Alcohol Alcohol Use: A High-Risk Behavior Chapter 25 – Lesson 1 Do Now Make two columns on a sheet of paper. In the left column, list at least three reasons teens give for drinking. In the right column, list at least three reasons teens give for choosing not to drink. Lesson Objectives 1. 2. List reasons young people choose to drink. Describe some factors that affect teen alcohol use. Lesson Health Concepts Alcohol is a drug that has great potential for abuse. Drinking is against the law for minors, and it can have serious legal consequences. Drinking alcohol can be a high-risk behavior at any age, and it can damage or even ruin one’s health, one's life, and the lives of others. Teens who drink alcohol do so for variety of reasons. Alcohol Use: A High-Risk Behavior Activity 1 – Turn to a Neighbor Define the following terms and provide examples for each term: 1. Ethanol 2. Fermentation 3. Intoxication MYTHS ABOUT ALCOHOL Drinking alcohol through a straw “filters out” the alcoholic content of the beverage. The alcohol content remains the same no matter how the drug is delivered into the body. Someone who doesn’t seem drunk can’t be drunk.. Many people, particularly those with alcohol problems, can drink a lot without showing the obvious signs of drunkenness. Beer and wine are safer drinks than “hard” liquors like whiskey. One standard serving of beer, wine, or spirits contains the same amount of alcohol. Using alcohol on weekends or only once in a while is harmless. People can get into serious health, legal and social situations anytime they use alcohol. When a person has a hangover, coffee, a cold shower, or fresh air will sober him or her up. These practices do not speed up the liver’s ability to break down the alcohol, so they don’t help to sober a person up. What is Alcohol? Alcohol, or more properly speaking, ETHANOL: the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beveragesis a powerful drug. Ethanol can be made synthetically, or it can be produced naturally by fermentation of fruits, vegetables, or grains. FERMENTATION: is the chemical action of yeast on sugars. Water, flavoring, and minerals are added to ethanol to form one of several beverages, including beer and wine. Alcohol can also be processed to create spirits – or liquors – such as whiskey, rye, gin and vodka. What is Alcohol? At first, alcohol may give the drinker a certain energy and “buzz.” Soon, however, its true nature as a depressant takes over, causing the central nervous system to slow down. At some point in the consumption of alcohol, a state of intoxication sets in. INTOXICATION: is physical and mental impairment resulting from the use of alcohol, and can range from an inability to walk to unconsciousness. Alcohol and Teens In recent years, as evidence of the harm drinking can do has increased, alcohol consumption among adults has declined. Yet, its use among teens has risen. At any age, alcohol use can become a highrisk behavior that affects the lives and health of drinkers and those around them. For teens, alcohol can have a negative impact on them. What can alcohol effect? Alcohol and Teens SCHOOL WORK FRIENDSHIPS CAREER GOALS ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS RELATIONSHIPS Alcohol and Teens Half of all teens who die each year die as a direct result of alcohol or other drug use, and many of these deaths happen in accidents. Alcohol is a factor in many unplanned pregnancies as well as in cases of sexually transmitted diseases, dating violence, rapes, suicides, and homicides. Nearly 5 million problem drinkers in this country are between the ages of 14 and 17. Why Do Young People Drink To escape pressures or problems, To feel better or get over being sad or lonely, To deal with stress and relax, To feel more self-confident in social situations, For excitement, Because their friends are doing it, To deal with boredom, To get away with something they are not supposed to do, and To fit in. Factors that Affect Teen Alcohol Use Friends Family Advertisements- many of these ads are aimed at teen audience and include one or more of the following: Young people who are handsome, attractive, fit, and healthy looking. A party-like atmosphere with upbeat music. An otherwise healthful environment, often in the beauty of the outdoors. Problem-free drinking A verbal message that really does not say anything about the risks of using the product. Effects of Advertising Alcohol is an aid to successful, romantic, and problem-free relationships. Working situations. Recreational opportunities. Sporting events are sponsored in part by liquor or beer companies. T-shirts and hats are promotions given to people to sell their product. You and Your Decisions About Drinking Everyone has the need to belong, to feel loved, and to feel important. It is possible to meet these needs in many ways. DRINKING DOES NOT HAVE TO BE ONE OF THEM! Lesson Review 1. 