Module 11-2012 Edition Properties of the Hair and Scalp

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CHAPTER 11
PROPERTIES OF
THE HAIR AND
SCALP
2012 Edition
Q. What are the two
ADD:
chief purposes of hair?
A. Protection
B. Adornment
Add to the side bar:
Hair is an appendage of the skin
http://beautyeditor.ca/2009/10/27/save-vs-splurge-argan-oil-hair-treatments/
TRICOLOGY
scientific study of hair, its
diseases, and care
comes from Greek words:
Trichos=hair
ology=the study of
Integumentary System
~the outer covering that
encloses the entire body
includes the hair, skin, nails, and
glands
***is the largest and
fastest growing organ
body
http://images.google.com/imgres?q=cross+section+of+skin+diagram&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1008&bih=588&tbm=isch&tbnid=1HN3S_H2yA6bwM:&imgrefurl=http://www.elcosh.org/en/document/322/d000303/contact-dermtoolboxtalk.html&docid=0S3J3vPqFij8MM&imgurl=http://www.elcosh.org/record/document/322/image3.jpg&w=280&h=323&ei=75yuTsGlBYbn0QGeheXHDw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=534&sig=115570578519706265263&page=2&tbn
h=105&tbnw=91&start=15&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:15&tx=49&ty=84
STRUCTURE OF
THE HAIR
hair is divided into two parts:
Hair root
~located below the surface of
the epidermis (outer
layer of the skin)
Hair shaft
~projects above the epidermis
Structures of the Hair Root
The main structures are:
Follicle
Bulb
Dermal papilla
Arrector pili muscle
Sebaceous glands
Follicle
~ tube-like depression or pocket in
the skin or scalp
~ contains the hair root
~ distributed all over the body
~ except
*palms of the hands
*soles of the feet
~ multiple hairs/one follicle
The follicle
“Tunnel” epidermis
(outer layer of the skin)
dermis
(inner layer
of the skin)
Surrounds
the
dermal
papilla
Internet source: acne-site.com
Hair bulb-the lowest area or part of the
hair strand.
thickened, club-shaped part of the hair
root
fits over
and covers
the dermal
papilla
Internet source:
Missinglink.ucsf.edu
Dermal papilla
~ cone-shaped elevation
~ base of the hair follicle
~ fits into hair bulb.
contains the blood and nerve
supply
provides nutrients
“mother of the hair”
Arrector pili:
small, involuntary muscle
~ base of the hair follicle.
Strong emotions(fear)
or cold
~ contracts
www.unexpectedpages.com/.../goosebumps.jpg
“goose bumps”
Sebaceous glands
~ oil glands
~ connected to the hair
follicles.
~ secretes oily substance
~ sebum
~ lubricates
Sebaceous
gland
Structures of the Hair Shaft
Three main layers
1. Cuticle
~ outermost layer of hair
~ overlapping layer of
transparent, scale-like cells
~ shingles on a roof
~provides a barrier/protects inner
structure
~lies tightly against the cortex
~ creates shine, smooth silky feel
**Show----Feel hair strand (both ways)
hair’s primary defense against damage
Internet
source:
the gentle
touch.com
Individual
cuticle scales
are attached to
the cortex
***The hair has
only one cuticle
layer
Q. Why are we cautioned that there
is only one cuticle layer?
Swelling the hair:
~ raises the cuticle layer
~ opens the space between
the scales
~allows liquids to penetrate
Internet source:
Hairdressersus.com
Damaged cuticle
Haircolor, permanent waving solutions,
and chemical hair relaxers must have
an alkaline (base) pH to penetrate the
cuticle layer
Swells cuticle/lifts/exposes cortex
Q. Is haircolor spelled correctly?
Cortex-is the middle layer of the hair
~ fibrous protein
~elongated cells
~melanin pigment
Q. What does the word melanin
mean?
~ elasticity of the hair
~ natural color
~ located in the cortex
all changes (physical or chemical) take place
within the cortex
Activity: With a partner list on paper
(be specific)
Q. Determine what services create a
physical change to the hair and which
ones create a chemical change to the
hair.
