PPT: Lesson Topic 3.5.1 Mines and Booby Traps

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1
Enabling Objective(s):
3.9 DESCRIBE the characteristics and
nomenclature of mines and booby traps
in accordance with Countermine
Measures Manual (FM 20-32)
3.10 DESCRIBE the procedures necessary
to locate and mark mines and booby traps
in accordance with the Countermine
Measures Manual (FM 20-32)
2
Characteristics of Mines and Booby traps
Used to delay and disrupt use of roads
and paths
Divert forces to guard and clear
routes
Personnel and equipment patrolling roads
and detecting or removing mines are prime
targets
3
Conventional Mines
Explosive devices designed to destroy or
damage equipment or personnel
May be employed in quantities to form a
minefield or used individually
4
Types of conventional Mines
Antitank (AT) - designed to
immobilize or destroy tracked and
wheeled vehicles and the vehicle crews and
passengers. Produces two types of kills...
Mobility Kill (M kill)
Stop Vehicle
5
Catastrophic Kill (K kill)
Kill vehicle and occupants
6
Anti-tank mines can be placed...
In road junctions
In old tire tracks
In potholes
Under bridges
Underneath roads
In areas recently cleared
7
TYPE OF MINES

Anti-tank mines
– Track width (m-kill)
– Full width (k-kill)
– Off route

Antipersonnel
mines
– Blast
– Fragmentation


Bounding
Directional
8
9
Pattern B Effect
Large AP Mines: PMN
 Wound Effect:

– Lower extremities
– Amputation of leg
– Large wounds in thigh, genital or buttock
– Opposite leg gaping wounds or open
fractures
– Both legs may be lost
10
11
Pattern C Effect
Small above ground AP Mines: PFM
 Wound Effect:

– Similar to Pattern A
– Amputation of finger and hands
– Damage to the face
– Chest wounds
– Blindness
12
13
Pattern D Effect
AP Fragmentation Mines: M16,
Valmara69
 Wound Effect:

– Upper extremities
– Creating trauma to abdomen and head
– These weapons usually KILL
14
DEAD
15
INITIATING
ACTIONS
Pressure
 Pressure release
 Pulling trip wire
 Tension release
 Time delay
 Tilt rod


Impulse
- Acoustic (sound)
- Radio frequency
- Inertia
- Vibration (seismic)
- Magnetic
- Electrical
16
Mechanical
17
Chemical
18
Friction
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Electrical
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Mine fields-area of ground
containing mines emplaced
with or without a specific
pattern
21
EXAMPLES OF
MINEFIELDS
IRAQ
22
Conventional - AP - VS-50s
23
AP
24
Anti-Landing
25
26
Used to
Produce a specific effect on enemy
maneuver.
Cause the enemy to piecemeal his
forces
Interfere with enemy command and
control.
Inflict damage to enemy personnel and
equipment.
Protect friendly forces from enemy
maneuver.
27
Types of Minefieldsdetermined by battlefield
purpose.
Protective
Tactical
Phony
28
Scatterable Mines -considered
to be new threat
Designed to be delivered or dispensed by aircraft,
artillery, missile, hand, or ground dispenser.
Have aemplacement-Can
limited active life
and self in
destruct
after
active
Remote
be emplaced
enemy-held
territory
where
conventional
mines are
an impossibility.
life expires.
Duration
of active
life varies.
Increased
tacticalfaster
flexibility
Emplaced
Efficient
Time-delay arming
Increased lethality
Readily available in the retail arms market
Encountered in low-intensity operation
29
Insurgent and guerrilla forces may use
Scatterable mines to counter high
mobility of civil and military forces.
Lie on ground surface, visible on roads,
hard surface and level ground;
difficult to locate in broken ground or
undergrowth.
Scatterable Minefields can be in front
of, behind, to either side of, or on top
of a unit.
Covered by indirect fire and may be
covered by direct fire.
30
Expedient Mines -constructed in the
field with locally available material.
Supplement a unit’s low supply of
conventional mines.
Hinder reconnaissance, clearance, and
neutralization of Minefields.
Create enemy attitudes of uncertainty and
suspicion.
31
Improvised Claymore
32
Grapeshot Antipersonnel Mine
33
Barbwire, Antipersonnel,
Fragmentation Mine
34
Fragmentation Grenade
35
Improvised Flame Mine
36
Chemical Mines
Filled with chemicals (nerve or blister)
Forces enemy to use protective
clothing and masks and reduce
advancement speed.
37
Booby traps:
are a psychological weapon.
 are used in conjunction with mines
or by themselves.
 are suited for defensive operations.

