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CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH What are the Uses of Correlational Research? What are the Requirements for Correlational Research? Why Doesn’t Correlation Mean Causation? What is a Cross-Lagged Panel? What Are the Uses of Correlational Research? Test reliability Test validity Test hypotheses about relationships between variables Predict scores (regression) What Are the Requirements for Correlational Research? Any of the descriptive methods can be used (observation, survey, archival, physical traces). Must have independent pairs of scores. Why Doesn’t Correlation Mean Causation? A correlation by itself does not show that one variable causes the other due to: the third variable problem the directionality problem A correlation is consistent with a causal relationship but does not demonstrate causation. Why Doesn’t Correlation Mean Causation? A correlation between X and Y could be caused by a third variable influencing both X and Y. If Z influences both X and Y, then X and Y will be correlated only because they are both affected by Z. Particular third variables can be measured and statistically controlled using partial correlation. Why Doesn’t Correlation Mean Causation? A correlation between X and Y could be a result of X causing Y or Y causing X; this is the directionality problem. Directionality can be examined using a crosslagged panel design. What is a Cross-Lagged Panel? Design used to determine direction of cause Measure both variables at two different points in time Cause cannot work backwards in time Time 1 variable X Time 2 variable X variable Y variable Y