Bull Breeding Soundness Evaluation Thanks to Dr. Rod Christmas Objectives Breeding Soundness Evaluation Components • • • • Physical Exam/Conformation Faults External and Internal Genital Exam Semen Exam Classification Indications • • • • Pre-Breeding Pre-Purchase Post-Purchase If any questions Medical History • Vaccinations • Previous Health Information Management History • • • • Feed Previous Use Breeding Behavior Penis during Breeding Physical Exam Locomotion Physical Exam Skin Physical Exam Permanent ID Physical Exam Permanent ID Physical Exam Eyes Physical Exam Eyes Physical Exam Teeth Rear Limb conformation • • • • • Locomotion--Critical. Sickle Hocked Cow Hocked Post Legged Crooked Legs/Feet Rear Limb Conformation Musculoskeletal disease • • • • • • Joints Laminitis Scars around coronary band Interdigital growths Footrot Hoof Cracks Interdigital Fibroma Examination of Underline Visual Exam of Scrotum • Scrotal Conformation • Evidence of Injury • Skin Lesions Palpation • • • • • Ensure There Are Two Free & Moveable Tone Symmetry Epididymis Atrophied Left Testicle Scrotal Circumference • • • • • Indicates Fertility & Puberty Ensure Both Testicles are In Scrotum Cradle Scrotal Neck Place Tape at Largest Diameter Pull until Skin Indents Scrotal Circumference Tape Proper Tape Placement Incorrect Hand Placement Measurement Minimum Recommended Scrotal Circumference in Centimeters by Age for Bullsa Age (months) Scrotal Circumference (cm) <15 30 >15<18 31 >18<21 32 >21<24 33 >24 34 a Adapted from the Breeding Soundness Evaluation Form, Society for Theriogenology, Hastings, NE Breed listing of 205 day scrotal circumference need to produce an average yearling scrotal circumference of 32 cm Breed Angus Red Angus Brangus Charolais Gelbvieh Horned Hereford Polled Hereford Limousine Salers Simmental Weaning Scrotal Circumference 20.8 20.6 20.0 20.8 21.6 22.7 20.9 20.0 20.1 20.1 Adapted for Geske, J.M.,et.al:Proceeding annual Meeting, Beef Improvement Federation (1994):225-231. Internal Reproductive Organ Exam • • • • • Seminal Vesicles Ampulla Prostate Gland Penis (internal portion) Inguinal Rings Internal Genital Organs Importance of Rectal Exam • Pathology of Internal Reproductive Organs • Stimulation Methods of Collection • Manual Massage • Artificial Vagina • Electroejaculation Collecting Semen with Artificial Vagina Electroejaculation External Exam of Penis & Prepuce • • • • • • • Incomplete Extension Frenulum Hair Rings Fibropapillomas (Warts) Prolapse of Prepuce Lacerations Adhesions Penile Hair Ring Persistent Frenulum Penile Fibropapilloma Semen Evaluation Equipment Semen Evaluation Motility Minimum Recommended Motility is: 30% or FAIR (F)a Mass Activity (Gross) Rapid Swirling Slower Swirling Generalized Oscillation Sporadic Oscillation a Rating Individual Very Good (VG) >70% Good (G) 50-69% Fair (F) 30-49% Poor (P) <30% Adapted from the Breeding Soundness Evaluation Form, Society for Theriogenology, Hastings, NE. Semen Evaluation Morphology • Determined at 1000X • Eosin-nigrosin stain • 70% Normal Making Slide Normal Bovine Sperm Common Sperm Abnormalities Common Sperm Abnormalities Classification of Bulls • Satisfactory Potential Breeder • Deferred • Unsatisfactory Potential Breeder Society for Theriogenology Additional Testing • • • • • Trichomonas Cultures Brucellosis Pelvic Measurement Hip Height Carcass Ultrasound Preputial Culture Trichomoniasis • Diagnosis: – Smear - detect high numbers – Culture - In-Pouch® culture or transport – Bulls better to culture serial cultures from bulls Economics of Testing • 10-20% of All Bulls Tested will Fail the Examination • 10% of Bulls that Pass will have Substandard Fertility Compared to Others -Pass the Standards, but have Inherent Infertility Economics of Testing • Bulls that have Passed a Breeding Soundness Examination will have a 7% Increase in Pregnancy Rates on Average Over Those that were not Tested. Economics of Testing • • • • • 35 Cows x 7% = 2.5 extra calves/bull Open Cow Value: 1200lb x $.50/cwt = $600 Bred Cow Value 2nd Stage: App. $900 Difference/Cow = $300 x 2.5 = $750/bull Soundness Exam = $35-40/bull 20% Return on Investment! Breeding Soundness Examination Summary • Recommended Any Time a Bull is Turned Out on Cows. • Invaluable Management Tool with High Return on Investment. • Insurance that an Infertile Bull is not Diagnosed at Preg Check. Questions?