Module Two Grammar 动名词 语法点的讲练 动名词的定义 它是一种兼有动词和名词特征的非谓语动词形式。基本形式 为:v-ing, 动名词具有名词的性质，因此在句中可以做主语、 表语、宾语、定语等。动名词有时态和语态的变化。 动名词的时态和语态的基本形式：（以write为例） 时态 一般时 完成时 语态 writing having written 主动语态 被动语态 being written 注意：动名词的否定形式是：not writing having been written V-ing形式的构成方式： 1.在一般情况下，在动词原形后直接加词尾 –ing。 eg. go – going; do – doing; ask – asking; read --- reading study – studying; carry – carrying; fly – flying; worry – worrying; 2.在以不发音的e 结尾的动词后，去掉e，再加- ing。 eg. come – coming live – living dance – dancing make – making 3.在闭音节的单音节动词后、以重读闭音节结尾的多音节 动词，而末尾只有一个辅音字母时，将这个辅音字母双写 （x除外），然后再加 –ing. sit – sitting; run – running; begin – beginning; forget – forgetting 4.在少数几个以 –ie 结尾的动词后：须将–ie 变作y，再加ing。(这些动词词典一般均注明) eg. die – dying; tie – tying lie – lying 动名词能在句中充当什么成分？ 性质 主语 表语 宾语 宾补 定语 状语 动名 n. pron. 词 动名词的基本用法 １．用作主语 所表动作比较抽象，或者泛指习惯性的动作。 Playing with fire is dangerous. Climbing mountains is really fun. 注意：动名词做主语，有时先用it作形式主语，把动名词 置于句末。这种用法在习惯句型中常用。 1)It is no use/ good / useless + doing… 2)It is a waste of time+doing … 3)It is fun+doing … 在以上两种结构中常用动名词作主语。 It’s no use crying over spilt milk.(覆水难收） There is no joking about the matter. It is fun playing with children. 和孩子们一起玩真好。 2. 用作宾语 1）作动词的宾语 某些动词后出现非限定性动词时只能用动名词作宾语，不能 用不定式。常见的此类动词有：advise, allow, permit, avoid, consider, enjoy, finish, give up, cannot help, imagine, include, keep, keep on, mind, miss, put off, delay, practise, resist, suggest, depend on, think about, set about, succeed in, worry about, burst out, insist on, can’t stand, be used to, get used to, devote…to…, look forward to, pay attention to, get down to等。如： They went on walking and never stopped talking. 他们继 续走，说个不停。 I found it pleasant walking along the seashore. 在海滩上 走真是乐事。 为了便于记忆，特归纳如下： 后跟-ing的动词的顺口溜： 避免，错过，（少）延期 avoid, miss, postpone/put off 建议，完成，（多）练习 suggest, finish, practice 喜欢，想象，禁不住 enjoy, imagine, can’t help 承认，否定，（又）妒忌 admit, deny, envy 逃避，冒险，（多）原谅 escape, risk, excuse 忍受，保持，（不）介意stand, keep, mind 2）作介词的宾语 We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term. 我们正考虑为下学期制定新的计划。 Shall we have a rest or get down to doing our work? 我们休息呢还是开始干活？ Despite lacking money, his parents sent him to a good university. He was late again because of getting up late. Lock the doors and windows before going out. What/How about the two of us playing games？ 注意： to 在下列短语中是介词，常跟动名词作宾语。 be/get used to look forward to get down to pay attention to devote oneself to lead to contribute to object to（反对） ．．． Let’s get down to preparing for the exam. 3) 动名词用在下列词组后作宾语：give up, can’t help, feel like, be worth, be busy, set about, put off, think of，insist on等 She can’t help crying at the sad sight. Do you feel like having a break? 4) 既可接动名词又可接不定式的常用动词有： remember, forget, regret, mean, try等，但表 达的意义不同。 I remember seeing her at the hotel. 我记得在宾馆见过她。(动作发生了) I will remember to see her at the hotel. 我记着要去宾馆见她。(动作尚未发生) 1．remember/forget/ regret to do doing 动作尚未发生 动作已经发生 to do 设法、努力去做，尽力 2. try doing 试试去做（看有何结果） 3. mean to do 打算做（主语一般是人） doing 意味着（主语一般是物） to do对将要做的事抱歉 4.regret doing 对已经发生的事感到后悔 to do 1．remember/forget doing 动作尚未发生 动作已经发生 to do 设法、努力去做，尽力 2. try doing 试试去做（看有何结果） 3. mean to do 打算做（主语一般是人） doing 意味着（主语一般是物） to do对将要做的事抱歉 4.regret doing 对已经发生的事感到后悔 to do停下去做另外一件事 5. stop doing 停止做手头的事情 ３．作表语 动名词作表语时句子主语常是表示无生命的事物的 名词或what引导的名词性从句。表语动名词与主 语通常是对等的关系，表示主语的内容，主语、表 语可互换位置。 Your task is cleaning the windows. 你的任务就 是擦窗户。(Cleaning the windows is your task.) What I hate most is being laughed at. 我最痛恨的 就是被别人嘲笑。 (Being laughed at is what I hate most.) 动名词的几个注意事项 １）动名词的逻辑主语及复合结构 Would you mind _____（我开窗户吗）？ Would you mind my / me opening the window? my/ me 称为动名词的逻辑主语． I can’t understand Jack /Jack’s leaving his wife. I can’t understand his/him leaving his wife. Jack’s/ His leaving his wife is unbelievable. 动名词的逻辑主语＋ 动名词＝动名词的复合结构 2. 动名词的被动形式: being done being killed The officers narrowly escaped ___________(kill) in the hot battle. 3. 动名词的否定形式：not doing not having done You will be punished for not finishing your homework on time. Correct the mistakes in each sentence. 1.The news that our team had been defeated was disappointed. disappointing 2.Lucy dosen’t mind to lend you her MP3. lending 3.After take his measure, they decided to give him the position. taking 4.Which do you enjoy spending your weekend, fishing or shopping? to spend 5.I still remember taken to Shanghai when I being ＾ was a child. 6.I am not used to be spoken to like being that. 7.We would appreciate to hear from you soon. hearing 8.People sometimes can’t help to buy something they won’t need. buying 9.I can hardly imagine Peter sails across the river. sailing 10.Tony was very unhappy for having not not having been invited to the party. 选择题： 1. My watch needs ________,but I have no time to go to town to have it _______. A.to repair; repaired B. to be repaided; repairing C. repairing; repaired D. being repaired; repaired 2. You should apologize to your sister for _____ her the truth. A.telling B. not telling C. telling not D. not tell 3. ---The light in the office is still on. ---Oh, I forgot ___________ it off. A. turning B. turn C. to turn D. having turned 4. Hearing the bad news, the mother couldn’t help ________. A.to cry B. crying C. cry D. cries 5. Our teacher told us to spend some time _______ English every day. A.to practise speaking B. practising speaking C. to practise to speak D. practising to speak 6. It is no use _______ without doing. A.to promise B. promising B.C. promise D. to be promised Homework Finish all the exercises in Word Study and Grammar in the textbook and the workbook.