2. 3. What is the name of the drug contained in alcoholic beverages? Identify five reasons why many teens drink alcohol. Name three techniques that advertisers use to get people to buy alcohol products. Alcohol What Alcohol Does to the Body Lesson 2 Do Now List as many parts of the body as you can think of that are affected by alcohol use. Think in terms of long-term and short-term effects. Chapter 25 Lesson 2 Objectives After this lesson you will be able to: 1. explain the effects of alcohol on the body. 2. describe the consequences of drinking and driving. 3. identify the consequences of DWI and efforts to reduce DWIs. 4. describe problems that occur when alcohol is mixed with other drugs or used during pregnancy. Lesson 2 Health concepts Alcohol can quickly impair a person’s judgment and, over time, cause permanent and serious health problems. Being in the presence of someone under the influence of alcohol can place a person’s health and safety in jeopardy Alcohol consumed by a pregnant female can damage the health of her fetus for life. Drinking and driving or riding with a drinking driver is taking a foolish, unnecessary, and sometimes deadly risk. What Alcohol Does to the Body Activity 1 – Turn to a Neighbor Define the following terms and provide examples for each term: 1. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 2. Designated drivers 3. Fatty liver 4. Cirrhosis 5. Fetal alcohol syndrome Short –Term Effects of Drinking The short-term effects alcohol has on the body depend on several factors. 1. Amount of alcohol consumed Body weight Amount of time alcohol is consumed Amount of food eaten 2. 3. 4. What Alcohol Does to the Body Activity 2 – Class Discussion What role food plays in slowing the absorption of alcohol in the body. What kinds of food might be more successful in slowing down the absorption process? Short –Term Effects of Drinking • • • • BRAIN Alcohol reaches the brain almost as soon as it is consumed It depresses the activity of the brain, slowing the work of the central nervous system. Thought processes are disorganized, and memory and concentration are dulled. Decision making can be badly effected. Short –Term Effects of Drinking LIVER • The liver, in a process called oxidation, changes alcohol to water, carbon dioxide, and energy. The liver can oxidize only about 1/3 to ½ of an ounce of alcohol an hour. There is no way to speed up this process. Until the liver has time to oxidize all the alcohol, the alcohol keeps circulating through all body parts. Fatty liver is a condition in which fats build up in the liver and cannot be broken down. Cirrhosis is condition in which liver tissue is destroyed and then replaced with useless scar tissue • • • • • Short –Term Effects of Drinking • • • • • BLOOD VESSELS The blood carries the alcohol to all parts of the body, including the heart, liver, and brain. When alcohol enters the blood, it causes the blood vessels to dilate, or widen. The result is an increased flow of blood, especially to the skin. This makes the skin feel flush and warm. Body temperature actually decreases, and people who go out into the cold are at an increased risk for hypothermia. Short –Term Effects of Drinking • • • • HEART Alcohol causes an increase in heart rate and an increase in blood pressure. It can lead to arrhythmias, or abnormal heartbeats. It can cause scar tissue to build up in the muscle fibers of the heart. The risk of heart attack and stroke also increase. Short –Term Effects of Drinking • • • • • STOMACH Because the alcohol molecule is very small and water soluble, it does not have to be digested. It can be immediately absorbed from the stomach into the blood. Having food in the stomach slows the absorption process. Food will not keep a person from getting drunk. Large amounts of alcohol causes a large amount of gastric juices from the stomach lining, increasing these high acid juices causes stomach irritation. Driving Under the Influence Also known as- DUI BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION: or BAC, is the amount of alcohol in a person’s blood expressed as a percentage. Signs of being intoxicated can begin to appear at BAC as low as .02 Driving Under the Influence Drink Wheel / Drink Calculator for Breath Alcohol Testing Examples of Blood Alcohol Levels in: males (160 pounds). Examples of Blood Alcohol Levels in: females (140 pounds). After 3 hours of drinking (1 drink = 12 oz. of beer): After 3 hours of drinking (1 drink = 12 oz. of beer): Male: 5 drinks = BAC .076 Female: 4 drinks = BAC .08 Driving Under the Influence Driving experts and medical researchers have found that drinking on any level: Reduces the ability to judge distances, speeds, and turns. Reduces the ability to judge accurately one’s own capabilities and limitations Increases the tendency to take risks Slows reflexes Adds to forgetfulness to take precautions such as using signals