Meat Goat Production - Illinois Meat Goat Producers

advertisement
Meat Goat Production
Chris Radloff D.V.M.
All About Pets
Veterinary Hospital
Rollin R Farms
Factors for Successful Production





1. Nutrition
2. Health
3. Reproduction
4. Marketing
5. Facilities
Nutrition


Is the highest cost item associated with
production
Adjust for animal needs (ie. Early pregnancy,
Late Pregnancy, Lactation, Kids and Bucks)
Feed Costs

Different for each farm due to variable facilities,
markets, breed variables, and management.
–
Example 50 doe farm

Pre- breeding- Early gestation late summer-fall pasture and
grain
–

Grain expense $9.00 per day
Early Gestation to late gestation Winter-early spring hay and
grain
–
Hay expense $15.00 per day
– Grain expense $4.50 per day
Feed Costs
–
Late Gestation thru lactation early spring to
summer grain and pasture


Grain expense $9.00 per day
Total- $4510.00 or ~$90 per head per year
–
–
–
Pre- breeding- Early gestation $1080.00
Early Gestation to late gestation $2350.00
Late Gestation thru lactation $1080.00
Health





Deworming
Vaccines
Regular hoof care
Body Condition Score
FAMACHA Score
Reproduction


Produce kids for market
Produce kids for replacements
Reproduction Basics






Does (females)
Bucks (males)
Seasonal Polyestrus
Puberty between 4-10 months of age
Pregnancy lasts approx 150 days
Twins and Triplets are common
Does



Should be 60-70% of adult weight at
breeding
Can breed to kid as yearlings
Accelerated Kidding
–
Breeding to have 3 kid crops in 2 years
Does

Seasonal breeders
–
–
–
–
–
Short days signal the breeding season
Typically August-February
Most meat goats are seasonal breeders
Lights and hormones can be used to manipulate
breeding season
Buck Effect
Estrous Cycle



18-22 days long
Estrus 12-36 hours
Ovulation occurs at end of Estrus
Signs of Estrus






Tail Wagging
Swollen vulva
Mounting behavior
Clear discharge from vulva
Vocalizing
Increase in activity
Bucks




Reach puberty 3-6 months of age
Need to separate or castrate by 4 months of
age to prevent unwanted pregnancies
Can use as herd sires at 8-10 months of agebut limit number of does
Breeding Soundness Exam (BSE) performed
prior to breeding season
Breeding Season

You want to have a defined breeding season
–
–

Breeding seasons are typically 60-90 days
Breeding season should not be 365 days
Your breeding season should be determined by:
–
–
–
–
–
Weather
Forage availability
Management
Time availability
When you plan to market or show animals
Assisted Reproduction

Valuable tools for increasing the impact of
outstanding genetics, but also require
increased management, cost, and risk.
–
–
Artificial Insemination
Embryo Transfer
Artificial Insemination





Bucks are collected via; •Artificial Vagina and
Doe in Estrus or Electro-ejaculator
Semen is examined, extended, and frozen.
Semen is placed above or just inside the cervix
by means of a glass speculum and pipette.
Typical conception rates are 30-50% for one
insemination or 60-80% with 2 or three
inseminations.
Laparoscopic AI increases the success rate but
also the danger to doe and the cost.
Artificial Insemination

Plan ahead of time- Months not Weeks
–
–
–
–
Select does and bucks
Vaccinate 2-3 months prior
Multimin or BoSe Injection 2-3 months prior
Nutritional Flush 4-6 weeks prior



Increase feed intake
Monitor BCS
Can increase ovulation rate 5-10%
Artificial Insemination








Semen tank
Speculum
AI Gun
Light source
Thaw Jar
Staw Cutter
Restraint
Training
Artificial Insemination

Timing of Insemination
–
–
–
Toward end of standing estrus
Multiple inseminations 12 hour intervals
Pass pipette through cervical rings
Laparoscopic Insemination/ Surgical
Insemination





Increased conception rate over transcervical
Can use smaller amounts of semen
Increased costs
Increased risks for doe
Does typically need to be synchronized
Laparoscopic Insemination/ Surgical
Insemination

Synchronizing protocol
–
–
–
–
–
Day 0- Insert CIDR
Day 10- Give Prostaglandin Injection (Estrumate
or Lutalyse)
Day 12- Removed CIDR and Injection of PG600
Day 13- Pull food and Water
Day 14- Perform Insemination procedure
Laparoscopic Insemination/ Surgical
Insemination

Synchronizing protocol
–
–
–
–
Day 0- Lutalyse Injection
Day 7- Cystorelin Injection
Day 14- Lutalyse Injection
Day 17- Cystorelin Injection and perform AI
procedure.
Embryo Transfer




Breeding genetically superior animals to
increase chances of more offspring
Costly
Variable results
Increased risks
Embryo Transfer



Good intense management
PLAN AHEAD
No shortcuts
Embryo Transfer
AVOID STRESS
Some examples of how stress is induced are:
-Mixing groups or individual animals together that have not
previously been together.
-Altering the goats regular routine.
-Handling the goats unnecessarily.
-Confining goats in close or unfamiliar surroundings.
-Causing goats to become frightened, such as exposure to
predators
-Weather extremes
Embryo Transfer