38
Used for
slowing enemy advance
 denying enemy use of facilities and
material
 warning of enemy approach
 deterring enemy from using
ground not covered by direct fire

39
Located in various places








In and around buildings, installations, and field
defenses.
In and around road craters or any obstacle that
must be cleared.
In natural, covered resting places along routes.
In assembly areas
Near stocks of fuel, supplies, or materials.
Roads or rail systems.
Designed to be actuated while carrying out normal
duties-cannot be specifically guarded against
because there is nothing to cause suspicion.
Take advantage of human nature-can be detected
because they are designed to make a person do 40
Improvised Explosive Devices
(IEDs)
1st COMBAT ENGINEER
BN
41
IED

(DOD, NATO) A device placed or fabricated in
an improvised manner incorporating
destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or
incendiary chemicals and designed to kill,
destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract. It
may incorporate military stores, but is
normally devised from nonmilitary
components.
42
MINE-RELATED CASUALTIES
(as of 23 October 2003)
TYPE
Wounded
In Action
(WIA)
TOTAL
Killed In
Action
(KIA)
Mines
50
4
54
IEDs
480
31
511
24
3
27
554
38
592
UXO/Submunitions
TOTAL
105 TOTAL KIAs SINCE 1 MAY, AMERICAN
SOLDIERS ARE BEING KILLED AND WOUNDED BY
IEDs ON A REGULAR BASIS!
43
IEDS

Increasing use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and/or
mines in roads.

Recommendations:
– Do not attempt to move, or stop for, items in the road, to include:








Boxes
Bags
Debris
Animal Carcasses
UXO
Soda Cans
Broke-down vehicles
Any other seemingly misplaced Items! (Stay Alert, Common sense)
– Give wide clearance to any items on the roads.
– Remember the rules for obstacles – They are being observed.
Hostile forces may directly target Coalition forces that stop to
investigate or clear IEDS—do not stop near a suspected IED.
44
45
ENEMY IED OPERATIONS
1. Command-detonated IEDs are the “weapon of choice,” with
455 incidents from 1 July to 17 September
2. IED attacks are concentrated on approximately 350
kilometers of MSRs between Ar Amadi-Baghdad-Tikrit,
with a localized problem in Mosul as well
3. About 50% fail to function properly, however, the enemy is
learning and adapting at a rapid rate
4. Presently, IED attacks are about evenly split between hardwire and radio-controlled, up from <10% radio-controlled
through early August
5. Target vulnerable elements, with over half of the IED attacks
made against unarmored HMMWVs (High Mobility
46
Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles)
IED Charge Characteristics
1. Main charges frequently “daisy-chained” artillery or
mortar shells
2. Typically, these charges are placed on the shoulders of
paved roads and camouflaged.
3. 155mm shells are frequently used
4. Typically, the shells are primed with a standard
military electric blasting cap inserted into a wad of
plastic explosive in the fuse well
47
FOUO
IED INCIDENT
LOCATIONS
(as of 17 September
2003)
FOUO
48
IED Hidden in Plaster made to
look like concrete block on side
of road under debris
Garage Door opener detonation
device (Notice Wire)
49
Daisy-Chain
(Parallel Series)
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
IED

130mm HE projectile in Plastic bag.
60
More IED

130mm HE projectile in burlap bag (notice wires coming out of bag)
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
Beware of Children

Use of children/teenagers to conduct attacks.
– There have been several attacks on Coalition forces that have
involved adolescents as either attackers or “scouts.”
– Children have also been given explosive vests to wear then sent to
coalition troops.

