Introduction to Network Storage

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[Storage]
Version 1.2
Course Outline
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Introduction to Network Storage
RAID Technologies
Storage Essentials
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D-Link Products for Storage Area
Network
Market Analysis for D-Link SAM
Products
D-Link SAN Implementation
SAN Product Features Overview
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Volume Management
Device Management
iSCSI Features
Volume and RAID Support
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D-Link Products for Network
Attached Storage
Market Analysis for D-Link NAS
Products
NAS Product Features Overview
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D-Link SAN (Storage Area Network)
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Fiber Channel Technology
iSCSI Technology
D-Link NAS (Network Attached
Storage)
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Basic Terminologies and Concepts
Hard Drive Interface Technologies
SAN Technologies
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Managing the Device
User and Group Management
Appliance Servers
Network Features
USB Port Applications
Applications and Solutions for
Network Storage
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NAS Applications
SAN Applications
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DCS – Storage
Introduction to
Network Storage
3
Introduction to Network Storage
Introduction to Network Storage
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. Types of current storage solutions for computerized devices
2. Characteristics of DAS and the challenges of using it
3. Characteristics of NAS and the benefits/advantages that it offers
4. Characteristics of SAN and the benefits/advantages that it offers
5. Differences among each storage solution
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Evolutions
Evolutions of Storage Technology
1963
1940
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1951
1956
1962
1982
1970
1978
1981
1984
1940s – Data was mostly stored on punched card and punched paper tape.
1951 – First computer to use magnetic tape for storage.
1956 – IBM introduced the first commercial hard disk drive known as RAMAC
(Random Access Method of Accounting and Control).
1962 – The laser diode was invented by IBM which became the fundamental
technology for read-write optical storage devices.
1963 – IBM introduced the first storage unit with removable disks. This became
an end for punched-cards era.
1970 – Portable storage was born with the invention of the floppy disk.
1978 – The first patent for RAID technology was filed.
1981 – The Intelligent interface for disk drive “SASI” was developed by Shugart
Associates and NCR Corporation. This interface is the predecessor to SCSI
interface.
1982 – SCSI interface was born and developed based on its predecessor, SASI.
1984 – Compaq and Western Digital Co. produced ST506 controller that was able
to be mounted on the hard disk drive and connected to the PC using a 40-pin
cable.
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5
Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Evolutions
Evolutions of Storage Technology (cont’d)
1986
1985
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2001
1994
1996
1998
2000
2003
1985 – First IDE drive was built by integrating ST506 controller in the hard disk
drive.
1986 – SCI specification was defined in a ANSI standard X3.131-1986.
1994 – SCSI-2 became an ANSI standard X3.131-1994 and the IDE standard was
approved by the ANSI under the name ANSI X3.221-1994.
1996 – The ATA-2 interface that complied with the ANSI X3.279-1996 standard
was the AT Attachment Interface with Extensions, and the ATA-2 interface that
complied with the ANSI X3.279-1996 standard was the AT Attachment Interface
with Extensions.
1998 – The ATA/ATAPI-4 interface that complied with the ANSO NCITS 317-1998
was the AT Attachment Interface with Packet Interface Extension.
2000 – The ATA/ATAPI-5 interface that complied with the ANSI NCITS 340-2000
was the AT Attachment Interface with Packet Interface-5.
2000 – The Serial ATA 1.0 Working Group was established to specify Serial ATA
for desktop applications.
2001 – Serial ATA 1.0 was released in August of 2001 (with subsequent revisions
1.0a and 1.1) which provided significant improvement over parallel ATA.
2003 – Hitachi bought IBM Data Storage Division.
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6
Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Types of Storage Solution
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Internal Storage
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Memory (DDR)
IDE ATA Hard Disk / Optical
Compact Disk
SCSI Hard Disk
SATA Hard Disk
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External Storage
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Direct Attached Storage (DAS)
Network Storage
– Network Attached Storage (NAS)
– Storage Area Network (SAN)
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USB Storage Enclosure
Firewire 1394 Storage Enclosure
Slim Disk Memory
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Direct Attached Storage (DAS)
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A storage system directly attached
to a client (commonly to a
computer or server), without a
storage network in between.
Common example of DAS would be
Local
a storage enclosure externally
Area
attached to a server, where clients Network
in the network must access the
server in order to connect to the
storage device.
Client
Oracle
Database
Server Host Bus Adapter
DAS #1
File Server
DAS #2
Active Directory Server
DAS #3
Network Application Server
DAS #4
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Challenges of DAS
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Difficulty managing servers and storage with slow backup causing
heavy LAN congestion
Limited number of drives supported
Limitation on storage size
Inability to share storage across multiple servers
Time-consuming and complex backup and management
Need for storage down time (off-line) when installing additional
drives
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Solution for DAS
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Simplify storage management by separating the data from application
server.
DAS  Network Storage
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Why Do We Need Network Storage?
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Volume of data keeps growing exponentially
Redundancy and backup necessity
Data availability and accessibility
Storage consolidation for centralized management*
Increase reliability and better performance (speed)
Storage virtualization*
Overall cost reduction
Data Protection
* Unique characteristics possessed by SAN only.
11
Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Network Attached Storage (NAS) Overview
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NAS is a file-level computer data storage device connected to a computer
network providing data access to heterogeneous network clients.
A NAS unit is essentially a self-contained computer connected to a network,
with the sole purpose of supplying file-based data storage services to other
devices on the network.
NAS are usually accessed by workstations and servers through a network
protocol such as TCP/IP and applications such as Network File System
(NFS) or Common Internet File System (CIFS) / Server Message
Block (SMB) for file access.
File Server
Public Local Area Network
Application Server
NAS
Client
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Storage Area Network (SAN) Overview
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A high performance storage network that transfers block-level data between
servers and storage devices, separate from the local area network (LAN) traffic.
In a SAN environment, storage devices, such as DAS, RAID arrays, or tape
libraries are connected to servers using fiber channel or iSCSI.
Characteristics of SAN:
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Virtualization
Storage Consolidation
Scalable
Block data transfer uses encapsulated SCSI
File Server
Public
Local Area Network
Client
High performance
private storage network
SAN
Application Server
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Differences of NAS and SAN
Network Attached Storage (NAS)
Storage Area Network (SAN)
• Clients sees the NAS box as an
independent device (as a file server), thus
the architecture is client-server based
where client requests are sent directly
to the NAS.
• Client sees the SAN as a part of a server
(the SAN is connected behind the server in
its own network), thus client should
send the request to server connected to
the SAN.
• Clients connect to a NAS and share files
through the use of NFS, CIFS/SMB, or
HTTP protocol.
• Clients connected to the SAN through the
use of iSCSI or Fiber Channel,
depending on which is supported by the
SAN.
• File-based data transfer (data is
identified by file name and other
parameters, such as the file meta-data
(file’s owner, permissions, etc)
• Block-level data transfer along long
distances (data is addressed by disk block
number and without file system
formatting).
• Backups and mirrors are done on files, not
blocks, which provides savings in
bandwidth and time.
• Backups and mirrors require a block by
block copy, even if blocks are empty. A
mirror machine must be equal to or
greater in capacity than the source
volume.
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Storage Solutions
Comparison for each of the Storage Solutions
DAS Enclosure
NAS Enclosure
SAN Enclosure
Directly connected to a client
Connected to servers and
workstations via a pubic
network
Connected to servers over
the private storage
network
Slower data access
compared to network
storage
Fast data access (depends
on the LAN speed)
Fastest data access (depends
on which protocol is used)
Direct data transfer
File level data transfer
Block level data transfer
Data transfer using SCSI
protocol
Data transfer using NFS /
CIFS / SMB protocol
Fiber Channel or iSCSI is
used for data transfer
protocol
Public LAN
File
Server
High performance
private storage
network
SAN
Appliance
Client
Application
Server
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Summary
Summary: Introduction to Network Storage
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Clients can choose from three types of storage systems to keep
their data on: Direct Attached Storage (DAS), Network Attached
Storage (NAS), and Storage Area Network (SAN).
Direct Attached Storage (DAS) is the most commonly used data
storage solution for end user level client devices (computers,
servers). It attaches the storage enclosure directly to the client
device.
Network Attached Storage (NAS) is mainly targeted for home and
SMB users, and offers the benefits of network storage with ease of
sharing files and centralized data storage over the IP network.
Storage Area Network (SAN) is mainly targeted for Server Farms or
Special Applications, e.g. IP Surveillance, and offers high
performance network storage solutions for data transfers over
enterprise network, with benefits include virtualization, storage
consolidation, etc.
D-Link supports data transfer over the iSCSI protocol for SAN
devices.
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Introduction to Network Storage
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers:
Introduction to Network Storage
1. What is the characteristic of Direct Attached Storage?
A. Storage is connected to the server without being separated with TCP/IP
network
B. Storage consolidation capability
C. Data transfer using Network File System (NFS) protocol
D. Link multiple storage repositories to multiple clients and servers
2. What is the characteristic of D-Link Network Attached Storage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Provide slow data access
Block data transfer along long distance is possible
Data transfer using CIFS/SMB protocol
Support server virtualization
3. What are the characteristics of D-Link Storage Area Network? (Choose
Two)
A.
B.
C.
D.
File-level data transfer along long distance
Storage is connected directly to the server using iSCSI protocol
Block data transfer
Support storage virtualization and consolidation
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DCS – Storage
RAID Technologies
18
RAID Technologies
RAID Technologies
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. RAID mechanisms overview
2. RAID types supported by D-Link network storage appliances
3. Characteristics of each RAID type supported by D-Link as well as
the advantages and disadvantages for each (RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID
