Families of the Periodic Table

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Organization of the elements
Families and periods of the
Periodic Table
Periodic Table Family
Photo Album
• How do we know who is in
the same family?
• They are usually in the
same group (vertical
column) on the periodic
table.
• They have similar
properties and atomic
structures
Families on the Periodic Table
• Columns are grouped into
families.
• Families may be one column, or
several columns put together.
• Families have names rather than
the group numbers. (Just like
your family has a common last
name.)
Important Features of the Periodic Table: Group
(Family)
•each column of elements on the periodic table
1
1
1
H
2
1.008
2
3
4
3
4
Li
Be
6.941
9.012
17
2
He
4.003
5
6
7
8
9
10
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
10.811
20.180
12.001
14.007
15.999
18.998
13
14
15
16
17
18
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
12
Mg
22.990
24.305
26.982
28.086
30.974
32.066
35.453
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Kr
40.078
37
38
Rb
Sr
87.62
3
44.956
4
47.87
5
50.942
6
51.996
7
54.938
39
40
41
42
43
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
92.906
95.94
Tc
88.906
91.224
(98)
8
55.845
44
Ru
101.07
9
58.933
10
58.69
11 12
63.546
65.39
69.723
72.61
74.922
78.96
79.904
39.948
83.80
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
106.42
107.868
112.4
114.818
118.710
121.760
127.60
126.904
131.29
102.906
55
56
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
Cs
Ba
Lu
Ta
137.327
174.967
Hf
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
200.59
Tl
204.383
Pb
207.2
Bi
208.980
Po
At
Rn
103
112
Uub
113
114
115
117
118
Uut
Uuq
Uup
116
Uuh
Uus
Uuo
(284)
(289)
(288)
132.905
7
15 16
11
85.468
6
13 14
Na
39.098
5
18
How many groups
(families)
are on the
Periodic Table
Of Elements?
87
88
Fr
Ra
(223)
(226)
Lr
(262)
178.49
180.95
183.84
190.23
192.217
195.078
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
Hs
Mt
Ds
Rg
(266)
(264)
(269)
(269)
(272)
(261)
Lanthanides
Actinides
(262)
186.207
(268)
196.967
(285)
(209)
(292)
(210)
(222)
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Sm
Dy
Er
158.925
164.930
167.26
168.934
Yb
151.964
162.50
Ho
140.908
157.25
Tb
140.116
150.36
Gd
138.906
(145)
Eu
Tm
144.24
Pm
173.04
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
232.038
231.036
238.029
(257)
(258)
(259)
(227)
(237)
(244)
(243)
(247)
(247)
(251)
(252)
FROM TOP TO BOTTOM OR BOTTOM TO THE TOP
Group (Family) Properties
• Eighteen groups on the periodic table (numbered from left
to right)
• Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as you move
from the top down in a group (family)
• Atoms of elements in the same group have the same number
of electrons in the outer orbitals/levels of their atoms
(known as valence electrons)
• Exceptions:
• Transition elements (3-12)
• Hydrogen (could be 1 or 17)
• Helium (actually has 2 valence electrons)
• Elements in groups usually have similar physical and
chemical properties
Examples of Group Elements with the same # of
valence electrons
How many electrons do
each of these atoms have
in their outer
orbital/level?
-
1
H
1.008
+
3
Li
6.941
11
Na
-
22.990
-
-
19
-
K
-
39.098
-
++
+
++ +
+ +
++ +
-
+
37
Rb
-
+ +
-
85.468
55
Cs
132.905
87
-
-
Fr
(223)
-
What group (family) do
these elements reside in?
