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Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The World
Animal
Husbandry
Part 1.
Prof. Dr. Pal Hajas ([email protected])
www.euragro.hu
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
World Animal Husbandry
Global Livestock Breeding
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
World Animal Husbandry
Global Livestock Breeding
Management of Animal Genetic
Resources
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
World Animal Husbandry
Global Livestock Breeding
Management of Animal Genetic
Resources
Animal Production Systems
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
World Animal Husbandry
Global Livestock Breeding
Management of Animal Genetic
Resources
Animal Production Systems
Animal Welfare
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
World Animal Husbandry
Global Livestock Breeding
Management of Animal Genetic
Resources
Animal Production Systems
Animal Welfare
Meat, Milk, Eggs, Wool, Hides, etc.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What is „Animal Production?”
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What is the view of the UN and FAO?
Trends in world hunger
FAO, Rome, September 2009
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.11.15.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Look into the Future
Population growth
FAO, Rome, September 2009
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Future of Animal
Production
1. Need for urgent action, as the wise management of the
world’s animal genetic resources will be of even greater
importance in the future
2. The world’s population expected to increase in the next
forty years from 6.2 billion to 9 billion people.
3. More people will require more meat, milk, eggs and
other livestock products
4. A wide portfolio of animal genetic resources will be
crucial in adapting and developing the world’s
agricultural production systems
5. Increasing the resilience of our food supply.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Future of Animal
Production
 Nearly all of this population increase will occur in developing
countries.
 Urbanization will continue at an accelerated pace
 About 70 percent of the world’s population will be urban (compared
to 49 percent today).
 Income levels will be many multiples of what they are now.
 In order to feed this larger, more urban and richer population,
food production (net of food used for biofuels) must increase
by 70 percent.
 Annual cereal production will need to rise to about 3 billion
tonnes from 2.1 billion today
 Annual meat production will need to rise by over 200 million
tonnes to reach 470 million tonnes.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Future of Animal
Production
• Total average annual net investment in developing
country agriculture required to deliver the necessary
production increases would amount to USD 83 billion.
• The global gap in what is required vis-à-vis current
investment levels can be illustrated by comparing the
required annual gross investment of US$209 billion
(which includes the cost of renewing depreciating
investments) with the result of a separate study that
estimated that developing countries on average
invested USD 142 billion (USD of 2009) annually in
agriculture over the past decade.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Future of Animal
Production
• The required increase is thus about 50 percent.
These figures are totals for public and private
investment, i.e. investments by farmers.
Achieving them will require a major reallocation
in
• developing country budgets as well as in donor
programmes.
• It will also require policies that support farmers
in developing countries and encourage them
and other private participants in agriculture to
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates
/wsfs/docs/expert_paper/How_to_Feed
_the_World_in_2050.pdf
Page 5. 6. 9. 12.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Meat consumption per
caput for example would
rise from 41 kg at present
to 52 kg in 2050 (from 30
to 44 kg in the developing
countries).
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What is „Animal Production?”
Do we need to produce meat in Animal Factory ?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsmAq_4uQH4
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What is „Animal Production?”
Or
Do we sense When pigs cry?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GA6UyPOtZxc&featur
e=BF&list=PLD91AEE0A87BAFB57&index=17
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What kind of Forums
available to interact
for „Animal
Production?”
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
FAO Rome
6th Session of the Intergovernmental Technical
Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for
Food and Agriculture (2010)
http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/programmes/en/genetics/angrvent2010.html
http://dad.fao.org/
Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources,
Sixth Session, Rome, 24–26, November 2010
The Sixth Session of the Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on
Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture will be held at FAO
Headquarters in Rome from 24-26 November 2010.
The Working Group was established by the Commission on Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture at its Seventh Session in May 1997
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
FAO Rome
Regular Session of the Commission to review:
•progress made and action taken to implement
the Global Plan of Action, including the Funding
Strategy;
•status and trends reporting;
•country-based early warning and response
systems, including technical indicators; and
•the further development of technical guidelines
and DAD-IS.