5, RAID 10, and JBOD)
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RAID Technologies
 Introduction to RAID
RAID Technology Overview
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Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks (RAID) is a data storage mechanism
for dividing and/or replicating data over multiple hard drives, thus which
may provide better performance, reliability, and/or larger data volume sizes.
Depending on the type of RAID applied, different benefits can be achieved.
D-Link network storage supports several RAID technologies as described
below:
RAID Level
Type
RAID 0
Striped
RAID 1
Definition
Redundant
Striped
Distributes each block of data among several
drives to improve the speed of access
No
Yes
Mirrored
Two copies of all data are written to
independent disks
Yes
No
RAID 10
Mirrored
Striped
Stripes the data among several drives and then
mirrors the data to another set of disks
Yes
Yes
RAID 5
Parity
Distributes one copy of the data among several
drives and adds parity blocks spread
throughout the volume to protect against the
loss of any single drive
Yes
Yes
N/A
JBOD
All the disks are grouped together to form one
large volume. The data is written to the disks
in sequential order
No
No
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RAID Technologies
 RAID 0
RAID 0 Technology Overview
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Characteristics of RAID 0
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RAID 0 works by striping the data (Data-striping) across the hard drives
At least two hard drives must be provided
Improved performance (high speed data transfer)
No fault-tolerance
No error-checking
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages
• Speed enhancement and improve I/O
performance
• Maximum utilization of storage capacity*
• Very simple design and easy to implement
Disadvantages
• No data redundancy or fault-tolerance
• Failure occurring in any disk of an array
will result in all data in that array being
lost
* Each physical disk must be of the same capacity to achieve 100% storage capacity utilization
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RAID Technologies
 RAID 0
Illustration of RAID 0
Data
1
2
3
4
5
6
Primary Disk
Disk-0
Disk-1
Network Storage
1
2
3
4
5
6
✕
✕
Disk 0
Disk 1
If RAID 0 is in use and one of
the disks in the array crashes,
the rest of disks in the array will
also not work. This will result is
total data loss.
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22
RAID Technologies
 RAID 1
RAID 1 Technology Overview
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Characteristics of RAID 1
RAID 1 works by mirroring the data
At least two hard drives must be provided
Fault-tolerance
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages
• 100% data redundancy
Disadvantages
• Highest disk overhead of all RAID
types
• Inefficient because only 50% of the
physical drive storage’s capacity is
used
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RAID Technologies
 RAID 1
Illustration of RAID 1
Disk-0
Disk-1
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
If RAID 1 is in use and the primary disk
crashes, the mirrored disk will
automatically replace the primary disk.
Network Storage
✕
Primary Disk
Mirrored Disk
100% Redundancy!!!
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24
RAID Technologies
 RAID 5
RAID 5 Technology Overview
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Characteristics of RAID 5 technology:
• Striped set with distributed parity
• Minimum three disks must be provided to implement RAID 5
• Offers data protection and increases throughput
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Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
Disadvantages
• 100% data protection
• Offer more physical drive storage
capacity than RAID 1
• Highest read data transaction rate
• Distributing the parity over all of the
disks rather than putting all the
parity on one disk
• Extra time needed to calculate the
parity
• Disk failure has a medium impact on
throughput
• Difficult to rebuild volume in the
event of a disk failure (as compared
to RAID level 1)
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RAID Technologies
 RAID 5
Illustration of RAID 5
Data to be written: 101110011010
Using RAID 5, if one of the disks in the array fails,
data in the failed disk can be recovered
Data is fully recovered!!!
Disk-0
1
1
P=1 (1 XOR 0)
0
1
1
✕
Disk-2 fails, data cannot be accessed!!!
Disk-1
0
P=0 (1 XOR 1)
1
P=1 (0 XOR 1)
0
P=1 (1 XOR 0)
Disk-2
P=1 (1 XOR 0)
1
0
1
P=1 (1 XOR 0)
0
New Disk to replace
the failed disk
1 XOR 0 = 1
1 XOR 0 = 1
1 XOR 1 = 0
1 XOR 0 = 1
1 XOR 0 = 1
1 XOR 1 = 0
Rebuilt process started!
P: parity
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Data can be rebuilt to the new disk using XOR calculations by
recalculating the two bits retrieved from the existing drives
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RAID Technologies
 RAID 10
RAID 10 Technology Overview
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Characteristics of RAID 10 technology:
RAID 10 provides mirroring and striping at the same time
Minimum four disks or even number of disks is required
Provides fault-tolerance and improves performance
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
• Provide fault tolerance to prevent
data loss
• Provide high performance for I/O
operation (read and write)
Disadvantages
• Expensive, many disks are required
to implement this RAID technology
• Only 50% of the physical drive
storage’s capacity is used, if
implements mirroring mechanism
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RAID Technologies
 RAID 10
Illustration of RAID 10
RAID 0 - Stripe
RAID 1 - Mirror
Disk-0
RAID 1 - Mirror
Disk-1
Disk-2
Disk-3
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
Very high reliability combined
with high performance!!!
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RAID Technologies
 JBOD
JBOD Technology Overview
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Characteristics of JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks):
No Data redundancy, which means no fault-tolerance
Bigger array capacity
Two or more hard disks are required to create one logical drive
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
• Provide 100% storage capacity
utilization
Disadvantages
• No data redundancy or faulttolerance provided
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RAID Technologies
 JBOD
Illustration of JBOD
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JBOD is usually known as concatenation where the total storage capacity
equals to the sum of each separate disk.
Logically seen as one big storage
Disk-0
1
65
…
2
Disk-1
…….
67
Total storage capacity (Σ) =
capacity of Disk-0 + capacity of Disk-1
64
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RAID Technologies
 Summary for Each RAID Type
Summary for Each RAID Technology
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RAID Level
Data
Redundancy
Read
Performance
Write
Performance
Min. Number
of Drives
RAID-0
No
Superior
Superior
2
RAID-1
Yes
Very High
High
2
RAID-5
Yes
Superior
Good
3
RAID-10
Yes
Very High
High
4
JBOD
No
Superior
Superior
2
D-Link Storage Area Network allows migration between RAID levels, but
this is dependent on number of HDD drives available.
The performance of each RAID level may vary depending on the hardware
platform used.
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RAID Technologies
 Summary
Summary: RAID Technologies
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Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) is a data storage mechanism that
provides better performance and/or data reliability.
D-Link network storage appliances support RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 10, RAID 5,
RAID 6 and JBOD to offer greater performance and reliability for D-Link users.
Which types of RAID supported is dependent on the models.
RAID 0 provides the best performance with the fastest data transfer speed by
striping all the data to multiple disks.
RAID 1 provides data redundancy by mirroring/duplicating the data from one disk
to another disk.
RAID 5 offers data protection and increases throughput by creating data parity
and distributing it to all the provided disks.
RAID 6 offers data protection and increases throughput by creating data parity
and distributing it to all the provided disks. Same as RAID 5, but with 2 parity
disks.
RAID 10 combines both RAID 0 and RAID 1 at once, thus providing greater
performance while also serving data redundancy to prevent single point of failure.
Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD) is not a type of RAID mechanism and does not
provide data redundancy. It is used for achieving greater storage capacity among
all the hard disks, which may come in different sized capacity.
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RAID Technologies
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers: RAID Technologies
1. Which RAID level does not support fault-tolerance for the stored
data?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
RAID 0
RAID 1
RAID 10
RAID 5
JBOD
2. Which RAID technology supports the consolidation of all disks with
different sizes thus enlarging the capacity of available storage
spaces?
A.
B.
C.
D.
RAID 0
RAID 5
JBOD
RAID 10
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DCS – Storage
Storage Essentials
34
Storage Essentials
Storage Essentials
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. Basic terminologies commonly used to explain storage technology
2. Different hard drive technologies and the characteristics of each
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Storage Essentials
 Basic Terminologies and Concepts
Basic Terminologies
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Block – A sequence of bytes or bits in which data is stored and retrieved on disk and
tape devices.
Array – A set of physical disks grouped into one or more logical drives.
Logical drive - A set of actual physical disks that are grouped together and behave as if
it were a single drive as seen by the user.
Volume – A set of blocks of storage that are organized and presented for use by the
server.
Logical Unit Number (LUN) – number assigned to a logical unit.
•
•
•
It can be used to refer to an entire physical disk, or a subset of a larger physical disk or disk
volume. The physical disk or disk volume could be an entire single disk drive, a partition (subset)
of a single disk drive, or disk volume from a RAID controller comprising multiple disk drives
aggregated together for larger capacity and redundancy. LUNs represent a logical abstraction
between the physical disk device/volume and the applications. For example if you partition a disk
drive into smaller pieces for your application or system needs (perhaps your server's operating
system has a disk drive size limit) the sub-segments would share a common SCSI target ID
address with each partition being a unique LUN.
In an iSCSI environment, LUNs are essentially numbered disk drives. An initiator negotiates with
a target to establish connectivity to a LUN; the result is an iSCSI session that emulates a SCSI
hard disk. Initiators treat iSCSI LUNs the same way as if they were a raw SCSI or IDE hard
drive. For instance, rather than mounting remote directories as will be done in NFS or CIFS
environments, iSCSI systems format and directly manage file systems on iSCSI LUNs.
In enterprise deployments, LUNs usually represent slices of large RAID disk arrays, often
allocated one per client. iSCSI imposes no rules or restrictions on multiple computers sharing
individual LUNs; shared access to a single underlying file system is instead left as a task for the
operating system.
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Storage Essentials
 Basic Terminologies and Concepts
Spare Count
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Definition of Spare
•
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Definition of Hot Spare
•
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Spare is an drive (drive B) which is reserved for the purpose of substituting for
another drive (drive A) in case of a failure on drive A.
Hot spare is a drive which has been flagged for use if another drive in the array
fails
Definition of Spare Count
•
Spare count is the number of drives to be kept available in case a drive which
contains a volume (with data) fails.
When one of the active drives fails, the hot spare drive will replace the failed drive
Active Drives
Hot Spare Drive
Spare Count = 1
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37
Storage Essentials
 Hard Drive Interface Technologies
Hard Drive Interface Technologies Overview

