.
(Table format may be used) (25 marks)
 Show changes/progressions (can be given in
a table format) you would make
in week 4 and week 8.
(15 marks)
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