Chapter 2

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Discovering Computers
Technology in a World of Computers,
Mobile Devices, and the Internet
Chapter 2
The Internet
Objectives Overview
Discuss the evolution
of the Internet
Briefly describe
various broadband
Internet connections
Describe the purpose
of an IP address and
its relationship to a
domain name
Describe features of
browsers and identify
the components of a
web address
Describe ways to
enter effective search
text
Explain benefits and
risks of using social
networking sites
See Page 54
for Detailed Objectives
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
2
Objectives Overview
Describe uses of
various types of
websites
Identify and briefly
describe the steps
required for web
publishing
Explain how email,
email lists, instant
messaging, chat rooms,
discussion forums, VoIP,
and FTP work
See Page 54
for Detailed Objectives
Explain how the web
uses graphics,
animation, audio,
video, and virtual
reality
Identify the rules of
netiquette
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
3
The Internet
• The Internet is a
worldwide collection of
networks that links
millions of businesses,
government agencies,
educational institutions,
and individuals
Pages 54 - 55
Figure 2-1
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
4
Evolution of the Internet
• The Internet originated as ARPANET in September
1969 and had two main goals:
Allow scientists at
different physical
locations to share
information and work
together
Page 54
Function even if part of
the network were
disabled or destroyed
by a disaster
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
5
Evolution of the Internet
1969 ARPANET
becomes
functional
Today Millions of
hosts connect to
the Internet
1984 ARPANET
has more than
1,000 individual
computers
linked as hosts
Page 54
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Connecting to the Internet
• With wired connections, a computer or device
physically attaches via a cable or wire to a
communications device
• Computers without a communications device can
use a wireless modem
Page 56
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Connecting to the Internet
Page 56
Figure 2-2
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
8
Connecting to the Internet
Wired
Wireless
• Cable Internet
service
• DSL (digital
subscriber line)
• Fiber to the
Premises (FTTP)
Page 57
• Wi-Fi (wireless
fidelity)
• Mobile broadband
• Fixed wireless
• Satellite Internet
Service
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
9
Connecting to the Internet
• A cybercafé is a location that provides computers with
Internet access, usually for a fee
• A hot spot is a wireless network that provides Internet
connections to mobile computers and devices
Page 57
Figure 2-3
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
10
Connecting to the Internet
• An Internet service provider (ISP) is a business
that provides individuals and organizations access
to the Internet free or for a fee
• Bandwidth represents the amount of data that
travels over a network
– Megabyte (MB)
– Gigabyte (GB)
Page 58
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Connecting to the Internet
Page 59
Figure 2-4
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Connecting to the Internet
• An IP address is a sequence of numbers that uniquely
identifies each computer or device connected to the
Internet
• A domain name is a text-based name that corresponds to
the IP address
• A DNS server translates the domain name into its
associated IP address
Pages 60 - 61
Figure 2-5
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Connecting to the Internet
Page 60
Table 2-3
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Connecting to the Internet
Page 61
Figure 2-6
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
15
The World Wide Web
• The World Wide Web (WWW), or web, consists of a
worldwide collection of electronic documents
(webpages)
• A website is a collection of related webpages and
associated items
• A web server is a computer that delivers requested
webpages to your computer
• Web 2.0 refers to websites that provide a means for
users to share personal information, allow users to
modify website content, and provide applications
through a browser
Pages 61 - 62
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
16
The World Wide Web
• A browser is an application
that enables users with an
Internet connection to
access and view webpages
on a computer or mobile
device
• A home page is the first
page that a website
displays
• Desktop browsers typically
support tabbed browsing
Pages 62 - 63
Figure 2-7
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
17
The World Wide Web
• A webpage has a unique address called a web
address or URL
Pages 64 - 65
Figure 2-8
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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The World Wide Web
• A web app is an application stored on a web
server that you access through a browser
– Web app hosts usually provide storage for users’ data
and information on their servers, known as cloud
storage
Pages 65 – 66
Figure 2-10
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
19
Types of Websites
• A search engine is software that finds websites,
webpages, images, videos, news, maps, and other
information related to a specific topic
• A subject directory classifies webpages in an
organized set of categories, such as sports or
shopping, and related subcategories
Pages 67 - 68
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Types of Websites
• Search operators can help to refine your search
Page 68
Table 2-4
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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The World Wide Web
• There are thirteen types of Web sites
Online social
network
News, weather,
sports, and other
mass media
Pages 68 – 72
Informational
Media sharing and
bookmarking sites
Educational
Business,
Governmental,
and Organizational
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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The World Wide Web
Blogs
Entertainment
Pages 72 – 75
Wikis
Health and
Science
Financial
Travel and
Mapping
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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The World Wide Web
Shopping
and Auctions
Careers and
Employment
E-Commerce
Portals
Pages 75 – 78
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The World Wide Web
• Web publishing is the development and
maintenance of websites
Plan the
website
Pages 78 - 79
Design
the
website
Create
the
website
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
Host the
website
Maintain
the
website
25
Media on the Web
• Multimedia refers to any application that
combines text with:
Page 79
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Media on the Web
• A graphic is a digital
representation of
nontext information
• Graphic formats include
BMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG,
and TIFF
Pages 80 – 81
Figure 2-21
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Media on the Web
• An infographic is a
visual representation of
data and information,
designed to
communicate quickly,
simplify complex
concepts, or present
patterns or trends
Pages 80 – 81
Figure 2-22
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Media on the Web
• Animation is the appearance of motion created
by displaying a series of still images in sequence
Page 81
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Media on the Web
• Audio includes music, speech, or any other sound
– Compressed to reduce file size
• You listen to audio on your computer using a media
player
Page 82
Figure 2-23
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Media on the Web
• Video consists of images displayed in motion
• Virtual reality (VR) is the use of computers to simulate a
real or imagined environment that appears as a threedimensional space
Page 83
Figure 2-24
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Media on the Web
A plug-in is a program
that extends the
capability of a Web
browser
Page 83
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Other Internet Services
• Email is the
transmission of
messages and files via a
computer network
• An email program
allows you to create,
send, receive, forward,
store, print, and delete
email messages
Page 84
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Other Internet Services
Page 85
Figure 2-25
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Other Internet Services
• An email list is a group of email addresses used for mass
distribution of a message
Page 86
Figure 2-26
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Other Internet Services
• Instant messaging (IM) is a real-time Internet
communications service
Page 86
Figure 2-27
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Other Internet Services
• A chat is a real-time
typed conversation that
takes place on a
computer or mobile
device
• A chat room is a
website or application
that permits users to
chat with others who
are online at the same
time
Page 87
Figure 2-30
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Other Internet Services
• A discussion forum is an online area in which
users have written discussions about a particular
subject
Page 87
Figure 2-29
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Other Internet Services
• VoIP (Voice over IP) enables users to speak to other
users over the Internet
Page 88
Figure 2-31
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
39
Other Internet Services
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is an Internet standard
that permits file uploading and downloading to
and from other computers on the Internet
• Many operating systems include FTP capabilities
• An FTP server is a computer that allows users to
upload and/or download files using FTP
Page 88
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
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Netiquette
• Netiquette is the code of acceptable Internet
behavior
Page 90
Figure 2-30
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
41
Summary
Evolution of
the Internet
The Web
Other services
available on
the Internet
Page 91
Various types
of websites
Netiquette
Discovering Computers: Chapter 2
42
Discovering Computers
Technology in a World of Computers,
Mobile Devices, and the Internet
Chapter 2
The Internet
Chapter 2 Complete
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