Alcohol - West Essex High School

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Alcohol
Alcohol Use: A High-Risk Behavior
Chapter 25 – Lesson 1
Do Now
Make two columns on a sheet of paper. In the
left column, list at least three reasons teens
give for drinking. In the right column, list at
least three reasons teens give for choosing
not to drink.
Lesson
Objectives
1.
2.
List reasons young people
choose to drink.
Describe some factors that
affect teen alcohol use.
Lesson
Health Concepts




Alcohol is a drug that has great potential for
abuse.
Drinking is against the law for minors, and it can
have serious legal consequences.
Drinking alcohol can be a high-risk behavior at
any age, and it can damage or even ruin one’s
health, one's life, and the lives of others.
Teens who drink alcohol do so for variety of
reasons.
Alcohol Use: A High-Risk
Behavior
Activity 1 – Turn to a Neighbor
Define the following terms and provide
examples for each term:
1.
Ethanol
2.
Fermentation
3.
Intoxication
MYTHS ABOUT ALCOHOL






Drinking alcohol through a
straw “filters out” the alcoholic
content of the beverage.
The alcohol content remains the
same no matter how the drug is
delivered into the body.
Someone who doesn’t seem
drunk can’t be drunk..
Many people, particularly those
with alcohol problems, can
drink a lot without showing the
obvious signs of drunkenness.
Beer and wine are safer drinks
than “hard” liquors like
whiskey.
One standard serving of beer,
wine, or spirits contains the
same amount of alcohol.




Using alcohol on weekends or
only once in a while is
harmless.
People can get into serious
health, legal and social
situations anytime they use
alcohol.
When a person has a hangover,
coffee, a cold shower, or fresh
air will sober him or her up.
These practices do not speed up
the liver’s ability to break down
the alcohol, so they don’t help
to sober a person up.
What is Alcohol?





Alcohol, or more properly speaking, ETHANOL:
the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beveragesis a powerful drug.
Ethanol can be made synthetically, or it can be
produced naturally by fermentation of fruits,
vegetables, or grains.
FERMENTATION: is the chemical action of
yeast on sugars.
Water, flavoring, and minerals are added to ethanol
to form one of several beverages, including beer and
wine.
Alcohol can also be processed to create spirits – or
liquors – such as whiskey, rye, gin and vodka.
What is Alcohol?




At first, alcohol may give the drinker a certain
energy and “buzz.”
Soon, however, its true nature as a depressant
takes over, causing the central nervous system
to slow down.
At some point in the consumption of alcohol,
a state of intoxication sets in.
INTOXICATION: is physical and mental
impairment resulting from the use of alcohol,
and can range from an inability to walk to
unconsciousness.
Alcohol and Teens
In recent years, as evidence of the harm
drinking can do has increased, alcohol
consumption among adults has declined.
 Yet, its use among teens has risen.
 At any age, alcohol use can become a highrisk behavior that affects the lives and
health of drinkers and those around them.
 For teens, alcohol can have a negative
impact on them.
 What can alcohol effect?

Alcohol and Teens
SCHOOL WORK
FRIENDSHIPS
CAREER GOALS
ATHLETIC
PERFORMANCE
FAMILY
RELATIONSHIPS
RELATIONSHIPS
Alcohol and Teens

Half of all teens who die each year die as a direct
result of alcohol or other drug use, and many of
these deaths happen in accidents.

Alcohol is a factor in many unplanned pregnancies
as well as in cases of sexually transmitted
diseases, dating violence, rapes, suicides, and
homicides.

Nearly 5 million problem drinkers in this country
are between the ages of 14 and 17.
Why Do Young People Drink









To escape pressures or problems,
To feel better or get over being sad or lonely,
To deal with stress and relax,
To feel more self-confident in social situations,
For excitement,
Because their friends are doing it,
To deal with boredom,
To get away with something they are not supposed
to do, and
To fit in.
Factors that Affect Teen Alcohol Use



Friends
Family
Advertisements- many of these ads are aimed at
teen audience and include one or more of the
following:
 Young people who are handsome, attractive, fit,
and healthy looking.
 A party-like atmosphere with upbeat music.
 An otherwise healthful environment, often in the
beauty of the outdoors.
 Problem-free drinking
 A verbal message that really does not say anything
about the risks of using the product.
Effects of Advertising



Alcohol is an aid to successful, romantic, and
problem-free relationships.
Working situations.
Recreational opportunities.

Sporting events are sponsored in part by
liquor or beer companies.

T-shirts and hats are promotions given to
people to sell their product.
You and Your Decisions About Drinking

Everyone has the need to belong, to feel
loved, and to feel important.

It is possible to meet these needs in many
ways.