Group (Family) Names
Alkali
Alkaline
MetalsEarth
Noble
Boron
Nitrogen
Carbon
Oxygen
Gases
GroupGroupGroupGroup
Halogens
Metals
Transition Metals
1
1
1
H
18
2
13 14
15 16
17
1.008
2
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
6.941
9.012
11
12
Na
Mg
6
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12
20.180
12.001
14.007
15.999
18.998
13
14
15
16
17
18
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
26.982
28.086
30.974
32.066
35.453
39.948
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
K
Ca
Sc
44.956
V
Cr
Mn
40.078
Ti
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Kr
47.87
50.942
51.996
54.938
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
85.468
87.62
92.906
95.94
Tc
88.906
91.224
(98)
55.845
44
Ru
101.07
58.933
58.69
63.546
65.39
69.723
72.61
74.922
78.96
79.904
83.80
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
102.906
106.42
107.868
112.4
114.818
118.710
121.760
127.60
126.904
131.29
55
56
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
Cs
Ba
Lu
Ta
137.327
174.967
Hf
W
Re
Os
190.23
Ir
192.217
Pt
195.078
Au
Hg
200.59
Tl
204.383
Pb
207.2
Bi
208.980
Po
At
Rn
103
112
Uub
113
114
115
117
118
Uut
Uuq
Uup
116
Uuh
Uus
Uuo
(284)
(289)
(288)
68
69
70
132.905
7
24.305
10.811
19
39.098
5
4.003
Li
22.990
4
2
He
87
88
Fr
Ra
(223)
(226)
Lr
(262)
178.49
180.95
183.84
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
Hs
Mt
Ds
Rg
(266)
(264)
(269)
(269)
(272)
(261)
Lanthanides
Actinides
(262)
57
58
186.207
59
60
Nd
La
Ce
Pr
138.906
140.116
140.908
144.24
(268)
61
62
Pm
Sm
(145)
150.36
196.967
63
Eu
151.964
(285)
64
Gd
157.25
65
Tb
158.925
66
Dy
162.50
67
(209)
(292)
(210)
(222)
Er
Tm
164.930
167.26
168.934
173.04
Ho
Yb
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
232.038
231.036
238.029
(257)
(258)
(259)
(227)
(237)
(244)
(243)
(247)
(247)
(251)
(252)
Important Features of the Periodic Table:
Period (Row)
• each horizontal row of elements
on the periodic table
1
1
18
1
H
2
13 14
15 16
17
1.008
2
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
6.941
9.012
20.180
12.001
14.007
15.999
18.998
13
14
15
16
17
18
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
12
Na
Mg
22.990
24.305
26.982
28.086
30.974
32.066
35.453
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
Ga
Ge
As
Se
Br
Kr
40.078
37
38
Rb
Sr
87.62
3
44.956
4
47.87
5
50.942
6
51.996
7
54.938
39
40
41
42
43
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
92.906
95.94
Tc
88.906
91.224
(98)
8
55.845
44
Ru
101.07
9
58.933
10
58.69
11 12
63.546
65.39
69.723
72.61
74.922
78.96
79.904
39.948
83.80
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
106.42
107.868
112.4
114.818
118.710
121.760
127.60
126.904
131.29
102.906
55
56
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
Cs
Ba
Lu
Ta
137.327
174.967
Hf
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
200.59
Tl
204.383
Pb
207.2
Bi
208.980
Po
At
Rn
103
112
Uub
113
114
115
117
118
Uut
Uuq
Uup
116
Uuh
Uus
Uuo
(284)
(289)
(288)
132.905
7
10.811
11
85.468
6
4.003
3
39.098
5
2
He
87
88
Fr
Ra
(223)
(226)
Lr
(262)
178.49
180.95
183.84
190.23
192.217
195.078
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
Hs
Mt
Ds
Rg
(266)
(264)
(269)
(269)
(272)
(261)
Lanthanides
Actinides
(262)
186.207
(268)
196.967
(285)
(209)
(292)
(210)
(222)
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Sm
Dy
Er
158.925
164.930
167.26
168.934
Yb
151.964
162.50
Ho
140.908
157.25
Tb
140.116
150.36
Gd
138.906
(145)
Eu
Tm
144.24
Pm
173.04
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
232.038
231.036
238.029
(257)
(258)
(259)
(227)
(237)
(244)
(243)
(247)
(247)
(251)
(252)
FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OR RIGHT TO LEFT
How many
periods
(rows)
are on the
Periodic
Table
Of
Elements?
