Food Security 糧食保障

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Food Security
糧食保障
蕭寧馨
應用營養研究室
台灣大學生化科技系
2011
Double Burden
世界人權宣言
(Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948)
http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/eng.htm
•Article 25
1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health
and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing,
housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right
to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability,
widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances
beyond his control.
2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance.
All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same
social protection.
• 第25條款第1款明白宣示:
「人人皆應享有維持本人與家庭之健康與福利所需的生
活水準,包括:食、衣、住、醫療照戶與必要的公共
服務,並在失業、疾病、機能障礙、鰥寡、老年、不
可抗力因素下喪謀生能力時,得到保障。∙∙」
世界人權宣言
Food security 定義
• Food security exists when all people, at all
times, have physical and economic access to
enough safe and nutritious food to meet their
dietary needs and food preferences for an
active and healthy lifestyle. (World Food
Summit 1996)
• Food is available –
– Amount and quality
• Food is affordable –
– Price and economics
• Food is utilized –
– Household preparation
世界人口變遷
http://www.fao.org/publications/sofi/en/
6
開發中國家人口增長最多
World Population (in Billions): 1950-2050
Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects, The 2008 Revision.
台灣的人口變遷
人口增加因死亡率降低之故
98:23,119,772
97:23,037,031
93:22,689,122
8
台灣人口轉型圖
50
1951, 50.0
粗出生率
45
生
命
率
/
千
分
比
粗死亡率
40
35
1920, 32.0
30
25
20
1984, 19.6
15
10
5
1984, 4.7
0
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
年期
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
台灣人口老化之進展
• 依聯合國標準,以65歲以上人口比例
– 「高齡化」7%:1993
– 「高齡社會」14%:2017
– 「超高齡社會」20%:2025
各國生育率變化圖
2.0
1.8
總
生
育
率
1.6
1.4
1.2
南韓
台灣
瑞典
法國
日本
1.0
1994
1996
1998
2000
年期
2002
2004
台灣糧食自給率與進口比例
分類
1997
(熱量%)
2007
(熱量%)
進口
比例
綜合
榖類
37.2
30.2
30.6
21.7
69.4
79.2
油類
蔬菜
水果
4.0
96.6
87.3
2.0
83.8
87.1
96.8
16.4
15.7
乳品
肉類
27.8
100.2
26.1
88.3
69.1
12.5
水產
132.4
172.9
19.7
蛋類
100
100
0.1
12
其他國家糧食自給率
美國
122%
中國
>95%
法國
121%
日本
40%
意大利
69%
英國
61%
13
FAO Food Price Index
喪失糧食保障的原因
• 貧窮
• 健康不良
– AID/HIV
• 水與環境:
– 1 公斤水稻需要 3000
公升水
– 1 公斤小麥需要1000
公升水
– 灌溉可使生產量增加
100-400%
– 17%農地有灌溉措施
• 性別不平等: 女性
– 生產勞動者
– 教育, 決策
• 災難與戰爭衝突
• 人口與都市化
– 人口增加
– 農地減少
• 貿易障礙
– 補貼與競爭
解決糧食問題
• 增加農業生產效率
– 綠色革命The Green
Revolution of the
1970s and 1980s
– 品種改良, 肥料, 農藥
– 技術, 研究, 補助
– 基因改造作物GMO
• 改善經濟與貿易自由
• 分配
– (next)
• 性別平等
– 重視女性
• 食物救濟
– 配合工作機會, 健康
改善, 教育等
– 避免依賴性
– 解決長期問題為目標
預防糧食危機
各國有責
The World Food Program (WFP)
• To lessen the effects of HIV/AIDS on a community
by improving food security and securing the
livelihoods of those living with the illness.
• Food aid assists people living with HIV/AIDS to
respond better to drug treatments, maintain their
strength and body weight and resist other infections
such as tuberculosis.
• This assistance allows people to continue earning an
income and caring for their families, and keeps their
children in school.
• School feeding programs and vocational training also
support children in schools and HIV/AIDS
awareness programs help limit the spread of the
disease.