ATA (Advanced Technology
Attachment)
•
•
Mostly used in desktops and
notebooks
Consist of two standards:
– PATA (Parallel ATA)
– SATA (Serial ATA)
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SCSI
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)
Fiber Channel*
* Fiber channel is now commonly used for SAN solutions, but seldom used for end user computers.
Though there are Fiber Channel hard drives available in the market, they are hardly found these days.
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Storage Essentials
 Hard Drive Interface Technologies
Why SATA?
End-User Needs
 More storage in limited space
 Improved price/ performance
 Investment protection
 Lower overall system cost
System Vendor Needs
 Dense boxes
 Similar components
 Lower power consumption
 Increased air flow
 More motherboard space
Serial ATA Value Proposition
Narrower Cabling
Supports lower power requirements
Lower pin counts
Higher performance (data rates up to
300MBps)
 Improved connectivity (no master/
slave)
 Longer cabling (reach up to one meter)
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Serial ATA offers more features and better performance than parallel ATA
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39
Storage Essentials
 Hard Drive Interface Technologies
Evolution of SATA

The Serial ATA (SATA) working group will deliver incremental specification
releases over the next several years. These enhancements will enable the
technology to support a variety of possible storage configurations.
Serial ATA II, Phase 2
• Second-generation speed grade for desktops
and network storage systems (Targeted 300
MB/sec)
• Improvements to address additional needs in
higher-end network storage segments
Serial ATA II, Phase 1
• Topology support for dual host active failover
• Improved use of SATA 1.0 technology in server and
network storage
• Efficient connectivity to larger number of
devices
• Backplane interconnect solution for racks of hot-swap
drives
• Complete enclosure management solution (Fan control,
drive lights, temperature control, new device notifications,
etc)
Serial ATA 1.0
• Performance improvement to address industry needs
(firmware/ software, performance enhancements,
including native queuing)
• Primary inside-thebox storage
connection to replace
parallel ATA
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40
Storage Essentials
 Hard Drive Interface Technologies
SCSI Technology Overview
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
SCSI (Small Computer System
Interface) is a set of standards for
physically connecting and
transferring data between
computers/ servers and peripheral
devices.
SCSI is commonly used for hard
disks and tape drives, but can also
be connected to a wide range of
other devices, including scanners
and CD drives.
41
Storage Essentials
 Summary
Summary: Storage Essentials
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
Hot spares are standby hard disk drives which are used as a backup
to automatically replace a disk when a failure occurs. Spare count is
the number of the hard disk drives provided as backup disks.
Currently, there are many hard drive technologies being provided in
the market which evolves from time to time. The most well known
technologies are SATA, SCSI, Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), and Fiber
Channel.
SATA is the most commonly used technology today, especially at
the end user level, e.g. computer device.
SCSI was commonly used for hard disks and tape drives, but can
also be connected to a wide range of other devices, including
scanners and CD drives. Currently, SCSI is widely used on servers
and not on the end user client devices.
42
Storage Essentials
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers: Storage Essentials
1. What is the benefit of providing a spare disk?
A.
B.
C.
D.
To enlarge the storage capacity when all disks have been used to store data.
Ensure reliability by designating the spare disk as a standby/backup disk which will be used in
case of disk failure.
To serve as additional disk for use when scheduled downloading is configured.
To serve as part of a RAID when configured, for example, to save mirrored data for RAID 1.
2. Select the hard drive type(s) which offer the key advantages of full bandwidth to each
connected device, hot plug capability, smaller connector, standardized connector
placement and layout, simpler cabling, and longer cable length. (Choose all that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
SCSI
SATA
iSCSI
PATA
3. What are the benefits of using SATA hard disks when compared to IDE hard disks?
(Choose all that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Master/Slave selection
Smaller cable connector
Speed
Hot-pluggable
43
DCS – Storage
SAN Technologies
44
SAN Technologies
SAN Technologies
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. Technologies built for Storage Area Network
2. Details about FC SAN technologies and the required components to
implement it on the network
3. Details about iSCSI technologies as well as its advantages and the
required components to implement iSCSI on SAN
45
SAN Technologies
 Technologies lies behind the SAN
SAN Technologies Overview


Technologies created for building a SAN are primarily based on either Fiber
Channel or iSCSI technology.
The next few pages explain each of these technologies in greater detail.
iSCSI Initiator
TCP/IP Protocol
iSCSI Technology
iSCSI Target
D-Link SAN
Ethernet Switch
Private
Local Network
SAN
D-Link SAN
Copper / Optical cabling for iSCSI connection
46
SAN Technologies
 Fiber Channel Technology
Fiber Channel Technology Overview



Fiber Channel (FC) is a channel/network standard defined by the
Technical Committee T11, which is the committee within INCITS
(InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards)
responsible for Fiber Channel Interfaces
FC network contains network features that provide the required
connectivity, distance, and protocol multiplexing.
Advantages of Fiber Channel*:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Solutions leadership
Reliable
Fast data transfer providing gigabit bandwidth up to 4Gbps
Multiple topologies
Scalable
Congestion free
High Efficiency
Full suite of services
* The information is taken from Fiber Channel Industry Association
(http://www/fibrechannel.org)
47
SAN Technologies
 Fiber Channel Technology
Basic Components of Fiber Channel SAN




Storage devices supporting Fiber Channel
Fiber Channel Switch (SAN fabric)
Fiber Channel Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
Cabling
FC Host Bus Adapter
FC Storage Media
Public Local
Area Network
Fiber Channel
Switch
Private
Fiber Channel
SAN
Optical cabling for fiber channel connection
48
SAN Technologies
 Hard Drive Interface Technologies
iSCSI Technology Overview

