Forages for Horses - Perquimans County Center

advertisement
Forages for Horses
Dr. Robert A. Mowrey
Extension Horse Husbandry
North Carolina State University
Forage



The foundation of a horse’s feeding
program
Provide grains and protein, mineral &
vitamin supplements only when deficient
in forage
The economical approach to feeding
Forages Suitable for
Equines
 Legume
 Grass
 Cereal
Grain
 Mixed grass / legume
What is Quality Hay?


High in nutrient content
Eaten in large amounts


Palatable vs. acceptable
Appearance?
Factors Affecting Hay Quality

Stage of maturity


Foreign material





Leafiness vs. stem
Weeds
Debris
Other forages
Color
Condition and odor
Green Color “Means”



Cut at immature stage
Proper curing
High in carotene
Vitamin A
Condition & Odor

Shake hay flake



White cloud = mold spores
Brown cloud = dusty hay
Avoid moldy hay


Feed refusal factor
colic
Stage of Maturity

Cut forages early



Grasses- prior to seed head
Legumes- at 10% bloom
Nutrient content decreases with maturity
Grass field cut
June 3
Crude Fiber (CF)
29%
Crude Protein (CP)
15%
Digestible Energy (DE) 65%
June 27
40%
5%
50%
Effect of Maturity on
Digestibility

Immature plants





Thin cell wall
Cell contents- protein, sugar, fat, starch, pectin
Low CF
High CP; DE
Mature plants




Thick cell wall
Thin cell contents
High CF
Low DE, CP
Nutrient Content of Forages
in Horse Diets1
Orchardgrass
fresh
immature hay
mature hay
Coastal Bermudagrass
fresh
immature hay
mature hay
1
DM
DE
(%)
(Mcal/lb)
23.5
89.1
90.6
0.24
0.88
0.78
30.3
88.4
93.0
0.33
0.87
0.79
CP
(%)
ADF
CF
(%)
(%)
3.0
11.4
7.6
7.2
30.1
34.2
7.5
30.2
33.6
3.8
10.6
7.3
11.1
30.0
35.7
8.6
26.7
30.4
Nutrient Requirements of the Horse (1989). As fed basis.
Feed Testing Service

Conducted by NCDA & CS


$10.00 per sample
Test Kits


Free
Available at County Extension Office
Forage Protein Content
Hay
%CP
% DP %Lysine
Legumes
Red Clover
Alfalfa
Lespedeza
Timothy
14.9
15.0
13.4
9.0
8.3
10.0
7.5
6.0
0.64
0.64
0.60
0.40
Grasses
Orchardgrass
Bermudagrass
Fescue
10.1
9.5
8.4
6.0
4.5
3.7
0.35
0.43
0.41
Forage Energy Content
DE
Hay
Mcal/kg
TDN %
Legumes
Red Clover
Alfalfa
Lespedeza
Timothy
2.16
2.16
2.07
1.98
49
49
52
45
Grasses
Orchardgrass
Bermudagrass
Fescue
2.07
1.94
1.81
44
44
45
Forage Mineral
Content
Ratio
Hay
%Ca % P
Ca:P
Legumes
Red Clover
Alfalfa
Lespedeza
Timothy
14.9
15.0
1.04
0.41
0.25
0.25
0.23
0.19
6:1
6:1
4.5:1
2.15:1
Grasses
Orchardgrass
Bermudagrass
Fescue
0.35
0.46
0.36
0.31
0.18
0.21
1.1:1
2.5:1
1.7:1
Forage Fed as Hay vs. Grazed
Performance of Yearling
Horses on Pasture and
Supplemental Feed
Hansen et al. 1987, Texas A& M
University
Experiment Design
18 Yearlings, 295 kg Body Weight
188 day continuous grazing trial (MarchSept)
Part 1= 56 days (ryegrass +
bermudagrass); March-May
Part 2= 132 days (Bermuda); June- Oct
Stocking rate: 3.0 horses (700 lbs.)/acre
Treatments
PAS - pasture
1/2 Fed - pasture + grain (25% NRC
energy)
Fed - pasture + grain (50% NRC
energy)
Estimated Cost/Day
Pasture
Pasture + 1/2
Feed
Pasture + Full
Feed
$0.14
$0.58
$1.02
Download
Related flashcards

Pediatrics

86 cards

Breastfeeding

11 cards

Tourette syndrome

17 cards

Pediatrics journals

50 cards

British paediatricians

21 cards

Create Flashcards