2 people from each table write two answers on flip chart paper
Answer:
Physical-wet setting (rollers, pin
curls, finger waves), thermal styling
(includes blow drying, curling iron,
flat iron, hot rollers, press and curl)
Chemical-permanent haircolor, hair
lightening, permanent waving,
chemical relaxing
In book- page222
Internet source:
Hairdressersus.com
Womensnet.com
Medulla-the inner most layer
~ composed of round cells
*missing medulla
~ very fine hair
~ naturally blonde hair
~coarse hair contains a medulla
Internet source:
Ecobyte.com.au
Bfro.net
All beard hair contains a medulla
not involved in salon services
Add to side bar:
Barba-hair of the face
Capilli-hair on the head
Cilia-hair of the eyelashes
Supercilia-hair of the eyebrows
THE CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION OF HAIR
composed of protein in the hair
follicle ADD: keratin
This is where the hair shaft
begins
living cells form
journey upward through the
hair follicle
process called keratinization.
As the cells
mature
Killerstrands.blogspot.com
~ fill up with a
fibrous protein
~keratin
~move upward
~ lose their nucleus
~ die
~ emerges from the scalp,
~ cells are keratinized
~ no longer living
~ nonliving fiber of keratinized
protein
~ 90% protein
~protein made up of long chains of
amino acids
Main elements: (chemical composition)
Carbon
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Sulfur
http://images.google.com/imgres?q=cohn%27s+elements+of+the+periodic+table&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1024&bih=596&tbm=isch&tbnid=dUwFPL6QxJELcM:&imgrefurl=http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/atomh2o.htm&docid=MLVeqpxKSgnnM&imgurl=http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/bio104/periodic.jpg&w=400&h=298&ei=WayuToiFA8O1gweb_b3KDw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=287&sig=115570578519706265263&page=2&tbnh=106&tbnw=141&sta
rt=16&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:16&tx=61&ty=70
Referred to as the COHNS
elements
Also found in skin and nails
Add: chemical composition
Top of page shows the % of each
element.
Amino acids- long
chains of protein
•joined together like pop
beads (candy necklace)
The chemical bond
that joins the amino
acids to each other is
called a peptide bond
or end bond.
•A long chain of amino acids linked by
peptide bonds is called a polypeptide.
•spiral shape of coiled protein is
called a helix.
Activity:
Do helix project
http://scienceray.com/biology/proteins/
THE SIDE BONDS OF THE CORTEX
•made up of millions of polypeptide
chains
•Polypeptide chains are crosslinked by three different types
of side bonds:
Responsible for:
•Extreme strength
•Elasticity
Essential to:
• Wet sets
•Thermal styling
• Permanent waving
•Chemical hair relaxing
Three types 0f Side Bonds:
•Hydrogen bonds
•Salt bonds
•Disulfide bonds
Backreaction.blogspot.com
Q. In the chart, what can be said about
the three types of bonds?