DRINKING DOES NOT HAVE TO BE
ONE OF THEM!
Lesson Review
1.
2.
3.
What is the name of the drug contained in
alcoholic beverages?
Identify five reasons why many teens
drink alcohol.
Name three techniques that advertisers use
to get people to buy alcohol products.
Alcohol
What Alcohol Does to the Body
Lesson 2
Do Now
List as many parts of the body as you can
think of that are affected by alcohol use.
Think in terms of long-term and short-term
effects.
Chapter 25 Lesson 2
Objectives
After this lesson you will be able to:
1.
explain the effects of alcohol on the body.
2.
describe the consequences of drinking and
driving.
3.
identify the consequences of DWI and efforts to
reduce DWIs.
4.
describe problems that occur when alcohol is
mixed with other drugs or used during
pregnancy.
Lesson 2
Health concepts




Alcohol can quickly impair a person’s judgment and, over
time, cause permanent and serious health problems.
Being in the presence of someone under the influence of
alcohol can place a person’s health and safety in jeopardy
Alcohol consumed by a pregnant female can damage the
health of her fetus for life.
Drinking and driving or riding with a drinking driver is
taking a foolish, unnecessary, and sometimes deadly risk.
What Alcohol Does to the Body
Activity 1 – Turn to a Neighbor
Define the following terms and provide examples for
each term:
1.
Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)
2.
Designated drivers
3.
Fatty liver
4.
Cirrhosis
5.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Short –Term Effects of Drinking

The short-term effects alcohol has on the
body depend on several factors.
1.
Amount of alcohol consumed
Body weight
Amount of time alcohol is consumed
Amount of food eaten
2.
3.
4.
What Alcohol Does to the Body
Activity 2 – Class Discussion
What role food plays in slowing the
absorption of alcohol in the body.
What kinds of food might be more successful
in slowing down the absorption process?
Short –Term Effects of Drinking

•
•
•
•
BRAIN
Alcohol reaches the brain almost as soon
as it is consumed
It depresses the activity of the brain,
slowing the work of the central nervous
system.
Thought processes are disorganized, and
memory and concentration are dulled.
Decision making can be badly effected.
Short –Term Effects of Drinking

LIVER
•
The liver, in a process called oxidation, changes alcohol
to water, carbon dioxide, and energy.
The liver can oxidize only about 1/3 to ½ of an ounce of
alcohol an hour.
There is no way to speed up this process.
Until the liver has time to oxidize all the alcohol, the
alcohol keeps circulating through all body parts.
Fatty liver is a condition in which fats build up in the
liver and cannot be broken down.
Cirrhosis is condition in which liver tissue is destroyed
and then replaced with useless scar tissue
•
•
•
•
•
Short –Term Effects of Drinking

•
•
•
•
•
BLOOD VESSELS
The blood carries the alcohol to all parts of
the body, including the heart, liver, and brain.
When alcohol enters the blood, it causes the
blood vessels to dilate, or widen.
The result is an increased flow of blood,
especially to the skin.
This makes the skin feel flush and warm.
Body temperature actually decreases, and
people who go out into the cold are at an
increased risk for hypothermia.
Short –Term Effects of Drinking

•
•
•
•
HEART
Alcohol causes an increase in heart rate
and an increase in blood pressure.
It can lead to arrhythmias, or abnormal
heartbeats.
It can cause scar tissue to build up in the
muscle fibers of the heart.
The risk of heart attack and stroke also
increase.
Short –Term Effects of Drinking

•
•
•
•
•
STOMACH
Because the alcohol molecule is very small and
water soluble, it does not have to be digested.
It can be immediately absorbed from the
stomach into the blood.
Having food in the stomach slows the absorption
process.
Food will not keep a person from getting drunk.
Large amounts of alcohol causes a large amount
of gastric juices from the stomach lining,
increasing these high acid juices causes stomach
irritation.
Driving Under the Influence

Also known as- DUI

BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION:

or BAC, is the amount of alcohol in a
person’s blood expressed as a
percentage.
Signs of being intoxicated can begin
to appear at BAC as low as .02
Driving Under the Influence
Drink Wheel / Drink Calculator for Breath Alcohol Testing

Examples of Blood
Alcohol Levels in:
males (160 pounds).

Examples of Blood
Alcohol Levels in:
females (140 pounds).

After 3 hours of
drinking (1 drink = 12
oz. of beer):

After 3 hours of
drinking (1 drink =
12 oz. of beer):

Male: 5 drinks =
BAC .076

Female: 4 drinks =
BAC .08
Driving Under the Influence
Driving experts and medical researchers have found that
drinking on any level:
 Reduces the ability to judge distances, speeds, and turns.
 Reduces the ability to judge accurately one’s own
capabilities and limitations
 Increases the tendency to take risks
 Slows reflexes
 Adds to forgetfulness to take precautions such as using
signals when turning.

