TSR: Terminate but Stay Resident Programs - MICRO-SIG

Receiver/Transmitter (USART)
Prepared By:
Prof. M. B. Salunke
SITS, Narhe, Pune - 41.
E-mail: [email protected]
Communication Modes
• The Simplex Mode
• The Half Duplex Mode
• The Full Duplex Mode
Communication Methods
• Parallel Data Transfer
• Serial Data Transfer
– Synchronous Serial Data Communication
– Asynchronous Serial Data Communication
• Baud Rate: The number of bits per second
• Data Terminal Equipment: The
originators and receptors of the digital data
are called data terminal equipment. E.g.
• Data Communication Equipment: The
equipment used to transmit or receive data
between two DTEs. E.g. Modem
Standards Used in Serial
• Current Loop Format
• Voltage Signal RS-232C
– Earlier 25 Pin Connectors were used
– Now a days 9 pin connectors are available
1. Data Carrier Detect 2. Receive Data
3. Transmit Data
4. Data Terminal Ready
5. Signal Ground
6. Data Set Ready
7. Request to Send
8. Clear to send
9. Ring Indicator
USART 8251A: Features
• Synchronous and Asynchronous operation
• Synchronous 5 – 8 bit character; Internal &
External Character Synchronization; Automatic
Sync insertion.
• Asynchronous 5 – 8 bit character; clock rate 1, 16
or 64 times baud rate; Break character
generation; 1, 1.5 or 2 stop bits; False start bit
detection; Automatic break Detect and handling.
• Synchronous Baud Rate: DC to 64K Baud
• Asynchronous Baud Rate: DC to 19.2K Baud
• Full duplex, double-buffered transmitter
and receiver
• Error detection- Parity, overrun and framing
• Compatible with an extended range of Intel
• 28 pin DIP package
• TTL Compatible
• Available in EXPRESS and Military
Block Diagram & Pin Diagram
Functional Description
• Data Bus Buffer: 3-state bidirectional
buffer, used to interface 8251 and system
data bus,
• Control words, Command Words, Status
information and Data are transferred
through it.
• Pins D7 – D0
Read/Write Control Logic
• This block accepts input from system control bus and
generated control signals for overall device operation.
• It contains Control Word register and Command Word
• RESET: HIGH input forces 8251A into an ‘idle’ mode.
• CLK: Clock input for internal device timing
• WR#: Write
• RD#: Read
• C/D#: Control/Data
• CS#: Chip Select
Modem Control
• A set of inputs and outputs used to simplify the
interface with modems
• DSR#: Data Set Ready: Input used to test modem
conditions, such as Data Set Ready.
• DTR#: Data Terminal Ready: Output used for
modem control, such as Data Terminal Ready.
• RTS#: Request To Send: Output used for modem
control, such as Request To Send
• CTS#: Clear To Send: ‘Low’ input enables the
8251A to transmit serial data if the Tx Enable bit
in the command byte is enabled.
Transmitter Section
• Section consist of Transmit Buffer and
Transmit Control
• Transmit buffer accepts parallel data from data
bus buffer, convert it to a serial bit stream, insert
appropriate characters or bits (based on
communication technique) and outputs a
composite serial stream of data on the TxD
output pin on the falling edge of TxC#
• The transmitter will begin transmission upon
being enabled if CTS# = 0
Transmitter Section
• Transmit Control manages all activities
associated with the transmission of serial data.
• TxRDY: Transmitter Ready: Output signals the
CPU that transmitter is ready to accept a data
• TxE: Transmitter Empty: ‘High’ output indicates
the 8251A has no characters to send.
• TxC#: Transmitter Clock: Controls the rate at
which the character is to be transmitted.
Receiver Section
• Section consist of Receive buffer and
receive control
• Receiver Buffer accepts serial data,
converts to parallel format, checks for bits
or characters that are unique to the
communication technique and sends an
assembled character to the CPU.
• Serial data is input to RxD pin and clocked
in on the rising edge of RxC#
Receiver Section
• Receive Control manages all receiver related
• The RxD initialization circuit prevents the 8251A
an unused input line for an active low data line in
the ‘break condition’
• The false start bit detection circuit prevents false
starts due to a transient noise spike.
• Parity error detection sets the corresponding
status bit.
• The Framing Error status bit is set if the Stop bit
is absent at the end of the data byte
(asynchronous mode)
Receiver Section
• RxRDY: Receiver Ready: Output indicates that
the 8251A contains a character that is ready to be
input to the CPU.
• Failure to read character prior to the assembly of
the next character will set overrun condition error
and previous data will be written over and lost.
• RxC#: Receiver Clock: The receiver clock
controls the rate at which the character is to be
• SYNDET/BD: SYNC Detect or Break Detect
Receiver Section
• Used to detect SYNC character/s in case of
synchronous mode and for BRKDET in
case of asynchronous mode
Programming of 8251
• Controls word are used to programs 8251:
Once programmed the 8251 is ready to
perform its communication functions.
• The control words are split into two
– Mode instruction
– Command instruction
Programming of 8251A
• Mode instruction: Defines the general
operational characteristics of the 8251A.
– It must follow a reset operation (Internal or External)
– Once mode instruction has been written by CPU,
SYNC characters or command instructions may be
• Command Instruction: It defines a word that is
used to control the actual operation of 8251A
• Both instruction must conform the specified
sequence for proper device operation