Definition of iSCSI (Internet SCSI)
• SCSI protocol which enables access to networked storage devices over
a TCP/IP network (Ethernet network, WAN, Wireless network, etc)

Why iSCSI? – iSCSI Features
• Error Handling
– Error checking using CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) methodology
– When iSCSI detects errors it will bring down the session (all TCP connections
within the session) and restart it
• Boot
• Discovery

Advantages of iSCSI
•
•
•
•
Connectivity over long distances
Lower costs
Easier implementation and management
Built-in security
49
SAN Technologies
 Hard Drive Interface Technologies
Advantages of iSCSI over FC SAN

iSCSI is a better alternative to Fiber Channel SAN for the following reasons:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Built on stable and familiar standards providing easier implementation and
management
Ethernet transmissions can travel over the global IP network and therefore have no
practical distance limitation
Source : IDC 2006 Sept./Dec.
Scalable
Growth Percentage of iSCSI SAN, FC SAN, and NAS
Creates a SAN with lower cost
Interoperability issue
108.4
120
Security issue
100
Growth
Percentage
80
60
40
20
0
72.8
Q2
10.3
iSCSI SAN
17.3
FC SAN
16.2 16.7
Q3
NAS
Product Category
According to IDC, iSCSI market grows with an
explosive record of about 108.4% every year.
According to IDC, by 2010, iSCSI products will
share more than 21% of the storage market.
50
SAN Technologies
 Drive Interface Technologies
iSCSI SAN Overview

iSCSI SAN components consist of:
•
iSCSI Client/ Host (iSCSI initiator)
Server
– A client device, for example, a server
(or PC), which attaches to an IP
network
– iSCSI Client initiates requests and
receives responses from an iSCSI
target
•
iSCSI Initiator
iSCSI Target
– A device that receives and processed
the iSCSI commands, for example, a
storage device
TCP/IP Protocol
iSCSI Target
D-Link SAN
51
SAN Technologies
 Summary
Summary: SAN Technologies




iSCSI is a network protocol which enables access to storage devices
and network storage over TCP/IP networks.
D-Link adopts the iSCSI protocol to be used in its D-Link SAN.
iSCSI offers several benefits in comparison to Fiber Channel. These
include interoperability, scalability, security, cost, and distance
limitation.
To implement iSCSI on the SAN, all the components must be
provided: iSCSI initiator, iSCSI target, and Ethernet switch.
52
SAN Technologies
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers: SAN Technologies
1. What are the components needed when deploying Fiber Channel
SAN? (Choose all that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
SCSI Storage
Switch
Fiber Channel Switch
FC Host Bus Adapter
2. What component s not needed when deploying iSCSI?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Server
iSCSI target
Switch
Fiber Channel Switch
53
DCS – Storage
D-Link SAN
(Storage Area Network)
54
D-Link SAN
D-Link SAN (Storage Area Network)
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. Various D-Link SAN appliances and differences between each
2. Each part of the hardware in the SAN
3. Key selling points of D-Link SAN appliances
4. Product positioning of D-Link SANs
5. D-Link SAN product interoperability, caching behavior, and common
implementation architectures
55
D-Link SAN
 D-Link Products for Storage Area Network
D-Link Storage Area Network

DSN-2100 Series
•

DSN-3200 Series
•
•

DSN-2100-10
DSN-3200-10
DSN-3200-20
DSN-3400 Series
•
•
DSN-3400-10
DSN-3400-20
xStack Storage with 4-port 1GE Copper
for SATA-II Hard Drives in RAID Levels
0, 1, 1+0, and 5 (8 Trays)
xStack Storage with 8-port 1GE Copper
for SATA-II Hard Drives in RAID Levels
0, 1, 1+0, and 5 (15 Trays)
xStack Storage with 1-port 10 GE Fiber
for SATA-II Hard Drives in RAID Levels
0, 1, 1+0, and 5 (15 Trays)
56
D-Link SAN
 Components of D-Link SAN
Components of D-Link DSN-2100 Series
Front Panel Components
Front panel after the bezel has been removed
Key lock
Eight drive bays
Power LED
Latch
Boot and Fault LED
Removable Bezel
Drive power LED Drive and Activity Fault LED
Back Panel Components
Diagnostic Port
Power Switch
Power Supply
Host network
connections
Management Port
Reset Switch
57
D-Link SAN
 Components of D-Link SAN
Components of D-Link DSN-3200 Series
Front Panel Components
Removable Bezel
Key lock
Back Panel Components
Power Switch
Power Supply
Reset Switch
Host Network Connections
Diagnostic Port Management Port
58
D-Link SAN
 Components of D-Link SAN
Components of D-Link DSN-3400 Series
Front Panel Components
Removable Bezel
Key lock
Back Panel Components
Power Switch
Power Supply
Reset Switch
Host Network Connections
Diagnostic Port Management Port
59
D-Link SAN
 Components of D-Link SAN
Management Port and Diagnostic Port

Management Port
• The management port is used to configure and manage D-Link’s xStack
SAN from the PC, either directly connected to the SAN (using a
Crossover cable) or connected to the SAN through the use of a hub or
switch (using Straight-through cable).
• By connecting to this management port, the administrator can configure
the D-Link SAN through the web GUI.

Diagnostic Port
• The diagnostic port is a console port which uses a RS-232-to-DB-9 port
interface. This port can be used if you have direct physical access to the
box and is accessed during startup.
• The diagnostic port performs all admin password resets, sets the
download configuration parameters, and accesses the Enclosure
Services Test Tool.
60
D-Link SAN
 D-Link DSN-2100 Series
DSN-2100 Series
Volume and RAID support
• Single RAID Controller (Integrated
in ASIC)
• RAID support (Level 0, 1, 1+0, 5)
• Supports 1,024 Virtual Volumes
(256 accessible per initiator)
• 1,024 target nodes
• Online capacity expansion
• Hot swappable drives
• Instant volume access
• Free space defragmentation
Hardware Specification
• Drive Bays: 8
• Drive Interface support: SATA-II
• Storage Capacity: 8TB capacity
with 1TB hard drive
• System Memory: 256MB to
512MB (512MB standard)
• Cache Memory: 256MB to 4Gb
(512MB standard)
• iSCSI Network Interface: four (4)
1GbE ports
• Auto-detection failed drive
• Auto-rebuild spare drive
• RAID level migration
• Drive roaming-in power off
• Self-Monitoring Analysis and
Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T)
iSCSI Network Interface
• Host Interface: iSCSI Draft 2.0
compliant initiator
• Connections: 1,024 Hosts
• Jumbo Frames support
• Link Aggregation support
Storage Management
• CHAP authentication
• Embedded IP-based
Management GUI
• Access control of management
• SMI-S version 1.1
• VLAN Support (Up to 8 VLANs)
• iSCSI/TCP/IP Full HW Offload
61
D-Link SAN
 D-Link DSN-3200 Series
DSN-3200 Series
Volume and RAID support
• Single RAID Controller (Integrated
in ASIC)
• RAID support (Level 0, 1, 1+0, 5)
• Supports 1,024 Virtual Volumes
(256 accessible per initiator)
Hardware Specification
• Drive Bays: 15
• Drive Interface support: SATA-II
• Storage Capacity: 15 TB capacity
with 1TB hard drive
• System Memory: 512MB
• 1,024 target nodes
• Cache Memory: 4GB
• Online capacity expansion
• iSCSI Network Interface: eight (8)
1GbE ports
• Hot swappable drives
• Instant volume access
• Free space defragmentation
iSCSI Network Interface
• Auto-detection failed drive
• Host Interface: iSCSI Draft 2.0
compliant initiator
• Auto-rebuild spare drive
• RAID level migration
• Drive roaming-in power off
• Self-Monitoring Analysis and
Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T)
• Connections: 1,024 Hosts
• Jumbo Frames support
• Link Aggregation support
• CHAP authentication
• Access control of management
Storage Management
• iSCSI/TCP/IP Full HW Offload
• Embedded IP-based
Management GUI
• VLAN Support (Up to 8 VLANs)
• SMI-S version 1.1
• QoS support (IETF DiffServ and
IEEE 802.1P tag)
62
D-Link SAN
 D-Link DSN-3400 Series
DSN-3400 Series
Volume and RAID support
• Single RAID Controller (Integrated
in ASIC)
Hardware Specification
• RAID support (Level 0, 1, 1+0, 5)
• Drive Interface support: SATA-II
• Supports 1,024 Virtual Volumes
(256 accessible per initiator)
• Storage Capacity: 15 TB capacity
with 1TB hard drive
• 1,024 target nodes
• System Memory: 512 MB
• Online capacity expansion
• Cache Memory: 4GB
• Hot swappable drives
• iSCSI Network Interface: one (1)
10GbE ports
• Instant volume access
• Drive Bays: 15
• Free space defragmentation
• Auto-detection failed drive
iSCSI Network Interface
• Auto-rebuild spare drive
• Host Interface: iSCSI Draft 2.0
compliant initiator
• RAID level migration
• Drive roaming-in power off
• Self-Monitoring Analysis and
Reporting Technology (S.M.A.R.T)
• Connections: 1,024 Hosts
• Jumbo Frames support
• CHAP authentication
• Access control of management
Storage Management
• iSCSI/TCP/IP Full HW Offload
• Embedded IP-based
Management GUI
• VLAN Support (Up to 8 VLANs)
• SMI-S version 1.1
• QoS support (IETF DiffServ and
IEEE 802.1P tag)
63
63
D-Link SAN
 Market Analysis for D-Link SAN Products
Key Selling Points of D-Link SAN