The International Alliance Against Hunger
• Many partners, one goal: reducing hunger
and poverty
– To unite national governments, the international
community, civil society organizations, the private
sector and concerned individuals to mobilize the
political will, technical expertise and financial
resources
• proposed by Johannes Rau, President of
the Federal Republic of Germany on World
Food Day in 2001.
• Raising awareness of the problems of hunger
• To work towards long-term solutions to
guarantee sufficient food for all.
The International Year of Rice
• To promote improved production and access
to this vital food crop.
• To learn about the origins of the International
Year of Rice, the significance of rice in East
Asia, the Middle East and Africa, its cultural
and nutritional value, and the impact of the
production of rice on the environment. The
site also looks at how people livelihood in
many countries is dependent on the
production of rice, the different roles of men
and women in rice growing, and the centrality
of rice production to the economies of the
countries where it is grown. There is a special
section for kids and a range of media
resources.
The Special Programme
for Food Security (SPFS)
• To help those living in developing countries, particularly
the low-income food deficit countries (LIFDCs), to
improve their food security through rapid increases in food
production and productivity.
• To help governments replicate successful food security
practices on a national scale. The SPFS also encourages
investment in rural infrastructure, off-farm income
generation, urban agriculture and safety nets.
• To reduce year-to-year variability in food production on an
economically and environmentally sustainable basis and
improve people's access to food
World Food Summit (WFS)
• In 1996, 180 nations met at FAO
headquarters for the World Food Summit
(WFS) to discuss ways to end hunger.
• The goal is to reduce, between 1990–92 and
2015, the number of undernourished
people by half.
• Millennium Development Goal 1, target
1C, is to halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people who suffer from
hunger.
FAO: The state of food insecurity 2009
FAO: Hunger Report 2011
各地區人民的平均壽命
30
各地區的營養不足盛行率
31
Hungry people
•
•
•
•
•
2009: 1.02 billions
2008: 963 million
2007: 923 million
2006: 854 million
2005: 849 million
State of Food Insecurity in the World
http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0876e/i0876e00.htm
各地區營養不足人口增加率
2009 狀況
比對2008
33
貧困使女性勞動人口增加
34
貧困之下女嬰死亡率升高
35
The World Declaration of Nutrition and
Global Plan of Action: Highlights
Rome 1992
•聲明「每個人有獲得營養及安全的食物的權
利」。
•認定營養是社會發展的先決條件,也是人類
進步的目標,營養的健全應是社經發展與策
略的中心
•訂定全球行動計畫之目標
–確保所有人都有持續的、安全、營養的食物供應
–達到並維持全人類的營養健康
–實現健全的環境及永續性社會發展,以助改善健
康及營養
–消除飢荒及餓死
36
The World Declaration of Nutrition
世界營養宣言九大行動主題:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
將營養議題納入政策及計劃發展
改善居家食物保障
改善食物品質及安全以保護消費者
預防、處理傳染性疾病
鼓勵母乳哺育
照護社經、營養弱勢
預防、控制特定微量營養素缺乏
鼓勵健康的飲食及生活型態
評估、分析、監控營養狀況
37
健康、營養、食物、環境密不可分
自然界的碳循環
38
自然界的氮循環
資料來源 維基百科
39
英國加工食品的碳標籤
資料來源:行政院環保署管考處處長楊慶熙2009
40
韓國加工食品的碳標籤
資料來源:行政院環保署管考處處長楊慶熙200941
日本食品的碳標籤
資料來源:行政院環保署管考處處長楊慶熙200942
台灣的碳標籤
43
認知與行動-為自己
• 身體機能精妙複雜,飲食營養知識不
簡單
• 要積極學習正確的食物與營養知識與
資訊,以做出健康的選擇
• 不浪費食物,購買食品不囤積,準備
食物不過量
44
認知與行動-人飢己飢
• 要發揮個人和公共的力量來改善弱勢
族群的飲食營養
• 共同營造健康飲食環境,支持個人健
康選擇
• 父母師長要以身作則,用聰明智慧來
幫助兒女孩童建立健康的飲食習慣
• 參與經營健康生態與生產環境
45
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