Lesson 1 Types of energy

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DO NOW!

1. Can you write the title of the new unit

Energy, work and power and date

2 . stick in the revision topic list.

3. How many types

(forms) of energy can you remember?

Do now!

James Prescott Joule

1818 - 1889

4 Books in at end of class

Learning today

• Work done

• W.D =

Forces x distance in the direction of the force

.

• The

Joule J the unit for both energy and work done

• What is energy

• Types of energy

Work done - copy please

When any object is moved around work will need to be done on it to get it to move (obviously).

We can work out the amount of work done in moving an object using the formula:

Work done = Force x distance moved in direction of the force

W

in J in N in m joules newtons meters

F d

Question 1

Calculate the work done when a force of

5 newtons moves through a distance of

3 metres.

work = force x distance

= 5N x 3m

work = 15 joules

Question 2

Calculate the work done when a force of

6 newtons moves through a distance of

40 centimetres.

work = force x distance

= 6 N x 40 cm

= 6 N x 0.40 m

work = 2.4 joules

Now do

• Make Force the subject of the equation

F

W d

• Make distance the subject of the equation

Question 3

Calculate the value of the force required to do 600 joules of work over a distance of 50 metres.

work = force x distance

becomes:

force = work done

÷ distance

= 600 J

÷

50 m

force = 12 newtons

Question 4

Calculate the distance moved by a force of

8 newtons when it does 72 joules of work.

work = force x distance

becomes:

distance = work done

÷ force

= 72 J

÷

8 N

distance moved = 9 metres

Example questions

1. Bori pushes a book 5m along the table with a force of 5N.

He gets tired and decides to call it a day. How much work did he do?

2. Alicia lifts a laptop 2m into the air with a force of 10N.

How much work does she do?

3. Martin does 200J of work by pushing a wheelbarrow with a force of 50N. How far did he push it?

4. Chris cuddles his cat and lifts it 1.5m in the air. If he did

75J of work how much force did he use?

5. Carl drives his car 1000m. If the engine was producing a driving force of 2000N how much work did the car do?

Question 5

Calculate the work done by a child of weight 300N who climbs up a set of stairs consisting of 12 steps each of height 20cm.

work = force x distance

The child must exert an upward force equal to its own weight.

Therefore:

force

= 300N

This force is exerted upwards and so the distance must also be measured upwards.

= (12 x 20cm)

= 2.4m

therefore:

work

= 300 N x 2.4 m

work = 720 J

What is Energy?

What is Energy?

“The capacity to do work”

Not a very good definition!

Energy measurement

– Copy please

Energy is measured in

joules (J)

To lift an apple 0.1 kg upwards by one metre requires about one joule of energy.

1 kilojoule (kJ) = 1 000 J

10

3

J

1 megajoule (MJ) = 1 000 000 J

10

6

J

Types of energy

Energy can take many forms;

Now list the different types of energies in the following two groups

Kinetic Energy

– movement energy

Potential Energy

– energy due to position or shape or stored energy

Forms of energy

Energy can exist in many forms.

1. THERMAL or HEAT ENERGY

This is the energy of an object due to its temperature.

2. LIGHT ENERGY

This is energy in the form of visible electromagnetic radiation.

Light

5. KINETIC ENERGY

This is the energy possessed by a moving object.

Kinetic energy increases is the object’s speed is increased.

Also often called ‘Movement energy’

A kicked football has 50J of energy

Kinetic (movement)

3. ELECTRICAL ENERGY

This is the energy transferred by an electric current.

4. SOUND ENERGY

This is energy in the form of a sound wave.

Chemical

Nuclear

6. CHEMICAL ENERGY

This is energy that is released when chemical reactions take place.

Sources of chemical energy include: fuel, food and batteries.

Energy in one chocolate biscuit 300 000 J

Energy in the food you in one day 11 000 000 J

7. NUCLEAR ENERGY

This is energy that is released when nuclear reactions take place.

This is the source of the

Sun’s energy.

Gravitational potential

8. POTENTIAL ENERGY

This is the energy possessed an object due to its position.

Gravitational Potential Energy

The gravitational potential energy of an object increases if it is raised upwards.

Elastic Potential Energy

This is the energy stored in a stretched or squashed object

- also known as strain energy

Gravitational potential energy being converted into kinetic energy.

• A fully flexed bow stores around 300J of energy

Strain

Now list the different types of energies in the following two groups

Kinetic Energy

– movement energy

Potential Energy

– energy due to position or shape or stored energy

• Thermal

• Light

• Sound

• Electric

• Kinetic

• Chemical

• Gravitational

• Strain

• Nuclear

The Law of Conservation of

Energy

Energy can be changed

(transformed) from one type to another, but it can never be made or destroyed.

This means that the total amount of energy in the

Universe stays the same!

\

Energy Flow diagrams

We can write energy flow diagrams to show the energy changes that occur in a given situation.

For example, when a car brakes, its kinetic energy is transformed into heat energy I the brakes.

Kinetic heat

Other examples

When a rocket launches.

Other examples

When a rocket launches.

Chemical kinetic + sound + heat gravitational

Energy Circus

Around the room are a few examples of energy changes (some simple, some a little more complicated!)

For each example I want you to write the name of the experiment and then the energy flow diagram for that experiment

You will have 2 minutes on each example.

Ready

?

Go!

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