Equine Breeds Equine Science & Technology Equine Breeds Feral- a horse that was once domesticated and has become wild. A breed of horse may be defined as a group of horses having a common origin and possessing certain well-fixed distinctive, uniformly transmitted characteristics that are not common to other horses. Equine Breeds Draft horses are large and usually 14 to over 17 hands in height and over 1,500 lb. in weight. They are sometimes referred to as cold-blood horses. The term refers to the quiet, calm temperament of these breeds. Equine Breeds Draft Horse Breeds Belgian The Belgian breed originated in Belgium. Directly descended from the Old Flemish ancestry. Bay, chestnut, and roan are the most common colors. The Belgian is noted for its draftiness, being the widest, deepest, most compact, most massive, and lowest set of any draft breed. Equine Breeds Clydesdale This Scotch breed of draft horse derives its name from the valley of the River Clyde, located in Scotland. Weight ranges from 1,600 to 2,400 lbs. and stands from 16 to 19 hands in height. The breed is known for a moderate amount of fine feather or long hair at the rear of the legs below the knees and hocks. Equine Breeds Clydesdale Bay and brown, with white markings are the most characteristic colors. Equine Breeds Percheron The Percheron originated in northwestern France, in the ancient district of La Perche. Most Percherons are black or gray, with an occasional bay or chestnut. Percheron is noted for its handsome clean-cut head, excellent temperament, and longevity. Equine Breeds Shire The Shire breed originated on the low, marshy lands of East central England. The great size and bulk of this breed are derived directly from the Great Horse of the Middle Ages. The Shire is taller than any other draft breed. Common colors are bay, brown, and black with white markings. Equine Breeds A light horse is usually 12 to 17 hands in height and weighs 900 to 1,400 lbs. They are usually used for riding, showing, and racing. A pony, on the other hand is smaller, usually less than 14.2 hands and weighing 500 to 900 lbs. Equine Breeds Pony Breeds Haflinger Shetland Welsh Pony Dales Pony Exmoor Pony Exmoor Pony Dales Pony Haflinger Equine Breeds American Walking Pony Breed originated near Macon, Georgia from a foundation cross of Tennessee Walking Horse and Welsh Pony. Used for pleasure riding and as mounts for children and small adults. All colors accepted. Equine Breeds Shetland Pony Native to the Shetland Islands, which lie 100 miles north of Scotland. One of the oldest breeds in existence All colors accepted. Equine Breeds Light Horse Breeds Akhal-Teke American Crème Horse American Curly American Mustang American Walking Pony American Warmblood Akhal-Teke American Mustang Equine Breeds Light Horse Breeds Appaloosa Arabian Buckskin Cleveland Bay Cracker Horse Dutch Warmblood Buckskin Arabian Cleveland Bay Equine Breeds Light Horse Breeds Hackney Lipizzan Miniature Horse Missouri Fox Trotter Morab Morgan Norwegian Fjord Morgan Lipizzan Norwegian Fjord Equine Breeds Light Horse Breeds Paint Palomino Paso Fino Pinto Pony of the Americas Quarter Horse Saddlebred Saddlebred Paso Fino Equine Breeds Light Horse Breeds Selle Francais Standardbred Dan Patch Story Tennessee Walking Horse Thoroughbred Trakehner Selle Francais Equine Breeds The males of the ass family are called jacks, and the females jennets. Asses are also commonly known as donkeys, burros, or jackstock. Long-Eared Breeds Mammoth Ass Standard Donkey Miniature Donkey Mule Miniature Donkey Equine Breeds Appaloosa Originated in the United States- in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho from animals that first came from Central Asia. Ancestors of the Appaloosa were introduced into Mexico by the early Spanish explorers. For many years Appaloosa horses were owned by the Nez Perce`. Equine Breeds Appaloosa Appaloosas may be black, bay, brown, chestnut, white with dark spots over the loin and hips, white with dark spots over the entire body, or mottled dark and white, or with white spots over a dark body. The eye is encircled by a white sclera, and the hooves are stripped vertically black and white. Equine Breeds Arabian The foundation stock of the Arabian horse was obtained from either the Egyptians or the Libyan tribes of northern Africa. Oldest breed of horses, and the foundation head of all other light horse breeds. Develop in the desert country of Arabia. The Arabian breed is medium to small in size, has a beautiful head and great endurance. Equine Breeds Arabian Predominating colors are bay, gray, and chestnut, with an occasional white or black. Equine Breeds Morgan Known as the first family of American horses. The early development of the breed took place in the New England states. Standard colors are bay, brown, black, chestnut; and white markings are not uncommon. The breed is noted for easy keeping qualities: stamina, docility, beauty, courage, and longevity. Morgan blood was used in laying the foundation of many breeds. Equine Breeds Quarter Horse Quarter horses originated in the United States. The Quarter horse is an ideal stock horse. The most predominant colors of the