Hydrogen bond
weak physical side bond
Easily broken by water or heat
Accounts for 1/3 of hair’s
strength
Wetting the hair:
•Allows the hair to be stretched
and wrapped around rollers/rods
•Reforms when the hair dries
http://images.google.com/imgres?q=roller+sets+on+natural+hair&hl=en&biw=1024&bih=619&gbv=2&tbm=isch&tbnid=J1FgFtlgpV86eM:&imgrefurl=http://
afropeanqueen.blogspot.com/2011/03/roller-set-re-done-and-hair-length.html&docid=tTmufLTEb1XB1M&imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-0a8SssYfC6c/TY912zvlcI/AAAAAAAAAbM/HqHSoMDKDW8/s1600/DSCN0672.JPG&w=1200&h=1600&ei=T0T9TpeTHZPAgAfKrp2XAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=611&vpy=185&du
r=868&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=108&ty=139&sig=115570578519706265263&page=10&tbnh=126&tbnw=103&start=171&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:171
Salt bond
weak physical side bond
Depend on pH
Easily broken by
-strong alkaline or acidic solutions
Accounts for 1/3 of hair’s
strength
Disulfide bond
~strong chemical side bond
accounts for 1/3 overall strength
Not broken by heat or water
Broken by:
~ permanent waves
~ chemical relaxers
~alters the shape of the hair
Thio permanent waves (base)
~ break the disulfide bonds
~ reformed by thio neutralizer
(acid)
Hydroxide chemical hair relaxers
~ break disulfide bonds
~ bonds are broken permanently
(becomes lanthionine bond)
~ can never be reformed
Go over Figure 11-7 and 11-8
Read: Table 11-2
top of page
Read: Did you know-next page
Hair Pigment:
~ pigment located in the cortex
Melanin
~ tiny grains of pigment
~ cortex
The two main types:
1. Eumelanin
brown and black
2. Pheomelanin
red /ginger
yellow/blonde
~result: natural hair color- ratio of
both
Wave Pattern
Refers to the shape of the hair strand
Described as:
•straight
•wavy
• curly
• extremely curly
result of genetics
General rule:
Asians
~extremely straight hair
Caucasians
~straight to wavy hair
African Americans
~extremely curly hair

all wave patterns
~ in all races
 vary from strand to strand
~ same person’s head
 theories to explain the cause
of natural curly hair
One theory-the shape of the crosssection (round, oval, flat), determines
the amount of curl, however, the shape
of the cross-section does not always
relate to the amount of curl.
Another theory-the result of one side
of the hair strand growing faster than
the other side, tension with in the
strand causes the long side to curl
around the short side. (not proven)
Extremely Curly Hair
long twisted spirals
coiled hair
~fine texture
low elasticity
breaks easily
~tendency to knot
gentle scalp manipulations
conditioning shampoos
detangling rinses help
HAIR GROWTH
Two main types of hair
Vellus (or lanugo)
Terminal
Vellus or lanugo hair:
Short
~ fine
~unpigmented
~downy
Almost never has a medula
Found on infants/children until
puberty
On adults: found on places considered hairless
~forehead
~ eyelids
~ bald scalp
•Nearly all other areas
Except:
~ palms of hands
~ soles of feet
•Helps in evaporation of perspiration
Hairireland.ie
Terminal hair:
Long, coarse, pigmented hair
~ scalp
~ legs
~ arms
~ males and females
Coarser than vellus hair
Is pigmented
~ except gray hair
~ usually has a medulla
Hormone changes
~ during puberty
~ vellus hair replaced
~ thicker terminal hair
Hair follicles produce
~ vellus or
~ terminal hair
Depends
~ genetics
~ age
~ hormonal changes
THE GROWTH CYCLES OF HAIR
occurs in cycles---three phases
repeated over and over again
Anagen-growth phase
Catagen-transition phase
Telogen-resting phase
Anagen: The Growth Phase
New hair produced
New cells produced in Follicle
Hair cells are produced faster
Average growth
~ ½ inch per month
~rate of growth varies…read
About 90% of hair
~ in Anagen phase
~ lasts 3-5 years
~ to 10 years
Catagen: The Transition Phase
Brief transition period
Between the growth and resting
phases
~ signals the end of growth
~ follicle canal shrinks
~ detaches from the dermal
papilla
Hair bulb disappears
Less than one percent of hair is in
this phase at one time
Very short,
lasts 1-2 weeks
Internet source:
Hairrestoration.com
Telogen : the Resting Phase
Final phase
Lasts until the fully grown hair is
shed
or until the next new hair
pushes out the old
10% in this phase
Lasts 3-6 months
Returns to Anagen phase
Cycle begins again
Repeats every 4-5 years
Ukhairdressers.com
www.agelesszonereno.com/about_ageless_zone_sp...