The ease with which your goats can be
handled and the avoidance of stress from a
period of time before you began an ET period
until at least the second month of pregnancy
will reflect drastically on your conception
rates and ultimately the number of kids born.
Embryo Transfer

TEASER BUCKS
–
–
–
–
–
Very important to overall success
Recipients and Donors must be exposed to
teasers
Initiate Estrus
Minimum of 30 days, and preferably 60 days,
prior
Vassectomized can still penetrate the females
which allows for better stimulation.
Embryo Transfer

TEASER BUCKS
–
–
–
–
One teaser buck per small Donor groups (5)
One teaser per 25 Recipients
Use Teasers both before you begin a program
and during heat detection at mating time.
Harnesses with different colored chalk can be
strapped to teaser bucks and is helpful in heat
detection.
Planning for Embryo Transfer
•Positive weight gains throughout an ET
program
-Nutritional Flush 4-6 weeks prior




Increase feed intake
Monitor BCS
Vaccinate 2-3 months prior
Multimin or BoSe Injection 2-3 months prior
Embryo Transfer Protocol










Day 0: Insert CIDR in Recipient and Donor does
Day 12: Give 1.5ml of Follitropin in P.M.
Day 13: Give 1.5ml of Follitropin in A.M. and 1.25ml in P.M.
Day 14: Give 1.25ml of Follitropin A.M. and 1.0ml in P.M. Remove
recipient CIDR in P.M.
Day 15: Give 1.0ml of Follitropin in A.M. and 0.75ml in P.M.
Day 16: Remove Donor CIDR in P.M.
Day 17: Give 0.5ml Follitropin in A.M. Breed donors when in heat.
Perform surgical A.I. 12-18 hours after first sign of heat. Observe
recipients for signs of heat.
Day 19-20: Insert new CIDR into donor
Day before Flush Full food and water from donors and recipients in
P.M
Day 23-24: Perform Flush
Embryo Transfer












EXAMPLE OF AN ET PROGRAM SCHEDULE:
DAY 0-Put CIDRs In Recipients
DAY 1-Put CIDRs In Donors DAY 16-Donor FSH Injections in AM & PM
DAY 17-Donor FSH Injections in AM & PM
DAY 18-Donor FSH Injections AM & PM and Recipient CIDRs Out in PM
DAY 19-FSH Inject. in AM & PM, Donor CIDRs Out in PM & Record Recip
Heats
DAY 20-Mate Donors in the AM & PM and Record Recipient Heats
DAY 21-Mate Donors in the AM And Record Recipient Heats
DAY 23 -Put New CIDRs Back In Donors
DAY 25-Take Both Donors and Recipients Off Feed & Water
DAY 26-ET Day:Flush & Lutalyse Donors, and Transfer Embryos To Recips
Embryo Transfer



Does are mated at 12 hr. intervals beginning
at onset of heat and continuing until she will
no longer accept the buck.
One ejaculation per breeding is sufficient.
Don't overwork your bucks.
Do not put a buck with a group of donor does
and leave him. He will very likely service only
one donor.
Embryo Transfer



The collection is done by literally washing the inside
of the uterus with a fluid media in which the embryos
become suspended and then searching this fluid
aided with the use of a low powered microscope.
After evaluating the superovulatory response of the
donor by observing the ovaries, the horns of the
uterus are exposed, one at a time, through a small
incision just in front of the udder.
Each horn is collected separately, using
approximately 60 ml of media for each side.
Embryo Transfer

Results from superovulation are varied.
Averages are approximately:
–
–
–
–
–
8 useable embryos from doe kids
10-12 useable embryos from adults
Older does work the best
Program 6-8 recipients on kid flushes
8-10 recipients on adult flushes
Embryo Transfer





Two embryos are routinely transferred to each recipient
The recipients undergo the same type of general anesthesia as
the donors.
The ovaries and uterus are examined
After a recipient has been determined acceptable, a small
portion of the uterus is exposed through a small incision in the
abdominal wall, and two embryos are injected via a needle
puncture into the uterine horn on the same side that ovulation
occurred.
Post transfer recipient care is also critically important. The
avoidance of stress during this period can influence conception
and kidding rates positively
Reproduction

Pregnancy Diagnosis
–
Ultrasound

–
Can be detected 30-35 days after breeding
BioPRYN Testing



Blood sample to determine pregnancy
Can collect samples 30 days post breeding
Cost $6.50 per test
Marketing

Identify your market
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Local Auctions
Traders
Breeding Stock
Individual consumers
Processors
Producer Cooperative
Grazing for hire
Marketing

Covering costs
–
–

Market 50-70#
Prices variable throughout the year
Example 50 doe farm (~$90.00 per doe for feed
cost)
–
–
–
–
85 kids
Market at 60lbs
$1.75/lb
Total Sales of $8925.00 or ~$178.00 per doe
Facilities


Fencing
Sheds
–
–
–

Kidding area
–

5 sq. ft. per adult animal
Sturdy and durable
Protection from rain, cold wind, and snow
Jugs or hutches
Catch pen
The End
Download
Related flashcards

Teratogens

27 cards

Embryologists

46 cards

ACE inhibitors

26 cards

Statins

13 cards

Create Flashcards