Global Livestock: Breeding and
Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
ITWG:
The members of the Working Group, as elected by the Twelfth Session of the
Commission, are as follows:
Africa: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Morocco, South Africa, Togo
Asia: China, Mongolia, Nepal, Republic of Korea, Thailand
Europe: Finland, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland,
Turkey
Latin America and the Caribbean: Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica,
Jamaica, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Near East: Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Qatar
North America: Canada, United States of America
Southwest Pacific: Papua New Guinea, Samoa
Members of the Commission which are not members of the Working Group
may participate, upon request to the Commission Secretariat, in the work of
the Working Group in an observer capacity.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Opportunities in Animal
Breeding and Production:
Biological Diversity –
Agricultural-Bio Diversity
Animal Genetic Resources
Breeding systems
Production technologies
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Iceland: The Leader Sheep
A separate breeding line, Leader-sheep, was identified within
population of Icelandic sheep.
These sheep have long been known for their special leadership
characteristics, an unusual ability to find their way and great
intelligence. Cross-breeding of leader-sheep and other sheep clearly
shows that these traits seem to be completely dependent on heredity.
The total number of Leader-sheep in Iceland is slightly over one
thousand. There are no comparable sheep anywhere else in the world.
Source: Country Report Iceland. 2003. Country report on the state of animal genetic
resources. (available in DAD-IS library at http://www.fao.org/dad-is/).
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Hungary: The Grey Cattle
The genetic origin of Hungarian Grey cattle has not been definitively
elucidated.
Ancestral animals may have come from Asia or from Mediterranean
areas, and a genetic contribution from the wild aurochs has been
suggested.
The character of the breed developed slowly under the husbandry of
the Hungarian breeders of the Carpathian Basin.
Between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries cattle were
exported on a large scale, with herds covering several hundred
kilometres on foot to Nürnberg, Strasburg or Venice.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Hungary: The Grey Cattle
Demand emerged for a “trade-mark” appearance which guaranteed
the quality of Hungarian beef.
The long-horn animals with handsome conformation, hardy, healthy
character, and excellent meat quality were greatly valued by
contemporary buyers.
The early eighteenth century began a new period in the breed’s
history, as urban populations expanded and required supplies of
agricultural products. Since the demand was mainly for cereals,
extensive animal husbandry declined. During this period, the function
of the breed shifted to the production of working oxen.
Czech sugar factories valued them for their fast movement, their
simple dietary requirements, and their exceptional longevity.
With the introduction of tractors after the First World War many farms
disposed of their Hungarian Greys.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Hungary: The Grey Cattle
In 1931, the Hungarian Grey Cattle Breeders’ National Association was
founded and breeding activity was stimulated. However the Second
World War severely disrupted these endeavours and many herds were
destroyed.
By the early 1960s the only remaining herds were found on three state
farms, with a total stock of six bulls and about 160 cows.
Because of a certain patriotic attachment to the breed, and the
provision of small but permanent subsidies by the state, the
population started to increase.
Today, functions of the breed include conservation grazing in National
Parks, hobby breeding and a role as a tourist attraction. With respect
to meat production, the breeders and the Hungarian Grey Cattle
Breeders’ Association aim to organize meat processing and develop
high-value products such as speciality sausages."
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Somba cattle
Small, hardy, trypanotolerant taurins which are traditionally reared in a
mixed farming system.
Pure somba are important in traditional ceremonies.
The number of purebred Somba is falling sharply.
Their conservation is desirable since they suit the production system,
disease challenge and climate; they have original genetic
characteristics for trypanotolerance.
Source: FAO. 2007. Tamberma’s Somba cattle breed at risk of extinction in Togo, by Bonfoh Bèdibètè, Adoméfa Kossi
& Bassowa Habrè. In K-A. Tempelman & R.A. Cardellino eds. People and animals. Traditional livestock keepers:
guardians of domestic animal diversity, pp. 79–83. FAO Interdepartmental Working Group on Biological Diversity for
Food and Agriculture. Rome.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Neuqu’n criollo goats
The breed is the main source of income and animal protein
for many households in the north of Neuqu’n province in
Argentine Patagonia.
The goats are well adapted to the transhumant movements
which have traditionally shaped the lives of the goat
keepers or crianceros.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Enderby Island cattle, New Zealand
It shows that the breeding process is complicated and requires a lot of time
and resources.
Enderby is a small island situated 320 kilometres to the south of New Zealand.
Cattle were first brought to the island in 1894
After 100 years surviving Enderby’s harsh climate and a diet of scrub and
seaweed, the cattle were hardy, small, stocky and well adapted.