Period (Row) Properties
• Seven periods on a periodic table (numbered
from the top down)
• Atomic numbers and atomic masses increase as
you move from the left to the right in a period
• All atoms of the elements in the same period
have the same number of orbitals/levels
• Example
• Period 1 = 1 orbital
• Period 2 = 2 orbitals
• Period 3 = 3 orbitals
• Etc…
Valence electrons-How many electrons are
in the outermost shell?
Si
Ge
Examples of Period (Row) elements having the same number of
orbitals/levels in their atoms
-
-
-
In what period
(row) do
you think these
atoms
reside?
-
+
+++ ++
+ +
-
-
-
+
++
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
In what period
(row) do
you think these
atoms
reside?
-
-
-
-
-
-
+++
+
++ +
+
++ +
++ +
+
+++ ++
+
++ ++
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Identify the Element
1
1
18
1
H
2
13 14
15 16
17
1.008
2
3
5
6
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Be
B
14.007
O
15.999
F
9.012
12.001
N
6.941
10.811
C
18.998
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
24.305
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12
26.982
28.086
30.974
32.066
35.453
10
Ne
20.180
39.948
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
K
Sc
40.078
44.956
Ti
47.87
V
50.942
Cr
Mn
39.098
Ca
51.996
54.938
Fe
Co
Ni
58.69
Cu
63.546
Zn
65.39
Ga
69.723
Ge
72.61
As
74.922
Se
78.96
Br
79.904
Kr
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Pd
Ag
Cd
In
Sn
Sb
Te
I
Xe
87.62
95.94
Rh
85.468
92.906
Tc
102.906
106.42
107.868
112.4
114.818
118.710
121.760
127.60
126.904
131.29
88.906
91.224
(98)
55.845
44
Ru
101.07
58.933
83.80
55
56
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
Cs
Ba
Lu
Ta
137.327
174.967
Hf
W
Re
Os
Ir
Pt
Au
Hg
200.59
Tl
204.383
Pb
207.2
Bi
208.980
Po
At
Rn
103
112
Uub
113
114
115
117
118
Uut
Uuq
Uup
116
Uuh
Uus
Uuo
(284)
(289)
(288)
132.905
7
4.003
Li
22.990
4
2
He
87
88
Fr
Ra
(223)
(226)
Lr
(262)
178.49
180.95
183.84
190.23
192.217
195.078
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
Hs
Mt
Ds
Rg
(266)
(264)
(269)
(269)
(272)
(261)
Lanthanides
Actinides
(262)
186.207
(268)
196.967
(285)
(209)
(292)
(210)
(222)
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
140.116
140.908
164.930
167.26
168.934
Yb
138.906
144.24
Pm
173.04
89
90
91
Ac
Th
232.038
(227)
(145)
150.36
92
93
Pa
U
Np
231.036
238.029
(237)
151.964
157.25
94
95
Pu
Am
(244)
(243)
158.925
162.50
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
(257)
(258)
(259)
(247)
(247)
(251)
(252)
Carbon - C
Strontium
Astatine
- At
- Sr- Rf
Period 4
Group
17
2
5 –––Period
Group
Period2
14
76
 Rutherfordium
Using the Periodic Table
• The boxes that make up the periodic table contain a significant
amount of information. To understand this information, it is
necessary to refer to the periodic table’s key(s)
8
Atomic Number
O
Element Symbol
Oxygen
Element Name
15.999
Class
Metal
Non-Metal
Metalloid
Color
Which class
does Oxygen
fall into?
(Number of protons)
(Written with a capital letter or a capital
followed by a lower case if two letters )
Atomic Mass
(Rounded to a whole number, equals
the number of protons and neutrons)
State
(@ Room Temp.)
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Symbol
Color
What is
Oxygen’s
physical state
of matter?
Families of the Periodic Table
• Hydrogen (all alone)
• 1 Alkali Metals
• 2 Alkaline Earth Metals
• 3-12 Transition Metals
• 13 The Boron Family
• 14 The Carbon Group
• 15 The Nitrogen Group
• 16 The Oxygen Group
• 17 The Halogens
• 18 The Noble Gases
• Lanthanide Series
• Actinide Series
Families of Elements- Color your table
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