Recommendations:
– Do not assume children are harmless!
– Be wary of children approaching your vehicles, or observing your
convoy from an overpass or any location for that matter.
– Hostile forces could be using/forcing these adolescents to conduct
attacks.
70
Baiting and Lures

Feigning injury/leading U.S. forces into an ambush.
– Recently, hostile forces have attempted to lure Coalition forces into
ambushes by feigning injuries (resulting in Coalition force
attempting to offer help being ambushed).
– “Trusted” local nationals have led a patrol to a supposed target,
only to have the patrol ambushed. Several vehicle bomb and
suicide bomber attacks were made at checkpoints during combat
operations in Iraq during March and April.
– An Iraqi posing as a taxi cab driver feigned a break down and
detonated his vehicle when four soldiers approached killing them
all.
– Three Rangers were killed in western Iraq when an SUV drove up
to their checkpoint (along with other cars) and then exploded.
– In another instance, an Iraqi at a checkpoint set off explosives
hidden under his clothes wounding a number of Marines.
– In all cases, deception was used to get close to U.S. forces and
71
increase the effect of the attack.
Baiting and Lures

(Cont)
Recommendations:
– Be aware of these tactics. Do not lower your guard at any time,
and it is not recommended you stop your convoy to offer assistance
to “wounded/injured” Iraqis.
– Recommend all convoys be equipped with tow bars or tow straps
for quick recovery operations after an ambush.
– All vehicles need to be reinforced with sandbags to help defeat the
effects of IEDs/mines/RPGs.
– Always travel with casualty evac freqs.
72
BOTTOM LINE
•Situational Awareness
•Be Prepared
•Communications
•Keep Moving
73
Types of Traps
 Bait
 Decoy
 Bluff
 Double
bluff
74
Nonexplosive traps-typically
used in forest or tropical
regions.
Turn to Info sheet 3-5-2
75
Countermeasures-tactical
and non-tactical actions
from units and individuals
which reduce the mine and
booby trap threat.
NOTEalthough there are many detection
means, experience has shown that
AN ALERT SEABEE, aware of what
to look for and where to look, in
the THE MOST EFFECTIVE
detection device.
76
Mines and boobytraps can
be made made out Of
anything
Antipersonnel Mines and
Boobytraps can be placed in
Narrow passages
Paddy dikes
Trail junctions
Hedgerows and tree lines
Tunnels and caves
Streams, wells and natural watering
points
77
Antipersonnel Mines and
Boobytraps can be placed in
various areas...
Narrow passages
Paddy dikes
Trail junctions
Hedgerows and tree lines
Tunnels and caves
Streams, wells and natural watering
points
78
 ANY
PLACE A PERSON
FREQUENTLY WALKS, TAKES
COVER, RESTS, OR DRAWS WATER
IS A LIKELY LOCATION FOR
ENEMY ANTIPERSONNEL MINES
AND BOOBYTRAPS.
Visual inspections-Look at
areas in which boobytraps
and mines are normally found
and be alert for things which
“just don’t look right.”
79







Mud smears, mudballs, dung, or board on
road
road repair, new fill or paving patches,
ditching or culvert work
Wires leading away from the side of road
Trip wires across trails
Terrain features which do not appear
natural
Suspicious items in trees, branches, bushes
Markings used by enemy to indicate
location of mine or booby trap
80
Physical Protective Countermeasures
Properly dispose of all trash.
 Wear body armor and helmet
 Sandbag vehicle flooring.
 Keep arms and legs inside vehicle.
 Maintain proper distance from
other personnel.
 Don’t travel alone.
 DO NOT PICK UP “SOUVENIRS”