Myths:
Shaving, etc:
no effect on hair growth
Scalp massage:
no evidence
Gray hair more resistant
same as pigmented hair (I beg to differ)
Natural curl determined by race:
anyone can have any degree of curl
HAIR LOSS
Normal daily hair loss
~ three phases
Average daily hair loss
~ 75-100 hairs
we want)
(this is the answer
Information we want you to know:
Write on the side:
Facts
•The average life span of hair is
4-6 years
•Everyone sheds 75-100 hairs per
day
•Hair does not grow after death
•Eyebrows and eyelashes are
replaced every 4-5 months
FYI: Causes of Hair Loss
Poor circulation
Stress
Thyroid disease
High blood pressure
Iron deficiency
Pregnancy
Liver malfunction
Chemotherapy
B & vitamin deficiencies
Skin Disease
Large doses of Vitamin A
High fever
Cholesterol
Alcohol and caffeine
Sudden weight loss
Medications
Psychemedics.com
THE EMOTIONAL IMPACT OF HAIR
LOSS
medical community
~ not a medical condition
anguish
~ very real
~ overlooked
Bald men are perceived as:
•Less physically attractive (by both sexes)
•Less assertive
•Less successful
•Less personally likeable
•Older (by about 5 years)
How shallow we can be???
Bald men perceive themselves:
Experience negative
~ social and emotional
effects
Preoccupied with their baldness
Make effort
~ conceal
~ compensate
For women
~ very traumatic
~ devastating
~ feel anxious
~ helpless
~ less attractive
63 million people in US
~ suffer from abnormal hair loss
(alopecia)
you will be the first person that a
hair loss sufferer will confide in
understand…
~types of hair loss
~products and services available
TYPES OF ABNORMAL HAIR LOSS
Abnormal hair loss
~alopecia
Most common types are:
Androgenic alopecia
Alopecia areata
Postpartum alopecia
Androgenic/androgenetic alopecia
 miniaturization of terminal
hair
*converting it to vellus hair
The result
~ genetics (heredity)
~ age
~ hormonal changes
Can begin in the teens
~frequently by 40
male pattern baldness
horseshoe-shaped
fringe
In women
Sacimdokuluyor.com
~ generalized thinning
~ crown area
Sacimdokuluyor.com
Healthhype.com
Add to side bar:
Alopecia Senilis:
baldness due to old age
Alopecia Prematura:
baldness that begins before
middle age
Alopecia areata
autoimmune disease
~ hair follicles
~ attacked by immune system
White blood cells
~ stop hair growth
(anagen phase)
FYI- just know
sudden falling out
~ patches
~ baldness in spots
scalp and body
(In book) unpredictable skin disease
Add to side bar:
Possible cause: flairs up with
stress and trauma
Associatedcontent.com
Usually begins
~ one or more
~ round, small
~ smooth patches on the
scalp
Can progress total scalp hair loss
~ alopecia totalis
Or complete body hair loss
~ alopecia universalis
males and females
~ begins in childhood
~ no signs of inflammation
~ no skin disorder or disease
POSTPARTUM ALOPECIA
Temporary hair loss
~experienced at the end of a
pregnancy
Very little hair loss during
pregnancy
Sudden and excessive shedding
from 3-9 months after delivery
Returns to normal within one
year
Internet source
Ezinearticles.com
FYI Estrogen stimulates hair
follicles
~ anagen growing phase
~ hair does not cycle as it
normally would.
***After child is born
~ estrogen level drops
~ hair enters the catagen and
telogen phase
~ very traumatic
~ returns to normal
one year
Add to side bar:
Telogen Effluvium:
Premature shedding in resting
phase
Possible causes:
difficult childbirth
shock
fever
drug intake
crash diets
Add to side bar:
Traumatic Alopecia:
Hair loss due to repetitive traction on
the hair by pulling or twisting
Possible causes:
~ excessive application of
chemicals (perms/relaxers)
~ excessive use of hot combs
HAIR LOSS TREATMENTS
Minoxidil and Finasteride
~ have been proven to
stimulate hair growth
~ approved by FDA
Minoxidil
~ topical medication
~ applied to scalp
~ twice a day
www.thehairlossclinicstore.com/store/media/mi...
