Handout for Topic 2 (Part 6, PowerPoint)

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The Rise of Popular Democracy and
the Emergence of Political Parties
1790s - 1824
1. Pre-Revolution View of Political Parties – Parties are evils
and the only proper Party is one that eliminates all Parties.
2. Madison (also Jefferson & Monroe) – Sores on the Body
Politic -- Parties are the Price one Pays for Liberty;
they can be checked but not eliminated.
Unanimity was the
ideal!
3. Martin van Buren – Parties are Inevitable and Good!
Table 1a.
The Inclusion of New States
State
Admitted
Original 13
1787-1790
Vermont
Kentucky
Tennessee
Ohio
Louisiana
Indiana
Mississippi
Illinois
Alabama
Maine
Missouri
1791
1792
1796
1803
1812
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
Slavery
Status
See
Notes
Free
Slave
Slave
Free
Slave
Free
Slave
Free
Slave
Free
Slave
Total
Free
States
Total
Slave
States
Population
at Entry
7
6
3-4,000,000
8
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
6
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
92,329
103,133
77,638
100,984
91,926
98,115
62,205
46,625
116,016
298,335
73,973
US
Population
at Previous
Census
3,929,214
3,929,214
3,929,214
5,308,483
7,239,881
7,239,881
7,239,881
7,239,881
7,239,881
9,638,459
9,638,459
Arkansas
Michigan
Florida
Texas
Iowa
Wisconsin
California
Minnesota
Oregon
Kansas
West Virginia
Nevada
Nebraska
Colorado
North Dakota
South Dakota
Montana
Washington
Idaho
Wyoming
Utah
Oklahoma
Arizona
New Mexico
Alaska
Hawaii
1836
1837
1845
1845
1846
1848
1850
1858
1859
1861
1863
1864
1867
1876
1889
1889
1889
1889
1890
1890
1896
1907
1912
1912
1960
1960
Slave
Free
Slave
Slave
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
Free
12
13
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
13
13
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
70,700
158,079
70,961
212,592
132,573
360,577
92,597
138,834
48,428
132,925
296,286
21,111
94,747
132,542
175,576
323,567
132,548
329,020
88,548
62,555
250,361
1,396,900
230,000
333,600
226,000
633,000
12,886,020
12,886,020
17,069,453
17,069,453
17,069,453
17,069,453
23,191,876
23,191,876
23,191,876
31,443,321
31,443,321
31,443,321
31,443,321
39,818,449
50,155,783
50,155,783
50,155,783
50,155,783
62,947,714
62,947,714
62,947,714
75,994,575
91,972,266
91,972,266
178,464,236
178,464,236
Notes: In 1776, slavery had been abolished in only 2 of the original 13 states. By 1849, it had been abolished in all of the 7
“free” states among the original 13. However, abolition was often restricted only to those born after a certain date. In 1860,
18 slaves remained in New Jersey, a “free” state. (Freehling, 1990, pp. 133, 480). Slavery also existed in the form of “black
apprentices” in the “free” states. Apprentices continued in Illinois until 1824 (Freehling, 1990, p. 149). President Lincoln’s
Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 freed slaves only in Confederate states but, for simplicity, all states are treated as “Free”
beginning in 1864. Slavery was ended in all of the United States by the 13th amendment, ratified 18 December 1865. Source
for population figures, Stewart and Weingast, 1992, p. 256, Morison and Commager, 1950, p. 790.
Presidential Elections: 1804 – 1820
1804
1808
1812
1816
1820
Thomas Jefferson (J-Republican)
162
103,943
James Madison (J-Republican)
122
123,716
James Madison (J-Republican)
128
140,197
James Monroe (J-Republican)
183
76,560
James Monroe (J-Republican)
231
87,183
Charles Pinckney (Federalist)
14
38,723
Charles Pinckney (Federalist)
47
62,425
De Witt Clinton (Federalist)
89 128,065
(Miscellaneous Federalists)
34
17,611
(Miscellaneous Federalists)
1
16,727
States (Popular)
17 (10)
17 ( 9)
18 ( 8)
19 ( 9)
24 (15)
States – 1790, 13; 1796, 16; 1821, 24.
Between 1810 – 1820 six new states entered
the Union and all dropped property
qualifications for voting.
This put pressure on the remaining older
states to follow suit.
Method of Choosing Presidential Electors – 1800 only 2
states by popular vote; 1824, 18 of 24 States by
popular vote; 1828, 22 of 24 States by popular vote
(only DE and SC held out); 1832 all 24 States by
popular vote.
Turnout – 1824, 324,000 votes 25% turnout; 1828,
1,100,000 votes, 58-60% turnout.
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