An introduction to Nankang Tire Technology OUTLINE 1 Tire Structure Introduction 2 Tire Sidewall Description 3 Tire Production Process 4 Tire Pattern and Characteristics Tire Structure Introduction Tire components Tire Structure Tread─ For excellent road handling and water drainage. Material Synthetic and natural rubber Functions 1.Wear Resistance 2.Heat Generation Resistance 3.Puncture Resistance Because the tire tread connects with road directly, wear resistance, heat generation resistance, and Puncture resistance are important necessary elements in pattern design. Moreover, tread compound should be flexible and resistant to age. Inner Liner ─ Makes tire airtight and prevents air from leaking. Material Butyl rubber Functions Prevent air leaking The Inner lining of rubber located inside the carcass rubber prevents air leaking from the tire. A Tire sidewall mark as” STEEL BELTED TUBELESS” means it's not necessary to use a tube. Carcass (Textile cord plies) ─Keep tire in fixed shape. Material Rayon or polyester Functions Maintain tire shape when pressure inflated. The tire carcass is a framework to support and fix the tires shape after its been inflated. Steel Belt- Keep tire stability and handling performance Material High-strength steel cords Functions 1. Keeps tire shape and directionalstability. 2. Reduces rolling resistance. The Steel belt maintains high shear stress, it also transits from hard tire tread to soft sidewall. Tire steel cord must be high strength and resistant to fatigue. Sidewall─ Provent damage to tire lateral side. Material Natural rubber Functions Protect tire casing from lateral damage. A Radial tire sidewall bending deformation is larger than the Bias tire , therefore it needs bending resistance compound for tire sidewall. Bead Filler ─ For tire steady ability, handling performance, and comfort level. Material Synthetic rubber Functions 1.Enhances handling ability. 2.Gives steering precision. 3.Improves comfort. A harder bead filler made from rubber is normally used to enhance the tire sidewall to ensure radial tire steel layer is kept intact. Nylon Full Cover (Jointless plies)─ Protect tire structure in high speed condition. Material Nylon, embedded in rubber Functions Enhances high-speed stability. A Traditional Nylon cover coated method is used to enclose an entire layer of tire after the engagement. Tire Sidewall Description 3.Tire Sidewall Description 3.1Tire Size Designation PCR: 305/35R24 112V LTR: 31X10.5R15LT 109S 7.50R16 122/120L LT215/75R15 100/97H 3.1Tire Size Designation (PCR) 305 / 35 R 24 112 V Speed Symbol Load Index Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Radial Tire Identification Nominal Aspect Ratio Nominal Section Width (m/m) 3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR) 31 X 10.5 R 15 LT 109 S Speed Symbol Load Index Tire Function Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Radial Tire Identification Nominal Section Width (in.) Nominal Overall Diameter (in.) 3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR) 7.50 R 16 122/120 L Speed Symbol Load Index (Single/Dual) Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Radial Tire Identification Nominal Section Width (in.) 3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR) LT 215 / 75 R 15 100/97 S Speed Symbol Load Index (Single/Dual) Nominal Rim Diameter (in.) Radial Tire Identification Nominal Aspect Ratio Nominal Section Width (m/m) Tire Function 3.1Tire Size Designation-Tire Dimension High aspect ratio tire provide comfort, where as a Low aspect ratio tire leans towards the more sport related performance tire. SPORT Low Aspect Ratio(%) High Aspect Ratio(%) ~55 Series 60 Series 65 Series 70 Series 80 Series COMFORT Tire Inch Up Characteristics: 1.Enhance the handling stability 2.Enhance Cornering Performance 3.Less comfortable when driving 4.More road noise Outer Diameter Rim Diameter Inch Up 3.1Tire Size Designation-Speed & Load Index Load Index (LI) Max