Reduces the ability to concentrate
Driving Under the Influence
Adding the Drink Wheel to Your Site - Breath Alcohol Testing

At .02 light to moderate drinkers begin to feel some effects.

At .04 most people begin to feel relaxed.

At .06 judgment is somewhat impaired, people are less
able to make rational decisions about their capabilities
(for example, driving).

At .08 there is a definite impairment of muscle coordination
and driving skills; this is legal level for intoxication in most
states.

At .10 there is a clear deterioration of reaction time and
control; this is legally drunk in all states.
Driving Under the Influence

At .12, vomiting usually occurs. Unless this level is reached
slowly or a person has developed a tolerance to alcohol.

At .15, balance and movement are impaired. This blood-alcohol
level means the equivalent of 1/2 pint of whiskey is circulating in
the blood stream.

At .30 many people lose consciousness.

At .40 most people lose consciousness; some die.

At .45, breathing stops; this is a fatal dose for most people
Consequences of DWI
Driving while intoxicated is the leading cause of
death among teenagers. Each day in the U.S., 11
teenagers are killed and over 350 are injured in
alcohol-related motor vehicles crashes.
Consequences of DWI:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Death
Immediate confiscation of driver’s license
Arrest, trip to jail, court appearance, and fine
Possible suspension of driver’s license
Cost of bail to get out of jail
Higher insurance rates
Possible lawsuits
Alcohol and Pregnancy
Scientist have found that heavy drinking by pregnant
females carries a risk not only to themselves but to
their unborn child.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition in
which a fetus has been adversely affected mentally
and physically by its mother’s heavy alcohol use
during pregnancy.
Mental retardation , poor attention span,
nervousness, and hyperactivity is common in
children born with FAS
Alcohol and Pregnancy
FAS babies also may exhibit some or all of the
following problems:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Low birth weight
Impaired speech
Cleft palate
General weakness
Slow body growth
Facial abnormalities
Poor coordination
Heart defects
Alcohol and Pregnancy
The alcohol the pregnant female drinks moves
into her blood, then across the placenta, and
through the umbilical cord into the blood of
the unborn child.
Any effects felt by the pregnant female as
results of drinking are also experienced by
the unborn child.
Lesson 2
Review
1.
2.
3.
What are three short-term and three longterm effects of using alcohol?
Identify four ways that drinking impairs
driving.
What are some of the characteristics of
children suffering from fetal alcohol
syndrome?
Alcohol
Alcohol and Society
– Lesson 3
Chapter 25 Lesson 3
Do Now
Journal Entry
Discuss in writing why the animated drunk is
no longer considered to be comical.
Lesson 3
Objectives
After this lesson you will be able to:
1.
Relate alcohol poisoning to blood alcohol
level.
2.
Describe the three stages of alcoholism
3.
Discuss the costs of alcohol use to the
family and society.
Lesson 3
Health Concepts:
 You do not have to be an alcoholic to get in
trouble with alcohol.
 Alcoholism is a chronic disease that can be treated
with total abstinence.
 Alcoholism imposes heavy costs on the family of
the alcoholic and on society.
 Not drinking is the only responsible choice.
 There are many effective ways to say no to
alcohol.
Alcohol and Society
Activity 1 – Turn to a Neighbor
Define the following terms and provide
examples for each term:
1.
Binge drinking
2.
Alcohol poisoning
3.
Alcoholism
4.
Delirium tremens (DTs)
Patterns of Alcohol Abuse

Although most people equate problem
drinking with the disease of alcoholism,
there are other troubled patterns of
alcohol use whose effects can be every
bit as devastating.

Some of these patterns can even be lifethreatening.
Patterns of Alcohol Abuse

BINGE DRINKING: Is periodic
excessive drinking.

This type of drinking, which is popular
among some high school and college
students, can take the form of a social
event or a contest to see who can drink the
most in the shortest time.
Patterns of Alcohol Abuse



For men, binge drinking is defined
as downing five or more
consecutive drinks.
For women, drinking four or more
drinks in a row is considered
bingeing.
"Research shows that females have
the same rate of problems on four
drinks as males do on five,"
Wechsler said. "That’s probably
because they have a lower body
mass and metabolize alcohol more
slowly."
www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2000/03.16/drink.htm
Patterns of Alcohol Abuse

Some binge drinkers mistakenly believe
that they are not really in trouble with
alcohol because they do not drink every
day.

