Document

Bull Breeding Soundness
Evaluation
Thanks to Dr. Rod Christmas
Objectives
Breeding Soundness Evaluation
Components
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Physical Exam/Conformation Faults
External and Internal Genital Exam
Semen Exam
Classification
Indications
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Pre-Breeding
Pre-Purchase
Post-Purchase
If any questions
Medical History
• Vaccinations
• Previous Health Information
Management History
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Feed
Previous Use
Breeding Behavior
Penis during Breeding
Physical Exam
Locomotion
Physical Exam
Skin
Physical Exam
Permanent ID
Physical Exam
Permanent ID
Physical Exam
Eyes
Physical Exam
Eyes
Physical Exam
Teeth
Rear Limb conformation
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Locomotion--Critical.
Sickle Hocked
Cow Hocked
Post Legged
Crooked Legs/Feet
Rear Limb Conformation
Musculoskeletal disease
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Joints
Laminitis
Scars around coronary band
Interdigital growths
Footrot
Hoof Cracks
Interdigital Fibroma
Examination of Underline
Visual Exam of Scrotum
• Scrotal Conformation
• Evidence of Injury
• Skin Lesions
Palpation
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Ensure There Are Two
Free & Moveable
Tone
Symmetry
Epididymis
Atrophied Left Testicle
Scrotal Circumference
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Indicates Fertility & Puberty
Ensure Both Testicles are In Scrotum
Cradle Scrotal Neck
Place Tape at Largest Diameter
Pull until Skin Indents
Scrotal Circumference Tape
Proper Tape Placement
Incorrect Hand Placement
Measurement
Minimum Recommended Scrotal Circumference in
Centimeters by Age for Bullsa
Age (months) Scrotal Circumference (cm)
<15
30
>15<18
31
>18<21
32
>21<24
33
>24
34
a
Adapted from the Breeding Soundness Evaluation Form, Society for Theriogenology,
Hastings, NE
Breed listing of 205 day scrotal circumference need to
produce an average yearling scrotal circumference of 32 cm
Breed
Angus
Red Angus
Brangus
Charolais
Gelbvieh
Horned Hereford
Polled Hereford
Limousine
Salers
Simmental
Weaning Scrotal
Circumference
20.8
20.6
20.0
20.8
21.6
22.7
20.9
20.0
20.1
20.1
Adapted for Geske, J.M.,et.al:Proceeding annual Meeting,
Beef Improvement Federation (1994):225-231.
Internal Reproductive Organ Exam
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Seminal Vesicles
Ampulla
Prostate Gland
Penis (internal portion)
Inguinal Rings
Internal Genital Organs
Importance of Rectal Exam
• Pathology of Internal Reproductive Organs
• Stimulation
Methods of Collection
• Manual Massage
• Artificial Vagina
• Electroejaculation
Collecting Semen with
Artificial Vagina
Electroejaculation
External Exam of Penis & Prepuce
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Incomplete Extension
Frenulum
Hair Rings
Fibropapillomas (Warts)
Prolapse of Prepuce
Lacerations
Adhesions
Penile Hair Ring
Persistent Frenulum
Penile Fibropapilloma
Semen Evaluation
Equipment
Semen Evaluation
Motility
Minimum Recommended Motility is: 30% or FAIR (F)a
Mass Activity (Gross)
Rapid Swirling
Slower Swirling
Generalized Oscillation
Sporadic Oscillation
a
Rating
Individual
Very Good (VG)
>70%
Good (G)
50-69%
Fair (F)
30-49%
Poor (P)
<30%
Adapted from the Breeding Soundness Evaluation Form, Society for Theriogenology,
Hastings, NE.
Semen Evaluation
Morphology
• Determined at 1000X
• Eosin-nigrosin stain
• 70% Normal
Making Slide
Normal Bovine Sperm
Common Sperm Abnormalities
Common Sperm Abnormalities
Classification of Bulls
• Satisfactory Potential Breeder
• Deferred
• Unsatisfactory Potential Breeder
Society for
Theriogenology
Additional Testing
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Trichomonas Cultures
Brucellosis
Pelvic Measurement
Hip Height
Carcass Ultrasound
Preputial Culture
Trichomoniasis
• Diagnosis:
– Smear - detect high
numbers
– Culture - In-Pouch® culture or transport
– Bulls better to culture serial cultures from
bulls
Economics of Testing
• 10-20% of All Bulls Tested will Fail the
Examination
• 10% of Bulls that Pass will have
Substandard Fertility Compared to Others
-Pass the Standards, but have Inherent
Infertility
Economics of Testing
• Bulls that have Passed a Breeding
Soundness Examination will have a 7%
Increase in Pregnancy Rates on Average
Over Those that were not Tested.
Economics of Testing
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35 Cows x 7% = 2.5 extra calves/bull
Open Cow Value: 1200lb x $.50/cwt = $600
Bred Cow Value 2nd Stage: App. $900
Difference/Cow = $300 x 2.5 = $750/bull
Soundness Exam = $35-40/bull
20% Return on Investment!
Breeding Soundness Examination
Summary
• Recommended Any Time a Bull is Turned
Out on Cows.
• Invaluable Management Tool with High
Return on Investment.
• Insurance that an Infertile Bull is not
Diagnosed at Preg Check.
Questions?
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