81
Marking and Reporting Mines-mark
and report mine to EOD personnel
SAFETY NOTE:
Any available marking method may be
used as long as each member of the unit
understands it
82
IMMEDIATE ACTIONS
SANDI
STOP
ASSESS
NOTE
DRAW BACK
INFORM
83
STOP!
•DO NOT move your feet if dismounted
•DO NOT dismount if your are in a vehicle
84
ASSESS!
•Determine the shortest route to safety.
•Determine if you are in a mined area.
•Determine if there is a paved surface nearby.
85
NOTE!
•Take notes on what you see.
•Describe characteristics (shape,color,size).
•Draw or take pictures.
•Indicate # of items.
•Annotate terrain considerations.
•Location ( 8 digit grid ).
•Include anything else that might be helpful.
86
DRAW BACK!
•Stay where you are, if possible, until help arrives.
•Follow your exact footprints ( Probing!).
•Follow your tire tracks ( Probing!).
87
INFORM!
•Pass on all information to higher HQ.
•Keep your HQ informed.
88
SELF-EXTRACTION
If you think you are in a mined area:
FREEZE!!!!!!!!!!!
STAND STILL!
WARN OTHERS!
89
CASUALTY EXTRACTION
•Reassure the casualty.
•Do not panic and create another casualty.
•Call higher HQ and request help as soon as possible.
•Clear a path to the casualty.
•Clear the area around the casualty.
•Administer aid.
•Extract yourself and mark your path as you go.
•Reenter along the marked path.
•Recover the casualty.
•Link up with help.
90
MOUNTED EXTRACTION
•THE CONVOY COMMANDER HALTS THE CONVOY AND
REPORTS TO HIGHER HEADQUARTERS.
• NO VEHICLES MOVE AND NO TROOPS DISMOUNT
UNLESS DIRECTED TO DO SO.
• ELEMENTS PROVIDE 360-SECURITY FROM VEHICLES.
• TROOPS THROWN FROM VEHICLES SHOULD NOT
MOVE. PERSONNEL ARE EXTRACTED BY USING
DISMOUNTED EVACUATION PROCEDURES IF
ELECTRONIC DETECTORS ARE NOT AVILABLE.
91
FM 20-32
MOUNTED EXTRACTION (cont)
•ENGINEERS, IF AVAILABLE, SWEEP THE AREA AND
PROVIDE A CLEAR PATH FOR MOVEMENT.
• CLEAR A LANE THAT IS WIDE ENOUGH FOR THE
TOWING VEHICLE.
-USE ALL AVAILABLE TOW CABLES TO INCREASE THE
DISTANCE BETWEEN THE VEHICLES BEFORE TOWING.
IF AN M88 IS AVAILABLE, REMEMBER, AN M88 HAS A
WIDER TRACK BASE THAN OTHER VEHICLES.
92
FM 20-32
Ways to avoid mines and booby traps
Stay off trails, footpaths
tracks, or other
SAFETYcart
NOTE
types
routes.
routesdetected
to villages.
A of
booby
trapVary
too easily
can be
a ruse
resulting
in detonation
of they
otherknow
Move
where
local inhabitants
move
explosiveofdevices
emplaced
nearby
the location
most mines
and booby
traps and
will avoid these areas.
Watch buildings villagers use
Avoid patterns-change direction.
Maintain intervals of 15 meters between
personnel and 100 meters between personnel and
93
tracked vehicles.
Ways to avoid mines and booby traps
Move slowly-rapid movement causes carelessness.
DO NOT drag your feet.
Beware when enemy shows themselves-could lead
to a booby trap.
Use a lightweight stick, non-metallic rod, or the sling from
an M16 to feel for trip wires.
Mark detected mines and booby traps.
When on roads, stay in the well-used portion and off
shoulders.
Follow the tracks of the vehicle ahead, stay out of ruts.
Avoid holes, depressions, and objects lying on the road.
94
Take immediate action when
explosive device is tripped.
Be alert for the “pop” of the exploding cap, the
tug of the trip wire, or the warning of another
individual.
Sound a warning so that others may take cover.
Drop to the ground immediately.
Do not attempt to outrun explosion.
Present smaller target to the force by pointing
feet in direction of charge.
Do not immediately run to aid the wounded.
Second booby trap could be in vicinity.
95
Conduct brief search for other explosive devices.
Enemy mine indicators
Indicate the location or direction of
the explosive devices in some manner
Any arrangement of sticks and/or
stones which appears unnatural
indicates a strong possibility of a
mine or booby trap.
96
Mines and Booby Traps
Summary and Review
97
Mines and Booby Traps
What are the 10 initiating actions for mines?
1. Applying Pressure
2. Pull Trip Wire
3. Tension Release
4. Pressure Release
5. Time
6. Electrical
7. Vibration
8. Magnetic
9. Electromagnetic Frequency
10. Audio Frequency
What are the 4 main fuses?
1. Mechanical
2. Chemical
3. Friction
4. Electrical
98
Mines and Booby Traps
What are the 3 types of minefields?
1. Protective
2. Tactical
3. Phony
What are the 4 types of booby traps?
1. Bait
2. Decoy
3. Bluff
4. Double bluff
What is the MOST effective detection device for booby traps?
An ALERT SEABEE
99
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