However, even alcoholics can go days
on end without drinks until later stages
of the disease.
Patterns of Alcohol Abuse



A danger associated more with binge drinking
than with any other pattern of alcohol abuse is
ALCOHOL POISONING: A dangerous
toxic condition that occurs when a person
drinks a large amount of alcohol in a short
period of time.
Generally, when a person’s blood alcohol
level reaches about 400 milligrams per
deciliter – the brain’s ability to control
breathing can be interrupted.
The result could be death.
Alcohol and Society
Activity 2 – Independent work
 Why it is difficult for most people who have
a drinking problem to admit they have a
problem?
 What are the differences between problem
drinking being the cause and problem
drinking being the symptom of other
problems?
Alcoholism



ALCOHOLISM: A physical and
psychological dependence on the drug
ethanol – is a disease.
Although it is true that there are
alcoholics that are “falling down” drunk
and, hence, easily recognized, a great
many alcoholics appear clean, orderly,
and well groomed.
One thing is certain – they all need
help!
Traits of the Alcoholic

Alcoholics are unable to stop drinking
despite the toll it takes on their health and
their lives.

People with alcoholism may exhibit one or
a combination of these behaviors or traits:
 They are preoccupied in one way or another
with alcohol.
 Once they pick up the first drink, they cannot
promise or predict what they will say or do or
how much they will drink.
 They cannot manage tension without drinking.
 They may have personality changes or memory
lapses due to drinking.
Stages of Alcoholism
STAGE ONE:






Begins with social drinking often to relax or to
relieve stress.
Gradually it becomes necessary to drink to
manage stress.
Physically
Psychological
An individual drinks to become intoxicated and
doesn't remember with whom they are drinking
with, what they did or what they said.
The drinker makes excuses and tries to rationalize
his/her drinking behavior.
Stages of Alcoholism
STAGE TWO:








Person reaches a point where they can't stop
drinking.
Physical and mental problems evident.
Defensive behavior is evident.
Drinker denies or tries to hide problem.
Body has developed a tolerance and more alcohol
is necessary.
Drinking becomes the central event in person's life.
Performance on job, at school, or at home
decreases.
Frequent absences from work and school occur.
Stages of Alcoholism
STAGE THREE:







Drinking is extremely visible.
Cannot be denied.
Uncontrolled
Alcohol becomes constant companion.
Malnutrition becomes a problem.
Body is addicted to the drug.
If alcoholic stopped drinking he/she would
experience withdrawal and symptoms –
DELIRIUM TREMENS (DT’s): The dramatic
physical and psychological effects of alcohol
withdrawal.
Costs to the Family
Estimated 3 million teen alcoholics
Up to 5 million young people in this country are considered to
be alcoholics or problem drinkers
Major factors in the four leading causes of accidental death:



–
–
–
–
Car crashes
Falls
Drowning
Burns caused by fire
Factors in 20 to 30% of all suicides
Play a major part in:


–
–
–
–
–
Domestic violence
Spousal abuse
Child abuse
Abuse of the elderly
Marital separation and divorce
Costs to Society
Alcohol is a major factor in the three leading
causes of death for 16 to 24 year-olds

–
–
–



Traffic crashes
Homicides
Suicides
In all, alcohol claims about 100,000 Americans a
year
Off the highway, alcohol contributes to about 6
million nonfatal and 15,000 fatal injuries per year.
In the workplace, up to 40% of industrial fatalities
and 47% of industrial injuries can be linked to
alcohol.
Choosing to Be Alcohol-Free

Despite the rise in teen drinking, many teens are
deciding to remain or become alcohol-free.

The most common reason given for not drinking is:
“I do not need it.”

Some teens who choose not to drink seem to be
saying, “I don’t have to drink to be popular,” or “I
don’t need to drink to be accepted, to have fun, or
to act in some way that I usually wouldn’t.
Saying NO to Alcohol

Saying no to drinking takes a firm mental
commitment from you before you go to a party or
other social situation where alcohol may be served.

Practice what you are going to say in such a
situation can help.

Whatever you do to turn down a drink, keep it brief,
polite, confident, and to the point.

Sometimes humor or the unexpected, creative
comment can do the trick.
Alcohol and Sexual Activity

Alcohol affects a person’s judgment and may
interfere with self-control over one’s emotions,
decisions, and behavior.

It may cause a person to do or say things he or she
otherwise would not normally do, including
engaging in sexual activity.

WHAT ELSE CAN OCCUR?
Lesson 3
Review
1.
2.
3.
4.
Define the terms binge drinking and
alcohol poisoning, and use them in a
single paragraph.
Describe the three stages of alcoholism.
List three of the costs of alcoholism to
society at large.
Identify four reasons why young people
choose not to drink.
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