Choices and regrets in children`s counterfactual thinking

advertisement
Choices and regrets in children’s
counterfactual thinking
Sarah Beck
University of Birmingham
Patrick Burns, Kevin Riggs, Daniel Weisberg
Counterfactual thinking
• ‘If only I had left the house earlier, I would
have caught the train...’
• ‘I should have set an alarm’
• ‘I almost made it’
• Experience of regret
Why look at development?
• What are children’s capacities?
• Understanding the process of counterfactual
thinking can be easier in earlier stages of a
developing system
• Include more ‘indirect’ measures to tap
children’s abilities (difficulties with formal
language might be avoided in behavioural
tasks?)
Children’s counterfactual thinking and
emotions
Development of
counterfactual thinking
• 3-4 shift (Harris et al,
1996; Riggs et al, 1998)
• Later developments:
– Complex conditionals:
Rafetseder, Cristi-Vargas,
Perner, 2010
– ‘What else could have
happened?’ Beck et al,
2006
– Almosts (Harris, 1997, Beck
& Guthrie, in press)
Development of
counterfactual emotions
• 7 yr olds understand
regret, Guttentag &
Ferrell, 2004
• experience regret,
– Amsel & Smalley, 2000
– 5-6 yrs Weisberg & Beck,
2010
– 6-7 yrs O’Connor et al,
under sub
– 10-11yrs Rafetseder &
Perner, under sub
Why look at counterfactual emotions?
• Cognition and emotion
• Function of counterfactual thinking (e.g.
Roese, 1997)
• Why is there a developmental lag (if there is
one)?
– Spontaneity?
– Domain general constraints (EF)?
– Are we really measuring regret?
Experiencing Counterfactual Emotions
• Simplified CFE game
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Choose between 2 boxes
See contents of chosen box
Rate happiness on scale
See unchosen contents
Re-rate happiness with your box
•
•
Regret and Relief trials
11 5-6, 10 6-7, 10 7-8, 12 adults
Chosen:
2 stickers
Unchosen:
8 stickers (regret)
OR empty (relief)
Weisberg & Beck, 2010, JECP
Experiencing Counterfactual Emotions
• Difference score (first –
second rating)
• -ve = regret, +ve = relief
• All groups showed regret,
and no differences
between groups
• Only 7-8 year olds and
adults experienced relief
5-6 6-7 7-8
years years years adult
1.5
1
0.5
0
regret
relief
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
Weisberg & Beck, 2010, JECP
Methodological problems
• The scale
– Difficult to show relief if you are happy winning
first sticker
– Sensitivity?
• Is this a result of double questioning?
– Rafetseder & Perner (under submission).
Improvements to method:
New rating scale
• Children chose between two cards: win/lose tokens
– Regret-Win trials (Win 2/3, could have won 8)
Regret-Lose trials (Lost 2/3, could have won 3)
– Relief-Win trials (Win 2/3, could have lost 3)
Relief-Lose trials (Lost 2/3, could have lost 8)
Results
Age 4-5, n = 55, m = 5;1, r = 4;8 – 5;7, 29 males
Age 5-6, n = 52, m = 6;2, r = 5;8 – 6;7, 27 males
Age 6-7, n = 55, m = 7;3, r = 6;8 – 7;8, 31 males
Regret-Win trials (Win 2/3, could have won 8) – Experienced at 5, p = .001
Regret-Lose trials (Lost 2/3, could have won 3) – Experienced at 5, p < .001
Relief-Win trials (Win 2/3, could have lost 3) – Experienced at 5, p < .001
Relief-Lose trials (Lost 2/3, could have lost 8) – Experienced at 7, p = .010
Weisberg & Beck, under submission
Are these really counterfactual
emotions?
• Do children need to do cf thinking to ‘pass’
our boxes task?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Choose between 2 boxes
See contents of chosen box
Rate happiness on scale
See unchosen contents
Re-rate happiness with your box
“I should have
picked the other
box”
Counterfactual
“I don’t have
those 8 stickers”
Frustration
Weisberg & Beck, in prep.
Are these really counterfactual
emotions?
• “I should have picked the other box”
(counterfactual)
• OR “I don’t have those 8 stickers” (frustration)
• Adult literature suggests that feeling of
responsibility increases likelihood of regret
(Byrne, 2002; Roese & Olson, 1995;
Zeelenberg et al, 1998)
• Correlation between life regrets and
responsibility (Zeelenberg et al, 1998)
Adults making ‘choices’
• Is there really a ‘choice’ in the boxes game?
• Illusion of control (Langer 1975....)
• People who chose a lottery ticket (based on a
picture ) compared to those allocated ticket:
– Less likely to resell
– Value their ticket more
• Even though the decision is arbitrary their
judgments are influenced by the apparent
‘choice’
Choice, Chance and regret
• Children played the boxes game in one of
three conditions:
– Choose which box you win
– Experimenter rolls die to determine which box
– Child rolls die to determine which box
• If children are simply frustrated, this
manipulation shouldn’t affect them
• If they are thinking counterfactually, more
‘regret’ in choice condition.
Weisberg & Beck, under sub.
Choice/Chance experiment
• 5-6yrs N = 101
• 6-7yrs N = 94
• 7-8yrs N = 102
Age (years) and condition
Regret initial-win
%


Regret initial-lose
p
Relief initial-win
p



Relief initial-lose
p



p
n




Age 5 to 6
Choice
No Choice - Child
No Choice - Experimenter
37
32
31
65
44
23
16
50
55
19
6
22
<.001**
.135
.148
76
25
26
13
59
64
11
16
10
<.001**
.222
.259
0
0
3
13
47
61
87
53
36
<.001**
.015*
.450
14
6
19
54
69
58
32
25
23
.548
.222
.148
Age 6 to 7
Choice
No Choice - Child
No Choice - Experimenter
33
27
32
88
56
31
12
33
62
0
11
7
<.001**
.013*
.500
82
30
16
6
63
84
12
7
0
<.001**
.443
†
.024
3
0
3
12
41
81
85
59
16
<.001**
.005*
†
.024
6
7
12
60
71
66
33
22
22
.549
.162
.123
Age 7 to 8
Choice
No Choice – Child
No Choice – Experimenter
37
33
32
92
55
22
5
39
78
3
6
0
<.001**
.009*
.123
97
64
22
3
36
75
0
0
3
<.001**
<.001**
.123
0
3
0
5
45
72
95
52
28
<.001**
.021*
.352
2
3
3
30
55
63
68
42
34
<.001**
.167
.500
Choice, chance and regret
• All three conditions differ from each other on both CFE
• Regret/relief only differ in the choice condition
• Children’s ratings at all ages are influenced by choice
manipulation
• Evidence for counterfactual emotions (in choice)
Weisberg & Beck, in prep.
The child throws condition
• Don’t realise it’s chance – illusion of control
– if IoC might predict a difference between relief
and regret trials.
• Do realise it’s chance but still some
opportunity for counterfactual emotions?
• Adults show counterfactual emotions under
some chance events (e.g. Imagine being
allocated lottery ticket 245 when 246 wins?)
Choice and Chance in regret
• Choice experiment finds evidence for change in
emotion in 5-7 year olds when they make a
choice about the outcome (to some extent when
involved)
• But not when outcome is determined by chance
• Double-questioning can’t be the only problem
• Indirect measures of counterfactual thought
• Counterfactual emotions develop in middle
childhood – involve something more than being
able to answer simple conditional questions.
Download
Related flashcards

Pediatrics

67 cards

Neonatology

54 cards

Pediatricians

20 cards

Breastfeeding

11 cards

French pediatricians

13 cards

Create Flashcards