Repowering, Gas-Fired Boilers With Coke

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CFB Firing of Petcoke
for Repower Applications
By Scott L. Darling
Commercial Director
Foster Wheeler North America Corporation
Increasing Natural Gas Demand Driven By Utilities For Electricity Generation
2,100
Billion KWhrs
Renewable
(excl. Hydro)
Natural Gas
Nuclear
Coal
0
9
19
7
9
19
9
0
20
1
0
20
3
0
20
5
0
20
7
0
20
9
1
20
1
Fuel Use In Electricity Generation
1
20
3
1
20
5
1
20
7
1
20
9
Number of Producing Natural Gas Wells in U.S.
“The number of producing gas wells has tripled since 1971, while production
has declined, clear indication that existing basins are becoming tired…”
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
Natural gas deregulated
19
60
19
62
19
64
19
66
19
68
19
70
19
72
19
74
19
76
19
78
19
80
19
82
19
84
19
86
19
88
19
90
19
92
19
94
19
96
19
98
20
00
50,000
Source: EIA
U.S. Dry Natural Gas Production
“Domestic production peaked back in 1971…”
25
1994
20
2002
T Ft3
15
10
5
0
1970
Source: EIA
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Natural Gas Price Is Rising
$/mm Btu
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Floor above $4
Sources: EIA, Wall Street Journal
De
c99
De
c00
De
c01
De
c02
9
Ja
n9
8
Ja
n9
7
Ja
n9
6
Ja
n9
5
Ja
n9
Ja
n9
4
Floor below $2
Gas-Fired Boilers: High Operating Costs
 High Fuel Price
 Gas is a premium fuel
 Increased demand, limited supply has increased gas prices
 Typical gas price; $4-6/mm Btu
 Volatile Fuel Price
 Weather and other effects can produce significant gas price spikes
 Low Boiler Efficiency
 High H2 content means high H2O vaporization losses
Coke-Fired CFB Boilers: Low-Cost Fuel
Provides Low Operating Costs
 Low Fuel Price
 Coke is a refinery byproduct
 Coke price close to delivery cost
 Typical coke price < $1.00/mm Btu
 Relatively Stable Fuel Price
 Similar to coal
 Broad Fuel Flexibility
 Can co-fire opportunity fuels such as biomass, etc.
 High Boiler Efficiency
 Low H2 content means low H2O vaporization losses
CFB Repowering Requires Low Investment Cost
• Replace gas-fired boilers with CFB boilers, by adding the following
equipment;
• New CFB boiler w/ baghouse
• Solid fuel storage, handling
• Limestone and ash storage, handling
• Foundations, electrical, controls
• Re-use existing turbine-generator, balance of plant equipment
CFB Repowering Requires Low Investment Cost
$/kw
2200
2000
$/kw
1800
1600
Greenfield
Repower
1400
1200
1000
800
20
40
60
MW, net
80
100
Coke-Fired CFB Repowering: Operating Cost Savings
Provide Rapid Payback of Investment Costs
Payback Calculations Based on:
 Gas Price Range:
$4 – 7/mm Btu
 Coke Price:
$0.75/mm Btu
 Boiler (Plant) Size:
35 – 100 MWe (net)
 Capital Cost:
$960 - $1250/low
 Payback:
Simple Payback
Coke Fired CFB Repowering
Provides Rapid Payback of Investment Cost
5.50
5.00
Payback - years
4.50
4.00
35 MW
50 MW
75 MW
100 MW
3.50
3.00
2.50
2.00
1.50
$4.00
$5.00
$6.00
Gas Price - per MMBtu
$7.00
Petcoke Fired CFB:
Lower Power Cost Than NGCC
20 Year Levelized COE
6.1
9
7
Cents/kWh
6
5
3.82
Capital
Fixed O&M
Variable O&M
Fuel
4
3
2
1
0
CFB Repower
Petcoke
($.75/mmBtu)
NGCC
($4.00/mmBtu)
Leading the World
in CFB Technology
CFB Technology Is Mature:
Over 480 CFB Boilers Worldwide*
500
450
400
350
Number of
CFB Boilers
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
Year of Sale
Source: McCoy Power Reports
91
93
95
97
99
01
03
* Equivalent to over 27,500 MWe
Excludes CFB’s Designed in China
Foster Wheeler:
Market Leader In CFB Technology 1977 - 2003
Babcock Borsig 2%
Kvaerner
7%
Lurgi/Lentjes
12%
Alstom
30%
B&W 2%
Foster Wheeler
47%
Source: McCoy Power Reports
Based on MWe
Foster Wheeler:
Leading The World In CFB Technology
•
Over 200 Units in Design/Operation
• 300 MWe Units in Operation
• 460 MWe Unit in Design
•
Units in Service Over 24 Years
•
Experience with a Range of Fuels
•
High Availability Demonstrated
•
Sizes to 600 MWe Offered
CFB Technology Offers Fuel Flexibility
 Coal
–
–
–
–
Anthracite
Bituminous
Sub-Bituminous
Lignite
 Waste Coal
– Bituminous Gob
– Anthracite Culm
 Petroleum Coke
– Delayed
– Fluid
 Oil Shale