Block data transfer over TCP/IP network using iSCSI
Highly integrated single chip solution
Built-in RAID controller
Built-in IP-SAN Device Manager (IDM)
SATA-II support for the hard drive interface
Various number of iSCSI interfaces which can be aggregated
Jumbo Frame support increases performance up to 20-50%*
* Based on information from Storage Networking Industry Association
64
D-Link SAN
 Market Analysis for D-Link SAN Products
Product Positioning for D-Link SAN


The D-Link xStack Storage product family of iSCSI SAN solutions
are designed to address the growing high performance storage
requirements brought about by the need for better application and
database performance, infrastructure consolidation, and robust
backup and disaster recovery solutions.
D-Link now aggressively addresses these storage requirements at
the SMB and enterprise level users by leveraging existing iSCSI and
Ethernet technologies and lowering the total cost of ownership for
storage area networking solutions over more complex legacy Fiber
Channel and slower Network Attached Storage (NAS) solutions.
• DSN-2100/ DSN-3200 comes with Gigabit Copper interfaces and is
mainly targeted at SMB users.
• DSN-3400 comes with 10-Gigabit Ethernet interfaces* and is mainly
targeted for enterprise users.
* DSN-3400 provides one 10GbE XFP transceiver interface (transceiver sold separately) accessed
via the back panel.
65
D-Link SAN
 D-Link SAN Implementation
Storage Interoperability – SMI-S Storage Device



Storage Management Initiative – Specification (SMI-S) is a storage
standard developed and maintained by Storage Networking
Industry Association (SNIA).
The main objective of SMI-S is to guarantee interoperability of
storage devices among different vendors.
D-Link’s SAN series are all designed based on the standard SMI-S
version 1.1.
66
D-Link SAN
 D-Link SAN Implementation
Caching Operation


The xStack storage unit contains cache memory for storing and
data.
The xStack storage unit is capable of caching write operations.
Write-back caching saves the system from performing many
unnecessary write cycles to the system RAM, so as to provide faster
execution.
67
D-Link SAN
 D-Link SAN Implementation
Basic iSCSI SAN Implementation

In the most basic iSCSI SAN deployment, application servers (iSCSI hosts)
access their storage from an iSCSI target storage array.
iSCSI Host
iSCSI Target
……
Private LAN
Public LAN
68
D-Link SAN
 Summary
Summary: D-Link SAN






D-Link provides three series for its SAN appliance product line which
include DSN-2100, DSN-3200, and DSN-3400 series.
D-Link DSN-2100 provides eight drive bays while D-Link DSN-3000
series provides 15 drive bays.
Generally, all D-Link SANs must have the following components built in:
host network connections, management port, diagnostic port, power
and reset switch button, power supply, and removable bezel.
D-Link SAN appliances are mainly targeted for SMB and enterprise level
users who need better application and database performance,
infrastructure consolidation, robust backup and disaster recovery
solutions.
D-Link SAN series is guaranteed to be interoperable with other storage
appliances from different vendors because of its achievement for SMI-S
standard.
By default, all D-Link SANs will cache all write operations to prevent the
storage from performing many unnecessary write cycles to the system
RAM.
69
D-Link SAN
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers: D-Link SAN
1. What standard is used to guarantee the interoperability of storage
devices among different vendors?
A.
B.
C.
D.
IEEE
iSCSI
SNIA
SMI-S
2. Which of the following statement describe D-Link SAN?
A. D-Link SAN supports PAP authentication to provide secure access to the
SAN.
B. With D-Link SAN, using diskless server is possible because it can be
booted form the iSCSI SAN.
C. D-Link xStack storage cache memory for storing data and writing
operations.
70
DCS – Storage
SAN Product Features
Overview*
* All features are explained based on DSN-3000 Series.
71
SAN Product Features Overview
SAN Product Features Overview
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. Tasks/activities that can be done by D-Link SAN
2. Link aggregation and VLAN features supported in D-Link SAN
3. TCP/IP offload engine
4. CHAP authentication
5. Volume virtualization
6. Auto-Detection failed drive and volume rebuild features
72
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume Management
Task









The xStack Storage unit can automatically, or at the administrator’s
demand, perform activities that take time and consume the controller’s
resources.
The administrator can control, to some degree, when tasks are to be
performed. Any task can be suspended and resumed by the
administrator. Some tasks can be cancelled and some can be scheduled
on a recurring, periodic interval.
All tasks can have their priority changed, which controls the amount of
resources the xStack storage unit devotes to a task.
The tasks/ activities that can be done by D-Link’s SAN are as follows:
Volume initialization
Volume rebuild*
Volume expansion
Media scanning
Parity scanning
* Volume rebuild will be explained later along with explanation of auto-detecting failed drive
73
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume Management
Volume Initialization


Some volume organizations (e.g. parity) require initialization. The
initialization task performs this action. This task can be performed
while an initiator is accessing (reading and writing) data. An
initialization task can be suspended and resumed, but cannot be
cancelled.
Initialization task consists of:
• Making the volume XOR consistent
• Detecting a read error
• Recovering from read error
74
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume Management
Volume Expansion

All D-Link SAN product series provide volume expansion to flexibly resize a
logical drive.
The Volume-1 has been
resized to a bigger size
100GB
300GB
Current size: 200GB
200GB
Expand to 300GB
Volume-1
Page is Animated
75
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume Management
Parity Scanning


D-Link SAN provides parity volume scanning to check errors found in that
selected volume.
This task reads every block in the volume to ensure parity is correct. If
parity errors are found, this task corrects the errors.
76
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume Management
Storage Volume Information


Storage volume information provides comprehensive information about the
storage volume allocation
Information that can be viewed in the storage volume information are:
•
•
•
Status of the attached drives (offline or online)
Volume Capacity
Volume type
77
SAN Product Features Overview
 Device Management
Event Log

The event log tracks the xStack Storage’s information, warning, and error
messages.
78
SAN Product Features Overview
 iSCSI Features
Link Aggregation

Definition of Link Aggregation:
•

Link aggregation is a way to achieve double data rates by aggregating multi
physical links as one logical link.
Key benefits of Link Aggregation (LAG):
•
•
•
•
Improved performance
High data rates
Increased availability
Load sharing
79
SAN Product Features Overview
 iSCSI Features
Virtual LAN (VLAN)



All D-Link Storage Area Networks support 802.1Q VLAN tagging to
segregate traffic into isolated zone for more secure access and to
segment the broadcast domain.
D-Link SAN supports up to eight VLANs with 1-to-1 mapping
between IP subnet and VLAN. Multiple VLANs per physical port with
VLAN tag. All physical ports in LAG belong to same VLAN.
With this feature, a volume can be configured under a VLAN group
so that it will only be accessible by clients under the same VLAN.
80
SAN Product Features Overview
 iSCSI Features
TCP/IP Offload Engine (TOE)


The major issue of IP storage is the high TCP/IP processing overhead, which
constrains servers to performance levels that are unacceptable for block
storage transport.
TCP/IP Offload is used for reducing the amount of TCP/IP processing
handled by the microprocessor and I/O subsystem to help ease server
networking bottleneck.
81
SAN Product Features Overview
 iSCSI Features
CHAP Authentication






Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is a protocol
for authenticating peer-to-peer connection based on the sharing of
a ‘secret’ known only to the authenticator and that peer.
CHAP authentication is supported in all D-Link SAN product series
and is used when an initiator tries to connect to its target, and vice
versa.
Characteristics of CHAP authentication:
Unidirectional/ Bidirectional authentication
Secret key is encrypted/ hashed using MD5 algorithm
Three way handshake authentication
82
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume and RAID Support
Volume Virtualization




D-Link xStack storage virtualizes disk storage for use by a
customer's host computer (servers).
Storage virtualization is the process of grouping together
independent storage devices found across a network to create what
seems to be a single large storage entity that can be centrally
managed.
Storage virtualization helps make the tasks of backup, archiving,
and recovery easier, and in lesser time, by disguising the actual
complexity of the SAN.
Benefits of virtualization:
• High availability
• Improve capacity utilization
• Share resources between heterogeneous servers
83
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume and RAID Support
Auto-Detection of Failed Drive & Volume Rebuild




When a drive in the storage array fails, the xStack storage will
automatically detect the failed drive and substitutes it with the hot
spare drive.
A spare drive is normally kept in the available pool, so that the
drive will be available for use should another drive fails.
Volume rebuild is the activity that recovers data of a failed drive.
In this case, data can be rebuilt if the storage system is mirrored
(RAID 1) or set for parity (RAID 5).
• If the storage is mirrored, data will be recovered from the mirrored data
in the mirror disk.
• If parity is created, data inside the failed drive will be recovered using
the existing data from active disks and the parity information.
84
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume and RAID Support
Drive Roaming


D-Link SAN provides feature for safely moving drive in an array .
If a drive in an array configured with RAID is accidentally removed, the
removed drive can still be recognized using this feature, as long as the drive
is configured with RAID that provides fault tolerance (RAID 1 and RAID 5).
This is known as drive roaming in power off.
Array configured with RAID 1
Drive-0
Drive-1
1
1
2
2
3
3
Steps to move the drives safely:
• Turn off the array in which the removed drive belongs to
• Plug the removed drive to any slot in the array
• Reboot the array
Removed
Page is Animated
85
SAN Product Features Overview
 Volume and RAID Support
Self Monitoring and Reporting Technology
(S.M.A.R.T)



D-Link SAN Series support Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting
Technology (S.M.A.R.T.), a technology designed to monitor the
reliability of hard drives.
The purpose of S.M.A.R.T. is to warn a user or system administrator
of impending drive failure while time remains to take preventative
action — such as copying the data to a replacement device.
Features of S.M.A.R.T. technology include a series of attributes, or
diagnostics, chosen specifically for each individual drive model.
Attribute individualism is important because drive architectures vary
from model to model.
86
SAN Product Features Overview
 Summary
Summary: SAN Product Features Overview (1)










The xStack Storage unit can automatically, or at the administrator’s demand,
performs activities such as volume initialization, volume rebuild, volume
expansion, media scanning, and parity scanning.
Volume initialization is performed when an initiator (i.e. server) is reading or
writing data.
With D-Link SAN, the size of a volume can be flexibly expanded up to the
maximum capacity of a storage.
Media scanning provided in the management console of all D-Link SAN products
can be used to scan a JBOD, stripe, mirrored stripe, or mirrored stripe media
volume for errors.
D-Link SAN provides parity volume scanning to check errors found in the selected
volume.
Task Manager provides general information for all task activity running on the DLink SAN.
Storage pool information provides comprehensive information about the storage.
D-Link xStack Storage series accommodate a 6-cell shrink-wrapped battery pack
for backing up the buffer cache contents in case of power failure.
D-Link SAN provides an event log feature that tracks the xStack Storage
informational, warning, and error messages
To increase the data transfer performance and prevent bottleneck from occurring,
D-Link SAN is provided with link aggregation feature to double the speed
performance, depending on the number of the aggregated links.
87
SAN Product Features Overview
 Summary
Summary: SAN Product Features Overview (2)






All D-Link Storage Area Networks support 802.1Q VLAN tagging to
segregate traffic into isolated zone for more secure access.
TCP/IP Offload is used to reduce the amount of TCP/IP processing
handled by the microprocessor and I/O subsystem to ease server
networking bottleneck.
CHAP authentication provides secured and encrypted authentication
mechanism, and is supported in all D-Link SAN product series. It is used
when an initiator tries to connect to its target, and vice versa.
D-Link xStack storage virtualizes disk storage for use by a customer's
host computer (servers) by grouping all storage devices found across a
network to become a single large storage entity that can be centrally
managed.
When a drive in the storage array fails, xStack storage will
automatically detect the failed drive and substitute the failed drive with
the hot spare drive.
S.M.A.R.T. is a technology supported in D-Link SAN series to monitor
the reliability of hard drives and to warn a user or system administrator
of impending drive failure while time remains to take preventative
action
88
SAN Product Features Overview
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers:
SAN Product Features Overview
1. What tasks can be done by D-Link Storage Area Network? (Choose all that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Volume Initialization
Media Scanning
Volume Rebuild
Error Correction
Volume Shrinkage
2. What cannot be done when an administrator expands a volume and initializes a
grow task?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Grow task deletion
Grow task suspension
Grow task resumption
All of the above can be done when a grow task is initialized
3. What is the function of TCP/IP Offload Engine in D-Link SAN
A. To bypass requests coming from the client over the network when the storage’s
CPU is high
B. To turn off the xStack storage when it detects the TCP/IP utilization is high
C. To safely move drive in an array by turning off the unit
D. To reduce the amount of TCP/IP processing handled by the microprocessor and
I/O subsystem
89
SAN Product Features Overview
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers:
SAN Product Features Overview
4. What is the function of disk virtualization provided by D-Link SAN?
A. To link multiple storage repositories to multiple clients and servers.
B. To group all storage devices found across a network to become a single large
storage entity that can be centrally managed
C. To create storage clustering that comprises master storage and slave
storage, where the slave serves as a backup of the master
D. To achieve double data rates by aggregating multi physical links as one
logical link.
5. What is the benefit of S.M.A.R.T.?
A. Repair failed disk automatically by doing some diagnoses, analyze the main
cause of the error, and perform reparation process depends on the analysis
result.
B. Provides 100% guarantee of disk failure prevention by regularly predicting
each disk condition and provides maintenance to keep each disk in a good
condition.
C. Failure anticipation by regularly monitor all hard disks and report on various
indicators of reliability, with the hope of anticipating failures.
D. All of the above.
90
DCS – Storage
D-Link Network Attached
Storage (NAS)
91
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
 Various D-Link NAS appliances and differences between each of
them
 Key selling points of D-Link NAS appliances
 Functions and applications of D-Link NAS
 Product positioning of D-Link NAS
92
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 D-Link Products for Network Attached Storage
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
DNS-313
• 1 Bay SATA Network Storage Enclosure
• Built-in iTunes, UPnP and FTP Server
• May be used as USB 2.0 portable hard drive (become a DAS
enclosure)
DNS-321
• 2 Bays SATA Network Storage Enclosure
• RAID 1 support
• Built-in iTunes, UPnP and FTP Server
DNS-323
• 2 Bays SATA Network Storage Enclosure
• RAID 1 support
• Built-in iTunes, UPnP, and FTP Server
• USB port for connecting to printer
DNS-343
• 4 Bays STA Network Storage Enclosure
• RAID 1, 5 support
• Multi-Functional USB port
93
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 D-Link Products for Network Attached Storage
D-Link DNS-313
Device Interface
• 1 Gigabit Ethernet port
• 1 USB 2.0 port*
Features
• iTunes and UPnP AV server
• Scandisk feature
• Real-time backup
• Email alerts
• Permission settings for user
and group
• Multi-language file name
support
• Scheduled downloads from
web or FTP sites
• Can be used as a USB 2.0
portable hard drive
Supported Hard Drive Type
• One 3.5-inches SATA
Standard Drive with capacity
support up to 1.5 TB
Networking Features
• DDNS
• FTP
• DHCP Server/ Client
• NTP
• HTTP/ HTTPS
• CIFS/SMB
*USB port is used for connecting to a desktop or notebook as a USB2.0 portable drive.
94
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 D-Link Products for Network Attached Storage
D-Link DNS-321
Drive Management
• Multiple hard drive
configurations (RAID 0, RAID 1,
JBOD, Standard)
• iTunes and UPnP AV server
• Scandisk feature
• User/ group Quota Management
• File Sharing
• Support RAID migration (nonRAID to RAID 1)
Device Management
• Email Alerts
• Power Management
• Easy Search Utility
• Multilingual support
Device Interface
• 1 Gigabit Ethernet port
Supported Hard Drive Type
• Two 3.5-inches SATA
Standard Drive with capacity
support up to 1.5 TB
Networking Features
• DDNS
• FTP / FTP over SSL/TLS
• DHCP Server/ Client
• NTP
• HTTP/ HTTPS
• CIFS/SMB
• Jumbo Frames
95
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 D-Link Products for Network Attached Storage
D-Link DNS-323
Features
• 4 different hard drive
configurations (Standard,
JBOD, RAID 0, RAID 1)
• iTunes and UPnP AV server
• Scandisk feature
• Email alerts
• Power management
• Supports BitTorrent
• USB port supports UPS
monitoring and Print Server
• Support RAID migration (nonRAID to RAID 1)
Device Interface
• 1 Gigabit Ethernet port
• USB port*
Supported Hard Drive Type
• Two 3.5-inches SATA
Standard Drive with capacity
support up to 1.5 TB
Networking Features
• DDNS
• FTP / FTP over SSL/TLS
• DHCP Server/ Client
• NTP
• HTTP/ HTTPS
• CIFS/SMB
• Jumbo Frames
*The USB port provided on D-Link DNS-323 is used to connect to the print server only
96
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 D-Link Products for Network Attached Storage
D-Link DNS-343
Drive Management
• Multiple hard drive
configurations (RAID 0,
RAID 1, RAID 5, JBOD,
Standard)
• iTunes and UPnP AV server
• Scandisk
• User/ group Quota
Management
• File Sharing
Device Management
• UPS Monitoring
• Email Alerts
• Power Management
• Easy Search Utility
• Multilingual support
• ADS support
• Auto Power Recovery
Device Interface
• 1 Gigabit Ethernet port
• 1 USB 2.0 port
Supported Hard Drive Type
• Four 3.5-inches SATA
Standard Drive with capacity
support up to 1.5 TB
Networking Features
• Jumbo Frame
• DDNS
• FTP / FTP over SSL/TLS
• DHCP Server/ Client
• NTP
• HTTP/ HTTPS
• CIFS/SMB
97
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 D-Link Products for Network Attached Storage
OLED – Special Display on D-Link DNS-343


Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) is a LED screen that displays
information to enable the administrator to easily view and obtain the status
and basic information of the DNS-343
Information that can be viewed from the OLED include:
•
System Information
–
–
–
–
•
Hostname of the DNS-343
Firmware version
IP address of the DNS-343
Operating temperature
Hard Drive Status
– Space percentage used on the hard disk
•
Server Status
–
–
–
–
Status
Status
Status
Status
of
of
of
of
the
the
the
the
printer server
UPnP AV server
iTunes server
FTP server
98
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 Market Analysis for D-Link NAS Products
Key Selling Point of D-Link NAS







File-sharing across the local network and Internet using FTP and
HTTPS
Flexible options for array capacity, supporting up to 1.5TB
Easy installation
Users and Groups/Folder with Quota and permission rights (read/
write) management
Appliance servers for network users (printer server, UPnP AV
server, etc)
iTunes automatic discovery of music stored on the NAS
Peer to Peer download client support
99
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 Market Analysis for D-Link NAS Products
D-Link NAS Functions and Applications




Shares and backup files from
multiple clients
Remote access via FTP
Streams music, photos, and videos
from the NAS to a media player
Shares printer on the LAN



Connects to UPS for monitoring
function
Downloads shared files from the
Internet using BitTorrent
Stores recorded video surveillance
directly
(FTP: port 21)
Obtains files stored in NAS
Remote Client
(P2P Connection)
(UPnP AV)
Connects through USB port
Download shared file using P2P connection
UPS
Printer
D-Link Multimedia Player
100
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 Market Analysis for D-Link NAS Products
Product Positioning for D-Link NAS





D-Link NAS products are suitable for home user, SOHO and SMB
D-Link Network Storage Enclosures address the ever-growing data
storage requirements for multimedia and large data files for small
to medium business users
Need for data consolidation and data sharing make this enclosure
an ideal solution
Various RAID level support offers advanced data protection
This versatile enclosure supports the latest SATA technology and
Gigabit Ethernet connectivity for best-in-class performance
101
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 Summary
Summary: D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)




D-Link provides four main models for its NAS appliance product
line: DNS-313, DNS-323, DNS-321, and DNS-343.
All D-Link NAS appliances can be used to act as an iTunes server,
UPnP server, FTP server, printer server, and for certain models, DLink also supports added networking features such as a DHCP
server, and advanced features such as quota management and
DDNS, etc.
D-Link DNS-343 provides an added feature on the box, which is an
OLED screen to show certain status information, such as system
information, hard drive status, and the server appliance status.
D-Link NAS appliances are primarily targeted at home users, SOHO,
or SMB users who want the benefits of network storage that is cost
effective.
102
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers:
D-Link Network Attached Storage (NAS)
1. Which model of D-Link NAS provides OLED screen feature on the box?
A.
B.
C.
D.
DNS-313
DNS-323
DNS-321
DNS-343
2. What are the functions of D-Link NAS? (Choose all that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
Easy RAID migration and adaptability
Play music from iTunes software with the music stored in NAS
Stream music, photos and videos to a media server
Wireless access of data in the NAS via wireless client
3. Which RAID features are supported by D-Link DNS-323? (Choose all
that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
RAID
RAID
RAID
RAID
0
1
5
10
103
DCS – Storage
NAS Product Features
Overview*
*All features are explained based on the DNS-343 product
104
NAS Product Features Overview
NAS Product Features Overview
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. What is the Easy Search Utility and the functions supported in this
feature
2. What is the Configuration Wizard and what configuration tasks are
available to this wizard
3. What is Email Alerts
4. The characteristics of power management on D-Link NAS
5. Function of Disk Diagnostic feature
6. Purpose of user and group creation on D-Link NAS
7. The function of quota management
8. Appliance server roles with/without the use of USB port on D-Link NAS
9. Remote Backup
10. Peer-2-Peer (P2P) Downloads
11. Volume/File sharing on D-Link NAS and scheduled downloading
105
NAS Product Features Overview
 Managing the Device
Easy Search Utility





Easy Search Utility is provided to
help the users find the D-Link NAS
on the network.
What D-Link Easy Search Utility
can:
Discover and connect to D-Link
NAS products.
Map drives
Configure the IP of the NAS
106
NAS Product Features Overview
 Managing the Device
Configuration Wizard
107
NAS Product Features Overview
 Managing the Device
Email Alerts

With the email alerts feature supported in the D-Link NAS product series,
alerts can be sent to a specified user if certain operational conditions occur,
such as the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Information about space status
A volume is full
A hard drive has failed
Administrator password has been
changed
Firmware has been upgraded
System temperature has exceeded
the specified temperature*
108
NAS Product Features Overview
 Managing the Device
Power Management on D-Link NAS


Power management offers a green feature on D-Link NAS products.
With this feature, the administrator can configure the drives to shut down
after a specified idle time. The device will automatically power up when data
is being accessed by the client.
109
NAS Product Features Overview
 Managing the Device
Disk Diagnostic



Scandisk activity can be performed to check if any error has occurred on the
hard disk.
With this feature, all errors found will be listed with a description, along with
the option to repair each of these errors.
Scandisk can be performed over selected volume.
110
NAS Product Features Overview
 User and Group Management
User and Group Creation


User and groups can be created
and managed on the D-Link NAS
product series.
The purpose of creating users and
groups on the NAS product is to
control user access to the storage
and to control read/write privileges
for specified folders on the network
drives, or to setup FTP access
rights.
111
NAS Product Features Overview
 User and Group Management
Network Access

The Network Access feature is used to assign access rights to a user or a
group for specific folders or volumes.
112
NAS Product Features Overview
 User and Group Management
Quota Management


The D-Link NAS product series supports quota management for groups,
folders, and individual users.
Assigning quotas to a groups, folders, or users will limit the amount of
storage capacity allocated for them.
113
NAS Product Features Overview
 User and Group Management
Quota Illustration
Volume-1
Saving
Data available
Failed!!!
Current
Data saved!!!
available
Current
space
for
Robertspace
is 1GB
for
Robert
is 100MB
400MB
Quota
Exceeded!!!
D-Link NAS
Saves
200MB data
600MB
300MB
to volume-1
Robert
Quota limit for Robert is 1GB
Page is Animated
114
NAS Product Features Overview
 Appliance Servers
FTP Server

The D-Link NAS product series are equipped with a built-in FTP Server. With
this feature, data resources kept in the NAS can be accessed via FTP, both
from the inside and outside network.
115
NAS Product Features Overview
 Appliance Servers
UPnP AV Server


UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) is a set of network protocols that allows
devices to connect seamlessly and to simplify the implementation of
networks in the home digital environment (data sharing, communications,
and entertainment) and/or corporate environments.
UPnP AV (Audio and Video) servers store and share digital media, such as
photographs, movies, and music to provide hardware-based media
streaming services to UPnP AV compatible clients on the local network.
116
NAS Product Features Overview
 Appliance Servers
iTunes Server

D-Link NAS comes with a feature in which end users can listen to music
from iTunes at their own desk with the music files stored in the NAS.