Sold O-T-C
~ men and women
~ 2% or 5% strength
~ no known side effects
Internet source: Myths and facts
about hair loss:
Myth:
Hair loss is
inherited
from your
father
Fact:
Both
parent's
genes are
a factor.
Androgenetic
alopecia is
geneticallylinked hair
thinning.
Myth: (not in book) (do not add)
Teasing, using hair color, other
products, or frequently washing
hair increases hair loss.
Fact: Normal hair care doesn't
affect hair loss.
Finasteride
~ oral prescription medication
~ for men only
~ more effective
~ more side effects
~ women can not use
~ pregnant women
causes birth defects
Surgical options:
Transplant or hair plugs
~ removing small sections of hair
~ follicle, papilla, and bulb
from the back
~ transplanting in the bald
area.
Internet source:
Hairtransplantnetwork.com
The bulb grows normally in the
new location
Surgeons
Several surgeries
$8,000-$20,000
Add to side bar:
medical treatment
scalp reduction
Internet source:
Newhair.com
Howstuffworks.com
non-surgical/non-medical hair
replacements:
~ wigs
~ toupees
~ hair weaving
~ hair extensions
Learn to fit
~ color
~ cut
~ style wigs and toupees
Weavings and extensions
~ enhance client’s natural
hair
~ boosts their self-esteem
Internet source:
Madeinchina.com
Wigsontop.com
Jewel-and-jewel.com
Beasbraiding.com
DISORDERS OF THE HAIR
CANITIES
~ gray hair
~ loss of the natural
melanin pigment
~ same as pigmented hair
Two types:
Congenital Canities
~ exists at or before birth
~ occurs in albinos
~ can be patchy
Add:
Albino-person born with no coloring
matter, resulting in white hair
Acquired Canities
~ develops with age
~ result of genetics.
~ may develop
* worry
* anxiety
* prolonged illness
Trihup.cpm
More.com
Ringed hair
~ alternating bands
~ gray and pigmented hair
~ length of hair strand
Hypertrichosis
~ hirsuities
~ abnormal growth of hair
~ terminal hair in areas of
vellus hair
~ mustache or light beard on
women
Remember: Hyper=excess hair
On test: Superflous- more than usual
http://images.google.com/imgres?q=hypertrichosis&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1024&bih=619&tbm=isch&tbnid=61rXe3OxJwVplM:&imgrefurl=http://www.hairremoval4guys.com/hirsutewomen.html&docid=02f8UUb6lxn_1M&imgurl=http://www.hairremoval4guys.com/images/Hirsute_Women_01.jpg&w=314&h=235&ei=atX9TpHSIIvQgAec2MWfAg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=214&sig=115570578519706265263&
page=5&tbnh=124&tbnw=157&start=72&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:72&tx=103&ty=92
http://images.google.com/imgres?q=hypertrichosis&hl=en&gbv=2&biw=1024&bih=619&tbm=isch&tbnid=LE6TnepyUWAFwM:&imgrefurl=http://ahsmediacenter.pbworks.com/w/page/1991874/Hypertrichosis%2520Introduction%2520and%2520Types%2520%25202&docid=V01tUYVOrCsSeM&imgurl=http://img.tfd.com/wiki/3/3e/Hypertrichosis.jpg&w=350&h=505&ei=atX9TpHSIIvQgAec2MWfAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=473&vpy=138&dur=2681&hovh=270&hovw=187&tx=114
&ty=160&sig=115570578519706265263&page=1&tbnh=104&tbnw=72&start=0&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0
treatments include
~electrolysis
~photoepilation
~laser hair removal
~tweezing
~shaving
~electronic tweezers
~depilatories
~threading
~sugaring
Trichoptilosis
split ends
treatments:
~ conditioning to soften
~ remove by cutting
Remember: Chop=needs cutting or
“chop off”
Trichorrhexis Nodosa
knotted hair
~ brittleness
~ formation of nodular swellings
along the hair shaft
~ hair breaks easily
~ broken fibers spread out like a
brush along hair shaft