Oil
Refinery Bottoms
Natural Gas
Peat
Agricultural Waste
– Woodwaste
– Rice Husks
– Bagasse Pith
 Tires
 Sludge
 Refuse Derived Fuel
CFB Process Design Offers Significant Advantages
Feature
Benefit
Low Furnace
Temps.
Low NOx
Low SO2
Fuel Flexibility
Hot Circulating
Solids
Long Solid
Residence Time
Handles Poor
Fuels
Simple Feed
Systems
Good Fuel
Burnout
Good Sorbent
Utilization
Flue Gas
1500-1700oF
1500-1700oF
15-16 ft/sec
Air
Fuel
1/2” x 0
Limestone
1/20” x 0
Air
Foster Wheeler CFB:
Improved Performance With Less Equipment
Furnace
Backpass
Cyclone
Foster Wheeler Has Significant
Experience With CFB Repowering
Plant
Size
Fuel
NISCO
(Louisiana)
2 x 120 MWe
Turow
Remarks
Pet Coke
Replaced Gas-Fired
Boilers
3 x 235 MWe
Brown Coal
PC Boilers
Replaced Coal-Fired (Poland)
Centerior-Bay Shore
(Ohio)
1 x 180 MWe
Pet Coke
Replaced Coal-Fired
PC Boilers
JEA-Northside
(Florida)
2 x 300 MWe
Pet Coke
Replaced Oil/Gas Fired
Boilers
SIPC 1 x 120 MWe
(Illinois)
Waste Coal
Replaced Coal-Fired
Cyclone Boilers
NISCO: First Petcoke Repower
Location
Westlake, Louisiana (USA)
Unique Features
• IPP Project With EPC Contractor
• Repowering of 25+ Year Old Gas Fired Plant
• 2 x 120 MWe CFB Boilers
• World’s Largest Petcoke-fired CFB’s
• IPP Project Based on Petcoke From Nearby Refineries (Citgo, Conoco)
• Low Cost Fuel and Commercial Uses for CFB Ash
NISCO: First Petcoke Firing
Capacity, Mwe (g)
Steam Flow, (SH/RH)
Steam Pressure, psig (SH/RH)
Steam Temperature, °F (SH/RH)
Major Dimensions
Furnace Height, ft.
Furnace Width, ft.
Furnace Depth, ft.
Cyclone Diameter, ft.
2 x 120
825/727
1625/464
1005/1005
112
42
20
18.7
NISCO: First Petcoke Repower
Fuel
Moisture, % wt
Ash, % wt
Sulfur, % wt
HHV, Btu/lb
Coke
10.6
0.3
4.5
13,454
Schedule
Contract Award
Start of Erection
Commercial Operation
Availability
Boiler Availability,
November 1989
June 1990
August 1992
96.1%
NISCO: First Petcoke Repower
Parameters
Guarantee
Test
Capacity, klb/hr
825
908
Boiler Efficiency, %
83.7
90.3
0.6
0.13
NOx, lb/106 Btu
SO2, % Removal (lb/106 Btu)
CO, lb/106 Btu
90 (0.39) > 91 (0.38)
0.06
0.01
Hydrocarbons, lb/106 Btu
0.008
0.001
Limestone Flow, klb/hr
< 38
< 19.5
JEA: Utility CFB Repower
Location
Jacksonville, Florida, USA
Unique Features
–
Replaces Two 275 MWe Oil/Gas-Fired Boilers With two 297.5 MWe
Coal/Petroleum Coke Fired CFB Boilers (Northside Units 1 and 2)
–
World’s Largest CFB Boilers in Operation
–
DOE Cost Sharing For Unit 2 (Part of Clean Coal Technology Program)
–
After Repower, Northside Emissions Will Be 10% Lower Than Current
(Even Though Unit 2 Currently Out of Service)
JEA: Utility CFB Repower
Capacity, Mwe (g)
Steam Flow, klb/hr (SH/RH)
Steam Pressure, psi (SH/RH)
Steam Temperature, °F (SH/RH)
Major Dimensions
Furnace Height, ft
Furnace Width, ft
Furnace Depth, ft
Cyclone Diameter, ft
2 x 300
1991/1771
2620/580
1005/1005
115
85
22
3 x 24
JEA: Utility CFB Repower
Fuel
Moisture, % wt
Ash, % wt
Sulfur, % wt
Volatiles, % wt
HHV, Btu/lb
Emissions
SO2
NOx
Petcoke
Coal
9.0
0.4
6.7
9.0
14,000
0.15 lb/106 Btu
0.09 lb/106 Btu
Schedule
Contract Award
Start of Erection
Commercial Operation
August 1999
June 2000
May/July 2002
5.2
12.8
2.8
35.6
12,690
JEA: Utility CFB Repower
PARAMETERS
GUARANTEE
Capacity, klb/hr (SH/RH)
Boiler Efficiency, % (Coke/Coal)
TEST
1993/1773
90.16/87.57
1950/1734
91.04/88.20
SO2 Capture, % (Coke/Coal)
Boiler
90/90
89.5/99.4
Boiler & Scrubber
98/98
98.5/99.7
Boiler
0.75/0.75
0.96/0.023
Boiler & Scrubber
0.15/0.15
0.134/0.010
NOx, lb/106 Btu (Coke/Coal)
0.09/0.09
0.02/0.04
CO, lb/106 Btu (Coke/Coal)
0.22/0.22
0.02/0.06
SO2, lb/106 Btu (Coke/Coal)
Repowering with Foster Wheeler CFB Boilers:
A Key Strategy to Reduce Costs

Natural gas prices are high and likely to remain high

Switching from gas to solid fuel drastically reduces operating
costs

Repowering with CFB boilers minimizes investment cost

Reduced operating cost rapidly pay back the repowering
investment

FW has the most CFB experience in the industry

FW has the most mature, efficient, reliable CFB design in the
industry
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