Nankang Tyre Technology

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An introduction to
Nankang Tire Technology
OUTLINE
1
Tire Structure Introduction
2
Tire Sidewall Description
3
Tire Production Process
4
Tire Pattern and Characteristics
Tire Structure Introduction
Tire components
Tire Structure
Tread─ For excellent road handling and water drainage.
Material
Synthetic and natural rubber
Functions
1.Wear Resistance
2.Heat Generation Resistance
3.Puncture Resistance
Because the tire tread connects with road directly, wear resistance, heat
generation resistance, and Puncture resistance are important necessary
elements in pattern design. Moreover, tread compound should be
flexible and resistant to age.
Inner Liner ─ Makes tire airtight and prevents air from leaking.
Material
Butyl rubber
Functions
Prevent air leaking
The Inner lining of rubber located inside the
carcass rubber prevents air leaking from the
tire.
A Tire sidewall mark as” STEEL BELTED
TUBELESS” means it's not necessary to use a
tube.
Carcass (Textile cord plies) ─Keep tire in fixed shape.
Material
Rayon or polyester
Functions
Maintain tire shape when
pressure inflated.
The tire carcass is a framework to support and fix the tires shape after its
been inflated.
Steel Belt- Keep tire stability and handling performance
Material
High-strength steel cords
Functions
1. Keeps tire shape and
directionalstability.
2. Reduces rolling resistance.
The Steel belt maintains high shear stress, it also transits from hard tire
tread to soft sidewall.
Tire steel cord must be high strength and resistant to fatigue.
Sidewall─ Provent damage to tire lateral side.
Material
Natural rubber
Functions
Protect tire casing from lateral
damage.
A Radial tire sidewall bending deformation is larger than
the Bias tire , therefore it needs bending resistance
compound for tire sidewall.
Bead Filler ─
For tire steady ability, handling performance, and comfort level.
Material
Synthetic rubber
Functions
1.Enhances handling ability.
2.Gives steering precision.
3.Improves comfort.
A harder bead filler made from rubber
is normally used to enhance the
tire sidewall to ensure radial tire steel
layer is kept intact.
Nylon Full Cover (Jointless plies)─
Protect tire structure in high speed condition.
Material
Nylon, embedded in rubber
Functions
Enhances high-speed
stability.
A Traditional Nylon cover coated method is used
to enclose an entire layer of tire after the
engagement.
Tire Sidewall Description
3.Tire Sidewall Description
3.1Tire Size Designation
PCR:
305/35R24 112V
LTR:
31X10.5R15LT 109S
7.50R16 122/120L
LT215/75R15 100/97H
3.1Tire Size Designation (PCR)
305 / 35 R 24 112 V
Speed Symbol
Load Index
Nominal Rim Diameter (in.)
Radial Tire Identification
Nominal Aspect Ratio
Nominal Section Width (m/m)
3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR)
31 X 10.5 R 15 LT 109 S
Speed Symbol
Load Index
Tire Function
Nominal Rim Diameter (in.)
Radial Tire Identification
Nominal Section Width (in.)
Nominal Overall Diameter (in.)
3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR)
7.50 R 16 122/120 L
Speed Symbol
Load Index (Single/Dual)
Nominal Rim Diameter (in.)
Radial Tire Identification
Nominal Section Width (in.)
3.1Tire Size Designation (LTR)
LT 215 / 75 R 15 100/97 S
Speed Symbol
Load Index (Single/Dual)
Nominal Rim Diameter (in.)
Radial Tire Identification
Nominal Aspect Ratio
Nominal Section Width (m/m)
Tire Function
3.1Tire Size Designation-Tire Dimension
High aspect ratio tire provide comfort, where as a Low aspect ratio tire
leans towards the more sport related performance tire.