Treatments:
~ conditioners
~ moisturizers
Remember: Trichorrhexis nodosa
-Needs correcting
-nodosa-nodules
Monilethrix
beaded hair
~ breaks easily between the
beads or nodes
Treatments:
~ hair and scalp conditioning
Fragilitas crinium
brittle hair
~ may split at any part of their
length
Treatment:
~ hair and scalp conditioning
~cutting above the split to prevent
further damage
Remember: Fragile=brittle
segal.koreanbusiness.co.kr/.../book-photo3.gif
DISORDERS OF THE SCALP
outer layer
~ shed
~ replaced by new cells
Healthy, normal scalp cells fall off naturally
~ small, dry flakes
~ without being noticed
dry scalp-(not dandruff)
~ flakes much smaller
~ less noticeable flakes
contact dermatitis, sunburn, or
extreme age
worse in cold, dry climates
Medical term for dandruff:
Pityriasis
excessive production and
accumulation of skin cells
large visible clumps of cells
dandruff is the result of a
fungus called malassezia
Malassezia
naturally occurring fungus
present on all human skin
symptoms when it grows out of
control
stress, age, hormones, and
poor hygiene can cause
symptoms to worsen
antidandruff shampoos contain
antifungal agents
~pyrithione zinc (professional and OTC)
~selenium sulfide (Selson Blue)
~ketoconazole (OTC-Nizoral)
 suppresses the growth of
malassezia
hairbeautycollections.com.au
Pyrithione zinc is gentle enough to
be used everyday
color-treated hair
frequent use is essential
Nature.com
Mild,moderate,severe cases
School’s of thought go back and
forth as to dandruff being
contagious. Mrs. Kucas and I feel
that dandruff is contagious.
(contradicts your book)
***Practicing approved
sanitation and disinfection
procedures will help prevent the
spread of this disorder
Two principal types:
Pityriasis capitis simplex:
•technical term for classic dandruff
ADD: dry dandruff
•scalp irritation
•large {thin} flakes
• itchy scalp
Scales may:
•attach to the scalp in masses
•scatter loosely in the hair
•fall to the shoulders
Add to side bar:
Dry dandruff is the result of a sluggish
scalp caused by:
• poor circulation
• lack of nerve stimulation
• improper diet
•emotional and glandular disturbances
•poor personal hygiene
Treatments include:
 antidandruff shampoos
 conditioners
“medicated” topical lotions
“Antiseptic” scalp lotions
 scalp treatments
 regular scalp massage
Add: medicated/antiseptic
Pityriasis steatoides
•more severe
•accumulation of greasy or
waxy scalp scales
•mixed with sebum
•stick to the scalp in patches or
crusts
•When accompanied by redness and
inflammation is:
“seborrheic dermatisis”
(if torn off bleeding or oozing of the
sebum results)
•Can be found in eyebrows/beards
•Client with these two conditions
(Pityriasis steatoides and seborrheic
dermatitis) must be referred to a
FUNGAL INFECTIONS (TINEA)
TINEA
•ringworm
•itching, scales, and sometimes,
painful circular lesions
•Several may be present at the same
time
•A fungal (vegetable) organism is not
an animal parasite
Rancocasvalley.com
•All forms are contagious
•Easily transmitted
FYI: Infected skin scales and hairs
that contain the fungi are known to
spread the disease
•Bathtubs
•Swimming pools
•Unsanitary personal articles
•Practicing approved sanitation and
disinfection procedures will help
prevent the spread of this disease
***Clients with this condition must be
referred to a physician for medical
treatment
Tinea barbae (barber’s itch)
•Infection resulting from hair
services
•Mustache and beard
•Similar to tinea capitis in
appearance
dermis.net
•Do not perform services!!!
