CDMA Key Technolgy

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CDMA Key Technology
ZTE Corporation
CDMA Division
CDMA Key Technology
Spread Spectrum Communication
Code Division Multiple Access
Power Control
Diversity
Soft Handoff
Rake Receiver
Variable Rate Vocoder
Power Control
Why power control is needed for CDMA

Near-far problem
If all mobiles transmitted at the same power level, the base
station would receive unnecessarily strong signals from
mobiles nearby and extremely weak signals from mobiles
that are far away. This will reduce the capacity of the system.

Power Control
Power control is a CDMA feature that enables mobiles to
adjust the power at which they transmit. This ensures that the
base station receives all signals at the appropriate power.
Both forward and reverse links uses power control techniques.
Power Control (1)

The Need for Power Control
 CDMA is an Interference-limited system (not frequency-limited)
 Same frequency transmission: system internal interference critical to
system capacity and voice quality
 Transmit power of each mobile should be controlled to limit
interference
 Changes of RF environment: fast and slow fading, shadowing,
external interference.
 Near and Far effect: mobile closer to the base station transmit less
power than those far away

Objective: Reducing interference by limiting transmitted power on
the forward and reverse links while maintaining link quality
 Meet user-defined performance objectives: BER, FER, capacity,
dropped-call rate, coverage
Power Control (2)

Reverse Link Power Control: on the basis of E/I ratio
 Open Loop Power Control :
No involvement of BS, MS determines initial power transmitted
on the access and traffic channels, adjustment for path loss
 Closed loop control :inner loop control/outer loop control:
MS seizes a forward traffic channel and receives control bits, MS
and BS engage in closed-loop power control
 Inner loop control: Keeps the mobile as close to its target E/I
ratio as possible
 Outer loop control: Adjust the base station target E/I ratio for
a given mobile

Forward Link Power Control : on the basis of FER
 Reducing both in-cell interference and other cell/sector
interference
 FERs are measured instead of E/I
Power Control (3)
Reverse Open Loop Power Control
(Constant)
Transmitting Power,Control range:±32 dB
MS
Receiving Power
Reverse Closed Loop Power Control
BS
Target
Eb / Io
Adjustment instruction
Power control
algorithm
Transmitting Power
MS
Information packet
Eb / Io
Inner loop
Outer loop
Adjustment of Target E/I
Error rate algorithm
Eb / Io
Power Control (4)
Forward Link Power Control
Transmitting Power
FER
Base Station
MS
Power Control (Continued)
Reverse Open Loop
Reverse Open Loop
Power Control
Mobile

BTS
Reverse Link Open Loop Power Control


An initial estimation of required transmission power by the mobile
Coarse measure of path loss based upon total receive power at mobile
Receive Power+Transmitted Power=-73(dbm)+Parameter
Power Control (Continued)
Reverse Closed Loop
Mobile
BTS
or
Reverse Closed Loop
Power Control
Signal Strength
Measurement
Setpoint

Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control



Used to compensate for asymmetries in forward/reverse links
Up/down commands sent to mobile based upon SNR measured at Base
Station compared to a specified threshold
Transmitted 800 times per second at 1dB increments
Power Control (Continued)
Reverse Outer Loop
Mobile
BSC
BTS
or
Reverse Closed Loop
Power Control
Signal Strength
Measurement
Setpoint

Reverse Outer
Loop Power
Control
FER
Reverse Outer Loop Power Control



Setpoint is varied according to FER on reverse link (measured at the
Base Station Controller)
Sampled at 50 frames per second rate (20msec)
Setpoint adjusted every 1-2 seconds
Power Control (Continued)
Stat. Backward link
=1%?
FER
N
Outer loop adjustment
algorithm, new
Eb
N0
Outer-loop adjustment
Y
Closed-loop control
N
BS
measurement
Eb
Eb
Nt
> Eb N 0 ?
Power control
(bit) 0
Nt
1%
Power control
(bit) 1
Y
BS
MS
Transmit power
adjustment
Transmit
Power
control
command detection
Power Control (Continued)
Forward Link
Mobile
BTS
BSC
Adjust Fwd.
power
FER
Forward Link Power Control

Forward Link Power Control


Base station slowly decreases power to each mobile
As FER (measured at the mobile) increases, the mobile requests a raise
in forward link power
Power Control (Continued)
CDMA Power Control Summary
Reverse Open Loop
Power Control
Mobile
BSC
BTS
or
Reverse Closed Loop
Power Control
FER
Signal Strength
Measurement
Setpoint
Adjust Fwd.
power
Reverse Outer
Loop Power
Control
FER
Forward Link Power Control
All types of power control work simultaneously
to minimize transmit power
Diversity
Three types of diversity in CDMA.
 Time
Diversity
 Frequency Diversity
 Space Diversity
Diversity Reception (1)