breed are chestnut, sorrel, bay, and dun. Palominos, blacks, browns, and roans are not uncommon. Equine Breeds Quarter Horse Animals are disqualified for registration if they have paint, pinto, appaloosa, or albino coloring. Equine Breeds Thoroughbred The history of the thoroughbred had its beginning in the 17th century, though the original lineage of the breed is as old as civilization. All U.S. Thoroughbreds are registered in the Jockey Club, established in 1894. Membership in the club is by election. Thoroughbreds are bay, brown, chestnut, black, or less frequently gray. Equine Breeds Thoroughbred About one-third of the nation’s Thoroughbreds are bred in Kentucky. Racing and the unquestioned value of the Thoroughbred for crossbreeding purposes assure the breed a bright future. Equine Breeds Paint Horse The paint horse represents a combination of breeding, conformation and color. Paint horses originated in the United States. Paint horses are distinguished by two color patterns- they must either be overo or tobiano. Most tobianos have color on the head, chest and flanks and some in the tail. The legs are nearly always white. Equine Breeds Paint Horse The overo often has jagged or lacy-edged white markings, mostly on the midsection of the body and neck area. Tobiano Overo Equine Breeds Buckskin Buckskin horses originated in the United States largely from horses of Spanish extraction. Buckskin is a shade of yellow that may range from gold to nearly brown-dun, red dun, or grulla (mouse dun). The Buckskin is primarily a color breed with no particular type favored. Equine Breeds Palomino The word palomino implies a horse of a golden color, with white, silver, or ivory mane and tail. Originally, Palominos were not considered either a breed or a type but simply as a color. Palomino horses originated in the United States from animals of Spanish extraction. Equine Breeds Palomino Palominos are used as a stock, parade, pleasure, saddle, and fine harness horses. Equine Breeds Tennessee Walking Horse Early settlers from Virginia brought the sturdy original saddle stock to Tennessee. The breed represents an amalgamation of the Thoroughbred, Standardbred, Morgan, and American Saddlebred breeds. A great array of colors exists, including sorrel, chestnut, black, roan, white, bay, brown, gray, and golden. Equine Breeds Tennessee Walking Horse An ideal horse for the amateur or the person who rides infrequently. Equine Breeds Miniature Horse The miniature horse is a small model of a full sized horse; it is not a dwarf. Miniatures horses were used in England and Northern Europe to pull ore carts in the coal mines as early as 1765. They were also bred as pets for some of the royal families of Europe. Miniature horses cannot exceed 34 in. in height at the withers. Equine Breeds Miniature Horse All colors are accepted. Equine Gaits A gait is a particular way of going, either natural or acquired which is characterized by a distinctive rhythmic movement of the feet and legs. Walk A natural slow, flat footed, four beat gait. It should be springy, regular, and true. Equine Gaits Trot A natural two-beat, diagonal gait in which the front foot and the opposite hind foot take off at the same split second and strike the ground simultaneously. There is a brief moment when all four feet are off the ground and the horse seemingly floats through the air. This gait varies considerably according to breed and training. Equine Gaits Canter (Lope) The canter is a slow, restrained, three-beat gait in which the two diagonal legs are paired, thereby producing a single beat that falls between the successive beats of the other unpaired legs. In the show-ring the lead should be toward the inside of the ring. Thus when traveling to the left, the front leg should lead (the horse is on the “left lead”). Equine Gaits Run (Gallop) The run or gallop is a fast, four beat gait in which the feet strike the ground separately- first one hind foot; then the other hind foot; then the front foot on the same side as the first hind foot; then the other front foot, which decided the lead. In executing the gallop, the propulsion is chiefly in the hindquarters. Equine Gaits Pace The pace is a fast, lateral two-beat gait in which the front and hind feet on the same side start and stop simultaneously. The feet rise very little above the ground. The pace is faster than the trot but not so fast as the run or gallop. Equine Gaits Movement Defects The feet of an animal should move straight ahead and parallel to a centerline drawn in the direction of travel; any deviations from this way of going constitute defects. Forging The striking of the forefoot by the toe of the hind foot. Equine Gaits Movement Defects Paddling Throwing the front feet outward as they are picked up. This condition is predisposed in horses with toe-narrow or pigeon-toed standing positions. Equine Gaits Pounding A condition in which there is a heavy contact with the ground in contrast to the desired light, springy movement. Defects in conformation that shift the horse’s center of gravity can lead to pounding. Rolling Excessive lateral shoulder motion, characteristic of horses with protruding shoulders.