With this feature, the iTunes software will automatically detect the folder
specified by the administrator. Therefore the administrator must specify a
folder that contains a collection of songs stored on the NAS.
117
NAS Product Features Overview
 Appliance Servers
iTunes at the Client Side
Song library stored on the DLink NAS is automatically
detected using the iTunes
application on the client side
D-Link NAS
iTunes server
feature is activated
on the D-Link NAS
Play music from the
NAS with iTunes
118
NAS Product Features Overview
 Networking Features
DDNS

Dynamic DNS (DDNS) allows the hosting of a server using a domain name
assigned with a dynamic IP address.
•
•


DDNS helps to deal with servers publishing IP addresses that constantly change
due to the use of dynamic IP addresses.
In the D-Link NAS product series, the DDNS feature can be used to make the NAS
accessible from a public network.
D-Link provides a utility for
customers to use the DDNS service
provided by www.dlinkddns.com
(only 1 host may be created using
the D-Link DDNS service).
Free DDNS service can also be
obtained from www.dyndns.com.
119
NAS Product Features Overview
 Networking Features
Remote Backup

The D-Link NAS Remote Backup allows you to backup the files stored on the
NAS to one or more remote NAS devices in order to prevent data loss in the
event of a failure.
120
NAS Product Features Overview
 Networking Features
Peer-2-Peer (P2P) Download

The D-Link NAS P2P Downloads allows the user to share files and folders via
torrents. This is a great way to share files with friends, colleagues, and
family.
121
NAS Product Features Overview
 Networking Features
File Sharing


D-Link NAS provides two ways to share files to all users over the
network
Samba
• Samba is an Open Source/Free Software suite that provides seamless
file and print services to SMB/CIFS clients and allows interoperability
between Linux/Unix servers and Windows-based clients.
• FTP

For file sharing, D-Link also provides multilingual support for the
local user to easily share files without any difficulties.
• Samba: Unicode
• FTP Client:
– Croatian, Cyrillic (Kyrgyz Republic), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish,
French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian,
Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Simplified Chinese, Slovenian,
Spanish, Swedish, Traditional Chinese, Turkish.
122
NAS Product Features Overview
 Networking Features
Scheduled Downloading

The D-Link NAS Download Scheduling feature allows the administrator to set
up a schedule for downloading folders or files, and backup sessions.
123
NAS Product Features Overview
 USB Port Applications
Print Server

The D-Link NAS can be directly connected to a printer to make the NAS
become a print server.
Printer attached to the NAS can
be accessed from the client side
124
NAS Product Features Overview
 USB Port Applications
UPS Monitoring



An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) can be directly connected to a D-Link
NAS through the provided USB port.
The purpose of attaching the UPS to the NAS is to provide a way to safely
shutdown the NAS in case of a power failure.
When a UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) is connected to the NAS, the
Status screen hides the printer information and displays information about
the UPS (such as, the manufacturer, product type, battery power status,
and UPS status).
125
NAS Product Features Overview
 Summary
Summary: NAS Product Features Overview (1)






The Easy Search Utility is a feature in D-Link NAS that helps make the
administrator's task easier by displaying all the D-Link NAS products
found within the subnet. Besides providing NAS discovery, it can also be
used to map drives and configure IP addresses.
To make device configuration easier, D-Link NAS provides a
configuration wizard to perform the basic configuration of the device.
This is useful for some users who are unfamiliar with configuring the
device.
Email alerts is a feature which warns a specified user, usually the
administrator, when certain conditions, as specified by the
administrator, are encountered.
Power management is a feature designed to help cut down on the
energy used by the NAS. With this feature the D-Link NAS will
automatically shutdown after being idle for some specified amount of
time.
D-Link provides the Disk Diagnostic feature which can be used to
perform error checking on a disk. This is to ensure the integrity of the
data stored on the disk.
Users and groups can be created and managed on the D-Link NAS to
better control user access to the data stored on the NAS. Quotas can
also be applied to users/groups/folders.
126
NAS Product Features Overview
 Summary
Summary: NAS Product Features Overview (2)





All D-Link NAS can be set to act as application servers serving
added functionality to its clients, such as to act as an iTunes server,
UPnP server, FTP server, and print server.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) is a feature which can be used to host a
server using a dynamic IP address by giving the host a domain
name so it is accessible by the public.
With a NAS appliance, file sharing over the network becomes much
easier by sharing a volume all at once using the drive mapping
feature. File sharing can also be done by using FTP or Samba.
The D-Link NAS appliance can be instructed to perform scheduled
downloading from a specified URL.
An Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) can be connected to a DLink NAS through the provided USB port to provide a safe shutdown
after a power failure.
127
NAS Product Features Overview
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers:
NAS Product Features Overview
1. What is the function of the Easy Search Utility feature?
A.
B.
C.
D.
To
To
To
To
search for files stored in the D-Link NAS based on keywords or file extensions.
find errors that have occurred on the D-Link NAS.
discover D-Link NAS products over the network.
search the activity history saved on the D-Link NAS.
2. What feature on D-Link NAS is used to check errors that have occurred in the hard
disk?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Scan Disk
Media Scanning
Parity Scanning
Disk Scanning
3. How many concurrent users are allowed to access FTP in D-Link NAS?
A.
B.
C.
D.
1
4
10
Unlimited
4. What are the purposes of USB port provided in D-Link NAS? (Choose all that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
To
To
To
To
make the NAS become a print server if connected to a printer from the USB port.
connect to iPod to synchronize music from the iPod to the NAS.
connect to a USB scanner so it can scan a file directly.
connect to a UPS to enable a safe shut down upon power failure.
128
NAS Product Features Overview
 Questions and Answers
Questions and Answers:
NAS Product Features Overview
5. What feature must be used to publish a D-Link NAS for public access when it is
assigned a dynamic IP address rather than a static IP address?
A.
B.
C.
D.
DNS
FTP Server
D-Link UPnP AV Server
DDNS
6. What are the appliance server functions supported by D-Link NAS? (Choose all
that apply)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
iTunes Server
DNS Server
FTP Server
Web Server
UPnP AV Server
7. What is the method used to share files on the D-Link NAS if using remote access?
A.
B.
C.
D.
DNS
FTP
Telnet
SSH
129
DCS – Storage
Applications and Solutions
for Network Storage
130
Applications and Solutions for Network Storage
Applications and Solutions for Network Storage
After this section, you should gain more knowledge of the following:
1. NAS application for sample reference
2. SAN application for sample reference
131
Applications and Solutions for Network Storage
 NAS Applications
NAS Application for SMB Environment
Wireless LAN
Guest-1
Wireless Clients
Wired LAN
Wireless
Router
Employee-1
Guest-2
DNS-343
Employee-2
Printer is shared by the NAS, therefore
can be accessed over the network
The USB port can be attached to a UPS or USB Printer
132
Applications and Solutions for Network Storage
 SAN Applications
SAN Application for Server Clustering



Server clustering is a group of servers running the same application as a
single virtual server.
Server clustering prevents a single point of failure. If a server is goes down,
another server will replace it and take the role of the primary server.
In this scenario, the clustered servers share the same disks in the SAN.
Goes to Public Network
Clustered Email Servers
Clustered ERP Servers
Tape Libraries
iSCSI SAN
133
Applications and Solutions for Network Storage
 SAN Applications
SAN Application for Monitoring Purposes
Video Server with
iSCSI initiator
Recorded videos from all cameras are stored
directly into the SAN storage
Gigabit Ethernet Switch
SAN Storage
Wired Video Cameras
Links are aggregated
Backup Storage
Gigabit Ethernet Switch
Wireless Camera
D-Link Wireless N Router
Wireless Camera
Video Post
Processing
Server
134
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