load per individual tire Speed Index (SI) LI Kg LI Kg 69 325 84 500 SI Max speed for passenger car tire 70 335 85 515 Q 160 km/h / 99mph 71 345 86 530 R 170 km/h / 106mph 72 355 87 545 S 180 km/h / 112mph 73 365 88 560 T 190 km/h / 118mph 74 375 89 580 H 210 km/h / 130mph 75 387 90 600 V 240 km/h / 150mph 76 400 91 615 W 270 km/h / 169mph 77 412 92 630 Y 300 km/h / 187mph 78 425 93 650 ZR Exceeding 240 km/h / 150mph 79 437 94 670 80 450 95 690 81 462 96 710 82 475 97 730 83 487 98 750 3.2 UTQG Uniform Tire Quality Grade, UTQG, by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NHTSA regulated. It is comprised by Treadwear, Traction, and Temperature. UTQG is required by law for most passenger car tire (PCR), but it is not required for LIGHT TRUCK TIRES, WINTER TIRES, TEMPORARY SPARE TIRES, TRALIER TIRES, AND TIRES UNDER 12” 3.2 UTQG TREADWEAR Treadwear means tread lifespan compared to standard tires index 100. Tread wear grades typically range from 60 to 500, each increment of 20 units. In fact tire wear conditions caused from road quality, driving attitude, tire inflation pressure, and vehicle condition. TRACTION Traction test only on specific wet concrete road or asphalt road in a straight line moving forward. Grades range from AA, A, B to C. AA is the best performance. TEMPERATURE TEMERATURE grades range from A, B to C. It represents that tire under the indoor high speed testing conditions, tires properly maintain the cooling capacity until damage. 3.3 DOT DOT Code means tires comply with U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) safety standards. The first two letters represent tire manufacturer and factory code. The 3rd and 4th letters mean tire size. The 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th letters represent tire specific function (SPEC). The 9th and 10th of the letter marked the week of tires production. The last number indicates the year of tires production. Tire Production Process Production Flow Chart 1ST 2ND MATERIAL MIXING PREPARATION 3RD 4TH BUILDING And CURING INSPECTION Tire Building Procedure 1.Building Process 305/35R24 112V N-990 →Inner Liner Extruding →Carcass Cutting →Jointless Bead Building →Combine bead with Carcass →Auto Steel Belt Cutting System →Jointless Cover System →Tread Extruding and Cutting →1st and 2nd Steps combination 2.Curing Process 3.DB and UF Inspection 4.Indoor High Speed and Durability Test Tire Testing 1.Safety Test 2.Off-Road Test 3.Rolling Resistance Test 4.Noise Test 5.Cornering Test 6.Braking Test Tire Pattern and Characteristics These are major factors for tire pattern design. 1.Excellent grip traction on wet/dry roads. 2.Handling performance. 3.Drainage ability. 4.Avoid irregular tread wear. And……….. 5.A Charming Tire. Tire Basic Design Theory Rib Pattern: 1.Reduce tire rolling resistance. 2.The rib pattern tire used to adopt as comfort ability tire. Lug Pattern: 1.Offer excellent handling and braking ability for off road. Rib-Lug Pattern: 1.Center Rib: Handling, Stability and Skid proof ability. 2.Shoulder Lug: Handling and Braking ability. Block Pattern: 1.Offer excellent handling and braking ability. 2.Keep stability at snow and mud road Tire Category and Characteristic 1.Directional Symmetric Tire─NS-2 2. Non-directional Symmetric Tire─XR-611 3. Non-directional Asymmetric Tire─AS-1 1.Directional Symmetric Tire─NS-2 FL FR Advantage 1.Excellent handling 2.Grip traction 3.Drainage ability Disadvantage 1.Tire pattern cause noisy. 2. Recognize tire direction when mounting/ switching. 2.Non-directional Symmetric Tire─XR-611 Advantage 1.Low noise. 2.No need to recognize the direction of tire when mounting/switching. Disadvantage 1.Tire handling 2.Traction 3.Drainage ability 3. Non-directional Asymmetric Tire─AS-1 Advantage 1. Outside pattern: Advanced handling, traction and drainage ability. 2. Inside pattern: Low noise, comfort ability. Disadvantage 1. Recognized the inside/outside part when mounting or switch tires.