•Refer to physician
dermatology.cdlib.org
TINEA CAPITIS
Add to side bar: Ringworm of the
scalp
• Characterized by red papules, or
spots
•at opening of the hair follicles
•patches spread
~hair brittle and lifeless
•hair often breaks off
•leaving only a stump
•may be shed from the enlarged
open follicle
visualdx
Tinea favosa/ Tinea Favus
Add to side bar:
honeycomb ringworm
•dry
•sulfur-yellow, cup-like crusts
•on the scalp called scutula
•distinctive odor
Scars: bald patches that may be pink or
white and shiny
ADD:very contagious-refer to physician
Doctorfungus.org
Tinea favosa
Tinea capitis
ANIMAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS
SCABIES
•itch is a highly contagious skin
disease
•itch mite burrowing under the skin
•vesicles (blisters)
•pustules (inflamed pimples with pus)
•usually form on the scalp from the
irritation caused by this animal
parasite
•excessive itching makes the condition
worse
Stanford.edu
Stanford.edu
Commonswikimedia.org
Tunnel/burrow of parasite
•Practicing approved sanitation
and disinfection procedures
will help prevent the spread of
this disease
Clients with this condition must be
referred to a physician for medical
treatment
PEDICULOSIS CAPITIS
•infestation
~ hair and scalp
~ head lice
•feed on the scalp
~ dead skin cells
•itching
~ scratching can cause an infection
•transmitted
Pedistrics.about.com
Headlicetrix.com
Pediatrics.about.com
Media.acbnews.com
Pediatrics.about.com
Pediatrics.about.com
img.medscape.com/.../211212-225013-2402.jpg
Empty shell left
after lice hatch
img.medscape.com/.../211212-225013-2402.jpg
cm.edu.qt
howtodo101.com/.../
• contact with infested hats,
combs, brushes and other
personal articles
•you can distinguish them from
dandruff flakes by looking
closely at the scalp with a
magnifying glass
• Practicing approved sanitation and
disinfection procedures will
help prevent the spread of this
disease
• Several nonprescription
medications are available
•Do not perform a service on anyone
who has head lice
FYI
Recently on the news, they
reported that the lice are
becoming resist to the shampoos
that kill the lice. This means the
lice will be much harder or
impossible to get rid of.
•Clients with this condition must be
referred to a physician or pharmacist
STAPHYLOCOCCI INFECTIONS
•Are bacteria that infect the skin or scalp
Furuncle:
• boil is an acute localized bacterial
infection of the hair follicle that
produces constant pain
• limited to a specific area
• produces a pustule perforated by a
hair
Onlinehealthbook.com
Carbuncle:
•inflammation of the
subcutaneous tissue
~ caused by staphylococci
•similar to furuncle only larger
Missinglinkucsf.edu
• Practicing approved sanitation and
disinfection procedures will help
prevent the spread of these
disease
•Do not perform services
Clients with this condition must be
referred to a physician for medical
treatment
HAIR ANALYSIS
all services begin:
~analysis of client’s hair type
~condition
*determines the results that can be
expected from the service
different types of hair
~react differently to the same
service
performed prior to all salon services
Factors:
 texture
 porosity
 elasticity
 density
growth pattern
dryness/oiliness
HAIR TEXTURE
thickness or diameter
~ individual hair strand
 coarse
 medium
 fine
different areas of the head
~may have different textures
Coarse texture
large diameter
more resistant
styletips101.com
requires more processing time
*hair lighteners
*haircolors
*permanent waves
*chemical relaxers
Medium texture
most common
your-hairstyles.com
considered normal (standard)
does not pose any special
problems or concerns
Fine texture
smallest diameter
fragile
 easier to process
more susceptible to damage from
chemical services
short-hair-style.com
Determined
~ by feeling a single dry strand
~ between the fingers
Take an individual strand from:
• Front hairline
• The temple
• The crown
• The nape
hold the strand securely
~ feel it with the thumb and
forefinger of the other hand
feel the difference between
~ coarse
~ medium
~ fine
Read “Focus on”
HAIR DENSITY
measures
~ number of individual hair
strands
~ on one square inch
how many on one person’s head
Classified as:
Low
textbook
Thin
Medium
Medium
High
Thick
Mrs.
Kucas
Mrs.
Mandato
same hair texture
~different densities
i.e.