SPORT
Low Aspect Ratio(%)
High Aspect Ratio(%)
~55 Series
60 Series
65 Series
70 Series
80 Series
COMFORT
Tire Inch Up Characteristics:
1.Enhance the handling stability
2.Enhance Cornering Performance
3.Less comfortable when driving
4.More road noise
Outer
Diameter
Rim
Diameter
Inch Up
3.1Tire Size Designation-Speed & Load Index
Load Index (LI)
Max load per individual tire
Speed Index (SI)
LI
Kg
LI
Kg
69
325
84
500
SI
Max speed for passenger car tire
70
335
85
515
Q
160 km/h / 99mph
71
345
86
530
R
170 km/h / 106mph
72
355
87
545
S
180 km/h / 112mph
73
365
88
560
T
190 km/h / 118mph
74
375
89
580
H
210 km/h / 130mph
75
387
90
600
V
240 km/h / 150mph
76
400
91
615
W
270 km/h / 169mph
77
412
92
630
Y
300 km/h / 187mph
78
425
93
650
ZR
Exceeding 240 km/h / 150mph
79
437
94
670
80
450
95
690
81
462
96
710
82
475
97
730
83
487
98
750
3.2 UTQG
Uniform Tire Quality Grade, UTQG, by the U.S. National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration, NHTSA regulated. It is comprised by Treadwear,
Traction, and Temperature.
UTQG is required by law for most passenger car tire (PCR), but it is not
required for LIGHT TRUCK TIRES, WINTER TIRES, TEMPORARY SPARE TIRES,
TRALIER TIRES, AND TIRES UNDER 12”
3.2 UTQG
TREADWEAR
Treadwear means tread lifespan compared to standard tires index 100.
Tread wear grades typically range from 60 to 500, each increment of 20
units. In fact tire wear conditions caused from road quality, driving
attitude, tire inflation pressure, and vehicle condition.
TRACTION
Traction test only on specific wet concrete road or asphalt road in a straight
line moving forward.
Grades range from AA, A, B to C. AA is the best performance.
TEMPERATURE
TEMERATURE grades range from A, B to C. It represents that tire under the
indoor high speed testing conditions, tires properly maintain the cooling
capacity until damage.
3.3 DOT
DOT Code means tires comply with U.S. Department of Transportation
(DOT) safety standards.
The first two letters represent tire manufacturer and factory code.
The 3rd and 4th letters mean tire size.
The 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th letters represent tire specific function (SPEC).
The 9th and 10th of the letter marked the week of tires production.
The last number indicates the year of tires production.
Tire Production Process
Production Flow Chart
1ST
2ND
MATERIAL
MIXING
PREPARATION
3RD
4TH
BUILDING
And
CURING
INSPECTION
Tire Building Procedure
1.Building Process
305/35R24 112V N-990
→Inner Liner Extruding
→Carcass Cutting
→Jointless Bead Building
→Combine bead with Carcass
→Auto Steel Belt Cutting System
→Jointless Cover System
→Tread Extruding and Cutting
→1st and 2nd Steps combination
2.Curing Process
3.DB and UF Inspection
4.Indoor High Speed and
Durability Test
Tire Testing
1.Safety Test
2.Off-Road Test
3.Rolling Resistance Test
4.Noise Test
5.Cornering Test
6.Braking Test
Tire Pattern and Characteristics
These are major factors for tire pattern design.
1.Excellent grip traction on wet/dry roads.
2.Handling performance.
3.Drainage ability.
4.Avoid irregular tread wear.
And………..
5.A Charming Tire.
Tire Basic Design Theory
Rib Pattern:
1.Reduce tire rolling resistance.
2.The rib pattern tire used to adopt as comfort ability tire.
Lug Pattern:
1.Offer excellent handling and braking ability for off road.
Rib-Lug Pattern:
1.Center Rib: Handling, Stability and Skid proof ability.
2.Shoulder Lug: Handling and Braking ability.
Block Pattern:
1.Offer excellent handling and braking ability.
2.Keep stability at snow and mud road
Tire Category and Characteristic
1.Directional Symmetric Tire─NS-2
2. Non-directional Symmetric Tire─XR-611
3. Non-directional Asymmetric Tire─AS-1
1.Directional Symmetric Tire─NS-2
FL
FR
Advantage
1.Excellent handling
2.Grip traction
3.Drainage ability
Disadvantage
1.Tire pattern cause noisy.
2. Recognize tire direction when mounting/
switching.
2.Non-directional Symmetric Tire─XR-611
Advantage
1.Low noise.
2.No need to recognize the direction of tire
when mounting/switching.
Disadvantage
1.Tire handling
2.Traction
3.Drainage ability
3. Non-directional Asymmetric Tire─AS-1
Advantage
1. Outside pattern: Advanced handling, traction
and drainage ability.
2. Inside pattern: Low noise, comfort ability.
Disadvantage
1. Recognized the inside/outside part when
mounting or switch tires.
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