Definition:


Simultaneous reception of multiple input signals. Combining and
correlation of the signals help reduce multi-path fading
Types of Diversity: compensation for fading factors of
frequency, space and time


Frequency diversity reception: spread spectrum
transmission
Space diversity reception
 Two
or more separate antennas for reception and transmission to
guarantee separate propagation fading/loss
 Two BTS: in case of soft handoff
Reception
Reception
BS 1
BS 2
Diversity Reception (2)

Time Diversity Reception

RAKE receivers of both BS and MS. When the
delay of the signals is larger than 1μs,RAKE
receiver extract them without confusion
Reception window 1
Reception window 2
Rake Receiver



The rake receiver is a CDMA
feature that turns what is a
problem in other technologies into
an advantage for CDMA.
Signals sent over the air can take
multi-paths to the receiver. It can
result in the receiving getting
serveral versions of the same signal
but at slightly different times.
Multi-paths can cause a loss of
signal through cancellation in other
technologies.
CDMA rake receiver is multiple
receivers in one. The rake receiver
identifies the three strongest multipath signals and combines them to
produce one very strong signal.
Multi-path Propagation
Rayleigh Fading
A

10-15 dB
t
Diversity (Continued)
Time Diversity
Output
C0
g0
Input
Convolutional
Interleaving
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g1
C1
g2
C2
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Diversity (Continued)
Frequency Diversity
1.25 MHz
Bandwidth of Traditional Signal :
200~300 KHz
50 times
Bandwidth of CDMA Signal :
1.25MHz
200 - 300 KHz
Diversity (Continued)
Space Diversity
Rake Receiver
Soft Handoff
Diversity Antenna
Correlator
Correlator
RX1
Correlator
MS
RX0
Diversity receiver is useful in reducing multipath fading
Soft Handoff


Soft Handoff
Softer Handoff

Soft/Softer Handoff
A soft handoff establishes a
connection with the new BTS prior to
breaking the connection with the old
one. This is possible because CDMA
cells use the same frequency and the
mobile uses a rake receiver.
The CDMA mobile assists the
network in the handoff. The mobile
detects a new pilot as it travels to the
next coverage area. The new BTS
then establishes a connection with the
mobile. This new communication link
is established while the mobile
maintains the link with the old BTS.
Soft handoffs are also called “makebefore-break”. It reduces call drop.
Soft Handoff (1)



Features:

First establish target connection, then cut off the original
connection

Seamless communication, less call dropping, high voice
quality
Types of soft handoff:

Inter sector: softer handoff, performed by BTS

Inter BS : soft handoff, performed by BSC
Inter BSC/MSC Soft Handoff

CDMA system with High-speed packet switching
functions
Soft Handoff (2)
MSC
BSC
MSC
BSC
MSC
BSC
MSC
MSC
MSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
SVBS
SVBS
SVBS
SVBS
SVBS
SVBS
HIRS
HIRS
HIRS
HIRS
HIRS
HIRS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS1
BTS2
BTS1
BTS2
BTS1
BTS2
Soft Handoff Process (3)
Pilot Strength
Ec/No
BS A
BS B
Threshold
r1
r2
Threshold
Hand off execution area
Timing
BS C
t1
t2
Soft Handoff from BS A to BS B
t3
t
Variable Rate Vocoder



Three types of vocoder
8K QCELP
13K QCELP
8K EVRC(Enhanced variable rate
codec)
Four kinds of speed for 8K QCELP
9.6 Kbps - High Speed
4.8 Kbps - Middle Speed
2.4Kbps - Low Speed
1.2Kbps - Not Talk or Noise
It reduces the transmitted power, so
its interference to all CDMA system
is reduced and the capacity of all
system increases.
Voice Coding

Q-CELP Voice Coder with variable rate



Voice quality of CDMA 8K Vocoder equals that of GSM 13K
Vocoder
CDMA13K Vocoder has good Voice quality close to that of
wire telephone with strong background noise reduction
CDMA EVRC very close to CDMA 13K Vocoder
64k
PCM
13k
GSM
8k
CDMA
13k
CDMA
Q-CELP Coding
Data rate
8KHz
Noise
LPC
Filter parameter
Sub-frame
Refresh
20 ms
(Fixed)
Code table
Para Sub-frame
Refresh
Self-adaptive
Threshold
Data rate
Para Frame
Channel
Sampling
160
Sampled
Value
Refresh
Multiplex
Voice
20 ms
Tone parameter
Sub-frame
Thank you
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