Coarse hair texture
~ low density (thin)
fine hair texture
~ high density (thick)
average hair density
~ 2,200 hairs per square inch
average head
~ 100,000 hairs
~ varies with the color
blondes high density
redheads lowest
Table 11-4
Q. How do we determine what the
amount of density is?
a. Use fingers to feel the hair
b. Look at the scalp area
c. Ask the client how dense they
think their hair is
d. Ask another stylist to help us
decide
HAIR POROSITY
ability of the hair to absorb
moisture
 condition of the cuticle layer
compact cuticle layer
~ resistant to penetration
referred to as Hydrophobic
(phobic---does not like)
porous hair/raised cuticle
~ easily absorbs moisture
~Referred to as Hydrophilic
(philic---attracted to)
low porosity
~ resistant
~ more alkaline solution
~ longer processing time
alkaline solutions
~ raise the cuticle
permit uniform
~ saturation and processing
Average/normal porosity
~ considered normal
~ processes as expected
*according to the texture
High porosity
~ overly porous
~ result of over processing
~ damaged
~ dry
~ fragile and brittle
~ less alkaline solutions
(lower pH)
POROSITY TEST
dry hair
(I like clean, towel dried hair)
one inch patch
hold strand securely
*slide the thumb and forefinger of
the other hand
*3-4” from the end
*to the scalp three times
Technicurl.com
Determining the results:
no hair or nearly no hair
~very resistant
small amount
~resistant
medium amount
~average or normal
a lot of hair comes down=porous
most of the hair comes
down=overly porous
Q. What four areas of the head should
be checked?
Q. How strong should the chemical
solution be for this kind of
hair?
Textbook:
Low
3 descriptions
(resistant)
Average
Highly porous
Mrs. Kucas/Mrs. Mandato:
Add:
Very resistant
Resistant
Normal/average
Porous
Highly/very porous
5 descriptions
HAIR ELASTICITY
Ability of the hair to
~stretch and return
~original length
~without breaking
Indication of the strength of the side
bonds
wet hair with normal elasticity
~ stretch up to 50% of its
original length
~ return without breaking
Dry hair stretches 20%
***will hold the curl from wet sets and
permanent waves
low elasticity:
~ brittle
~ breaks easily
does not hold curl
low elasticity
~ overprocessed
milder solution
~ lower pH
ELASTICITY TEST
***Also called a pull test
Check elasticity
~wet hair
~individual strand
Hold a single strand of wet hair
~ try to pull it apart
stretches and returns to
~ original length without
breaking
~ normal/good elasticity
breaks easily
~ fails to return to its original
length
~ it has low/poor elasticity
***crinkles=bad
Q. Describe texture and give the
classifications and how to tell.
Q. What are the classifications for
density?
Q. Explain what porosity is, its
classifications and the test for
porosity.
Q. Define elasticity, list
classifications, describe the test.
GROWTH PATTERNS
important
~ shaping and styling hair
growth patterns
~streams, whorls, and cowlicks
Internet source:
Justformom slides.com
Hair stream:
•flowing same direction
•follicles sloping same direction
•two streams opposite directions
~ form a natural part
Whorl:
• forms a circular pattern
• crown
Dana.org
Internet source:
Hairboutique.com
Cowlick:
•Tuft of hair
~ stands straight up
•Usually at the front hairline
•May be located anywhere
DRY HAIR AND SCALP
 inactive sebaceous glands
 dry climate
hair appears dull, dry and
lifeless
 moisturizers and emollients
Avoid frequent
shampooing
Internet source:
Pq.com/science/hair care
Avoid
~ strong soaps
~ detergents
~ products with high
alcohol content
Dry hair
~not overly-porous
OILY HAIR AND SCALP
Causes:
greasy buildup on scalp
oily coating
improper shampooing
overactive sebaceous glands
normalizing shampoo
Well-balanced diet
Exercise
Regular shampooing
Good personal hygiene
will control oily hair and scalp
Read:
Healthy Hair, Happy Clients
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