View Powerpoint presentation

advertisement
Characterization of dairy cow farms in the
eastern central highlands of Kenya
Mugambi, D. K.1, 2*, Wambugu, S.K.2, Gitunu, A.M.M3, Maina, M4
1Ministry
of Livestock Development, P. O. Box 38-60602, Kianjai, Kenya;
of Agribusiness Management and Trade and 4Department of
Agricultural Science and Technology, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844,
Nairobi, Kenya. 3Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Embu.
2Department
*
5Corresponding author e-mail: [email protected]
Presented at the 4th e-Conference on Agricultural BioSciences
(IeCAB 2011), held online from1st -15th August 2011 at
http://www.m.elewa.org/econferenceIeCAB.php
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Background




Dairying is a major farm activity in Kenya,
accounting for 3.5% of national GDP and acts as a
source of income, employment and food to many
households.
Kenya has the biggest dairy herd in sSA
It has a per capita milk consumption of 76Kg against
WHO’s recommendation of 200Kg
Kenya enjoys a preferential market access to EAC &
COMESA regional trade blocks but does not offer
economic milk quantities for sale there.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Background contd…


The country’s per cow milk yield is low (an
average of 6Kg) while the per unit cost of
production is comparatively high.
Reviewed literature indicates a gap on dairy
farm information relating to efficiency of milk
production.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Problem statement




Kenya appears not to have taken advantage of
having a big dairy cow herd.
Milk consumption per capita is less than half the
recommended amount
Country’s milk is not available in the regional
market where it enjoys preferential access
The average milk production per cow per day is
only 6Kg, and the average cost of production per
litre is also high (26% comparatively higher than
New Zealand). All this leads to a question on the
status of dairy farms in the country.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Study objective

To characterize dairy cow farms in the eastern
central highlands of Kenya.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Significance of the study




Policy maker- get suggestions for planning
and formulating policies on dairy cow
farming.
Extensionists and agri-based institutions-get
new information to pass on to their clients
Researchers- to get a base for further research
Generally-new literature to diverse audience
on the dairy cow farming in the smallholder
farms.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Methodology



Research design- Cross-sectional survey;
present oriented, one-time study, describe and
explain circumstances as perceived by
respondents
Both quantitative and qualitative data was
collected
Study site – Embu East and Igembe South
districts of Kenya; Similar in agro-climatic
conditions, infrastructure, and urbanization
but different in farm-gate milk prices.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Methodology contd…



Population and sampling procedures- population
to constitute all the dairy cow farms in the Embu
east and Igembe south districts in the eastern
central highlands of Kenya.
Fischer’s formula was used to determine the
sample size.
Local livestock extensionists provided a farmers
list from which a computer based sampling was
carried out.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Methodology contd…



Research instruments – A semi-structured
questionnaire was developed and
administered to the farmer respondents
Various interview schedules targeting specific
stakeholder institutions was also developed
and administered.
Pre-testing the instrument – amongst dairy
cow farmers in Embu north district, where the
enumerators were also trained.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Methodology contd…



Data collection procedures –Secondary data;
reports- Ministry of livestock development,
central bureau of statistics, New KCC
Runyenjes, and KARI Embu RRC.
Any available dairy farmer’s records.
Primary data; A semi-structured questionnaire
and interview schedules were used to generate
data and information from the target
respondents.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Methodology contd…



Data analysis procedures:
To prepare data for analysis- editing, cleaning
and coding was undertaken using Microsoft
Excel computer program.
To arrive at various descriptive outputs, the
computer software, SPSS program was made
use of.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
RESULTS
Herd size: 4, with 71% having 2-5
Milking herd size: 55.6% have 1 cow
Average roughage feeds fed/cow/day: 52.15Kg
Concentrate feeds: 2.18Kg/day
Mineral supplement: 1.1Kg/month
Grazing: 84.4 zero-grazing
Chaff-cutter ownership: 23.7%
Breed: 73.3% Friesian and Ayrshire
Land size: 58.5% have 2 ≥ acres
Labour: 2.2hrs/cow/day
Education: 77% have obtained either primary or secondary
level
Group membership: 34.8%
Farmers’ age: 55.6% range, 36-55yrs
Short dairy course: 32.6%
Extension service: 32.6%
Cow dairying experience: 5≤ years
Future in dairying: 92% to stay
Average per cow milk yield: 8.85Kg


Household source of income
rankings: 43.7% dairy cow,; 25.9%
salary/wage; 25.9% crop farming;
4.4% Retail businesses
Main challenges faced: 32.6% cost
of breeding stock;31.1% cost of
feeds;10.4% bad weather
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Conclusions:
The following were some of the issues that came up in this study;

A. Dairy cow farmers had fairly good breeds, but whose average per cow
per day milk yield was lower than their potential, which was attributed
partly to the low levels of roughage feeds, concentrates, and mineral
supplements provided. A large portion of the available fodder was lost
mainly at the feeding point. Only a few farmers had chaff-cutters. The
dairy herd was poorly housed and thus; feeding and general animal
comfort were lower than expected.

B. That the formal education attained, the age and experience achieved, as
well as their desire to keep on dairying for life, were not directly useful to
the dairy enterprise, and

C. That farmers owned more than one plot of farming land with some faroff from the main household farm, thus raising the cost of roughage feeds.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Recommendations:





A; Farmer
Enterprise specialization; The dairy enterprise would benefit by getting
more farmer-produced roughage feeds, as well as general care.
Feeds utilization; the dairy farmer was found not to efficiently utilize the
feed resources. Feeding cattle on well-cut materials in a feed trough would
increase utilization.
Zero-grazing unit; Seeking and making use of the free dairy extension
service by the government would ensure the dairy cow housing units
become easy to clean and the cows remained comfortable.
Information for decision making; the dairy farmer has to be awake at all
times pertaining to the type, quality, and cost of all commercial dairy
feeds.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Recommendations - contd…








B; Government
A new land policy should ensure agricultural land was not sub-divided to uneconomical
sizes.
Providing a favourable environment for agri-input consumers; feed milers, distributors,
agro-vets, and other input providers require competing fairly, and cartel-like entrepreneurs
should not be tolerated. This would ensure both the quality and cost of the dairy cattle-based
inputs become available at fair prices.
Public livestock extension staff to livestock farmer ratio; the current staff to general farmer
ratio remains at an average of 1:5000, against the required 1:200.
Infrastructure; presence of roads, electricity and milk cooling plants in the milk production
areas would go a long way in reducing the cost of cow milk production.
C; Other stakeholders
Learning institutions should be farmer-centered while developing their teaching curriculums
and change it regularly so as to match the continuously changing agricultural products’
market environment.
The researchers require focusing on the dynamic farm conditions. The decreasing land size
per person for instance, requires fodder types that become resilient to rainfall shortage and
diseases.
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
THANK
YOU
4th IeCAB symposium held on 1-15 August
2011
Download
Related flashcards

Economic indicators

17 cards

Economic theories

19 cards

Economic indicators

18 cards

Create Flashcards