In 1991, to preserve the local wildlife, the Enderby cattle were shot. Sperm and
oocytes from the dead animals were collected for cryoconservation, but
attempts to fertilize the oocytes failed and it appeared that the Enderby breed
had been wiped out forever. The following year, members of the New Zealand
Rare Breeds Conservation Society (NZRBCS), discovered a cow and a calf on
the island.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Enderby Island cattle, New Zealand
The animals were captured by helicopter and shipped to New Zealand.
The subsequent death of the calf meant that „Lady”, as the cow
became known, was the last of the Enderby cattle.
Attempts to produce a calf, through artificial insemination and MOET,
using the cryoconserved semen taken from the bulls killed on the
island, did not prove successful.
Again it appeared that the breed faced extinction. However, in 1997
NZRBCS in collaboration with AgResearch successfully produced a
calf, Elsie, cloned from a sample of Lady’s somatic cells.
Four more cloned heifers were born the following year. Meanwhile,
efforts to produce an Enderby bull through in vitro fertilization using
the cryoconserved semen and oocytes taken from Lady had also
proved successful, with the birth of „Derby”.
Two of the clones later died, but in 2002 two more Enderby calves
were born through natural mating of the cloned heifers and Derby."
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Kari sheep, Pakistan
A small-seized sheep breed has recently been characterized along
with documentation of the socio-economic conditions of the keepers
who have been breeding and raising this genetic resource for
sustenance in the harsh cold climate at North Chitral, Pakistan.
This area, close to the mountainous regions, becomes isolated in
winter due to closure of the only route that links it with the rest of
Pakistan to the south. Women take care of the livestock not only by
grazing the flocks on high pastures during summer, but also in winter
when most of the men leave the area to seek jobs.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The Kari sheep, Pakistan
The transhumant grazing system is characterized by long-standing
customary usage of the available feed resources through a seasonal
migration pattern. This usage has probably helped in sustaining the
ecological balance within the system.
The Kari sheep is an indispensable breed contributing to the socioeconomic status of the local people.
Its white, brown and black coloured wool is used to produce a
handmade woollen cloth (Patti). Walnut husk is also used to colour the
white wool to other shades of brown. This 23 micron diameter wool,
finer than any of the 25 sheep breeds found in the country, is used to
make the typical headgear and warm waistcoats worn not only in the
local area, but also in other parts of the province and the country.
A major threat to the purity of this 16 kg sheep breed is posed by
migrating flocks from Afghanistan.
Source: Dr. M. Sajjad Khan
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad 38040 Pakistan
email: [email protected]
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Sri Lankan Chicken
The family poultry sector (FPS) or the backyard poultry sector has an
important place in the Sri Lankan rural economy. The contribution by this
sector was about 30 percent of total egg and meat produced during the mid
1980s, but this contribution fell to 15 percent in 1993 and to 5 percent by 2005.
There has been a rapid decline in the indigenous chicken population during
this period. Backyard poultry production is predominantly an egg production
system. The indigenous birds also have genetic potential for meat production;
surplus cockerels and spent hens are a good source of meat in rural areas.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Mangalica Pig, Hungary
Pig breeding is the most important branch of livestock
breeding.
The old type of lard pigs has been almost completely
replaced, except for the Mangalitsa breed which has
gained popularity and increased numbers because of the
unsaturated fatty acids in its fat.
Source: Country Report Hungary. 2003. Country report on the state of animal
genetic resources. (available in DAD-IS library at http://www.fao.org/dad-is/).
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Nelore Cattle, Argentina
The Nelore originates from Indian Zebu-type Ongole cattle.
In Brazil the breed came to be known as Nelore, after the district of Nellore in
Andhra Pradesh, India.
The breed thrived in South America, and in the 1950s Argentina started its
own breeding programme for the “Nelore Argentino”.
In 1995, the breed made up more than 60 percent of Brazil’s 160 million cattle
and in 2005 some 85 percent of Brazil’s 190 million cattle, had Nelore blood.
Ironically, while the Ongole has been successfully established in a number of
countries in North and South America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, and
Australia, its population has greatly declined in its original range in coastal
Andhra Pradesh, and it is qualitatively inferior to the Nelore population in
Brazil.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production
(DE AMTC, 2010.11.15. Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What is „Animal Production?”
Grazing Plan:
http://www.youtube.com/wat
ch?v=hjWDsbCQUoY
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