when turning. Reduces the ability to concentrate Driving Under the Influence Adding the Drink Wheel to Your Site - Breath Alcohol Testing At .02 light to moderate drinkers begin to feel some effects. At .04 most people begin to feel relaxed. At .06 judgment is somewhat impaired, people are less able to make rational decisions about their capabilities (for example, driving). At .08 there is a definite impairment of muscle coordination and driving skills; this is legal level for intoxication in most states. At .10 there is a clear deterioration of reaction time and control; this is legally drunk in all states. Driving Under the Influence At .12, vomiting usually occurs. Unless this level is reached slowly or a person has developed a tolerance to alcohol. At .15, balance and movement are impaired. This blood-alcohol level means the equivalent of 1/2 pint of whiskey is circulating in the blood stream. At .30 many people lose consciousness. At .40 most people lose consciousness; some die. At .45, breathing stops; this is a fatal dose for most people Consequences of DWI Driving while intoxicated is the leading cause of death among teenagers. Each day in the U.S., 11 teenagers are killed and over 350 are injured in alcohol-related motor vehicles crashes. Consequences of DWI: • • • • • • • Death Immediate confiscation of driver’s license Arrest, trip to jail, court appearance, and fine Possible suspension of driver’s license Cost of bail to get out of jail Higher insurance rates Possible lawsuits Alcohol and Pregnancy Scientist have found that heavy drinking by pregnant females carries a risk not only to themselves but to their unborn child. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition in which a fetus has been adversely affected mentally and physically by its mother’s heavy alcohol use during pregnancy. Mental retardation , poor attention span, nervousness, and hyperactivity is common in children born with FAS Alcohol and Pregnancy FAS babies also may exhibit some or all of the following problems: • • • • • • • • Low birth weight Impaired speech Cleft palate General weakness Slow body growth Facial abnormalities Poor coordination Heart defects Alcohol and Pregnancy The alcohol the pregnant female drinks moves into her blood, then across the placenta, and through the umbilical cord into the blood of the unborn child. Any effects felt by the pregnant female as results of drinking are also experienced by the unborn child. Lesson 2 Review 1. 2. 3. What are three short-term and three longterm effects of using alcohol? Identify four ways that drinking impairs driving. What are some of the characteristics of children suffering from fetal alcohol syndrome? Alcohol Alcohol and Society – Lesson 3 Chapter 25 Lesson 3 Do Now Journal Entry Discuss in writing why the animated drunk is no longer considered to be comical. Lesson 3 Objectives After this lesson you will be able to: 1. Relate alcohol poisoning to blood alcohol level. 2. Describe the three stages of alcoholism 3. Discuss the costs of alcohol use to the family and society. Lesson 3 Health Concepts: You do not have to be an alcoholic to get in trouble with alcohol. Alcoholism is a chronic disease that can be treated with total abstinence. Alcoholism imposes heavy costs on the family of the alcoholic and on society. Not drinking is the only responsible choice. There are many effective ways to say no to alcohol. Alcohol and Society Activity 1 – Turn to a Neighbor Define the following terms and provide examples for each term: 1. Binge drinking 2. Alcohol poisoning 3. Alcoholism 4. Delirium tremens (DTs) Patterns of Alcohol Abuse Although most people equate problem drinking with the disease of alcoholism, there are other troubled patterns of alcohol use whose effects can be every bit as devastating. Some of these patterns can even be lifethreatening. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse BINGE DRINKING: Is periodic excessive drinking. This type of drinking, which is popular among some high school and college students, can take the form of a social event or a contest to see who can drink the most in the shortest time. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse For men, binge drinking is defined as downing five or more consecutive drinks. For women, drinking four or more drinks in a row is considered bingeing. "Research shows that females have the same rate of problems on four drinks as males do on five," Wechsler said. "That’s probably because they have a lower body mass and metabolize alcohol more slowly." www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2000/03.16/drink.htm Patterns of Alcohol Abuse Some binge drinkers mistakenly believe that they are not really in trouble with alcohol because they do not drink every day. However, even alcoholics can go days on end without drinks until later stages of the disease. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse A danger associated more with binge drinking than with any other pattern of alcohol abuse is ALCOHOL POISONING: A dangerous toxic condition that occurs when a person drinks a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time. Generally, when a person’s blood alcohol level reaches about 400 milligrams per deciliter – the brain’s ability to control breathing can be interrupted. The result could be death. Alcohol and Society Activity 2 – Independent work Why it is difficult for most people who have a drinking problem to admit they have a problem? What are the differences between problem drinking being the cause and problem drinking being the symptom of other problems? Alcoholism ALCOHOLISM: A physical and psychological dependence on the drug ethanol – is a disease. Although it is true that there are alcoholics that are “falling down” drunk and, hence, easily recognized, a great many alcoholics appear clean, orderly, and well groomed. One thing is certain – they all need help! Traits of the Alcoholic Alcoholics are unable to stop drinking despite the toll it takes on their health and their lives. People with alcoholism may exhibit one or a combination of these behaviors or traits: They are preoccupied in one way or another with alcohol. Once they pick up the first drink, they cannot promise or predict what they will say or do or how much they will drink. They cannot manage tension without drinking. They may have personality changes or memory lapses due to drinking. Stages of Alcoholism STAGE ONE: Begins with social drinking often to relax or to relieve stress. Gradually it becomes necessary to drink to manage stress. Physically Psychological An individual drinks to become intoxicated and doesn't remember with whom they are drinking with, what they did or what they said. The drinker makes excuses and tries to rationalize his/her drinking behavior. Stages of Alcoholism STAGE TWO: Person reaches a point where they can't stop drinking. Physical and mental problems evident. Defensive behavior is evident. Drinker denies or tries to hide problem. Body has developed a tolerance and more alcohol is necessary. Drinking becomes the central event in person's life. Performance on job, at school, or at home decreases. Frequent absences from work and school occur. Stages of Alcoholism STAGE THREE: Drinking is extremely visible. Cannot be denied. Uncontrolled Alcohol becomes constant companion. Malnutrition becomes a problem. Body is addicted to the drug. If alcoholic stopped drinking he/she would experience withdrawal and symptoms – DELIRIUM TREMENS (DT’s): The dramatic physical and psychological effects of alcohol withdrawal. Costs to the Family Estimated 3 million teen alcoholics Up to 5 million young people in this country are considered to be alcoholics or problem drinkers Major factors in the four leading causes of accidental death: – – – – Car crashes Falls Drowning Burns caused by fire Factors in 20 to 30% of all suicides Play a major part in: – – – – – Domestic violence Spousal abuse Child abuse Abuse of the elderly Marital separation and divorce Costs to Society Alcohol is a major factor in the three leading causes of death for 16 to 24 year-olds – – – Traffic crashes Homicides Suicides In all, alcohol claims about 100,000 Americans a year Off the highway, alcohol contributes to about 6 million nonfatal and 15,000 fatal injuries per year. In the workplace, up to 40% of industrial fatalities and 47% of industrial injuries can be linked to alcohol. Choosing to Be Alcohol-Free Despite the rise in teen drinking, many teens are deciding to remain or become alcohol-free. The most common reason given for not drinking is: “I do not need it.” Some teens who choose not to drink seem to be saying, “I don’t have to drink to be popular,” or “I don’t need to drink to be accepted, to have fun, or to act in some way that I usually wouldn’t. Saying NO to Alcohol Saying no to drinking takes a firm mental commitment from you before you go to a party or other social situation where alcohol may be served. Practice what you are going to say in such a situation can help. Whatever you do to turn down a drink, keep it brief, polite, confident, and to the point. Sometimes humor or the unexpected, creative comment can do the trick. Alcohol and Sexual Activity Alcohol affects a person’s judgment and may interfere with self-control over one’s emotions, decisions, and behavior. It may cause a person to do or say things he or she otherwise would not normally do, including engaging in sexual activity. WHAT ELSE CAN OCCUR? Lesson 3 Review 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the terms binge drinking and alcohol poisoning, and use them in a single paragraph. Describe the three stages of alcoholism. List three of the costs of alcoholism to society at large. Identify four reasons why young people choose not to drink.