PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF VACCINATIONS

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PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF
VACCINATIONS
PREVENTING DISEASES IS ESSENTIAL TO CONTROLLING
PRODUCTION HEALTH RISKS.
PREVENTING ANIMAL HEALTH PROBLEMS INVOLVES
•
PROPER ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
•
ADEQUATE NUTRITION (INCLUDING VITAMINS AND
MINERALS)
•
STRATEGIC USE OF VACCINATIONS.
•
VACCINATION PROGRAMS MUST BE CUSTOMIZED
FOR YOUR OPERATION.
•
WORK WITH A VETERINARIAN FAMILIAR WITH YOUR
BEEF CATTLE OPERATION.
•
ITEMS TO CONSIDER INCLUDE
GEOGRAPHIC REGION
TYPE OF CATTLE OPERATION
FREQUENCY OF INTRODUCING NEW STOCK
EXPORT OR INTERSTATE SHIPPING REQUIREMENTS.
•
FOLLOW MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS
•
DOSAGE
•
METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION
•
•
NUMBER OF TIMES GIVEN
PROPER STORAGE.
•
ADHERE TO DESIGNATED MEAT WITHDRAWAL
TIMES
•
THE ANNUAL COST OF A VACCINE HEALTH
PROGRAM RANGES FROM $5 TO $12 PER COWCALF UNIT.
Importance of Nutrition
•
VACCINATION ALONE WILL NOT GUARANTEE A
HEALTHY HERD.
•
REQUIREMENTS FOR A VACCINE TO WORK
COMPETENT IMMUNE SYSTEM
PROPER NUTRITION
ENERGY, PROTEIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION.
•
THE BODY CONDITION OF THE COW IS THE MOST
IMPORTANT FACTOR FOR REPRODUCTIVE
PERFORMANCE AND A SUCCESSFUL COW-CALF
OPERATION
4 Reasons To Vaccinate Adult Cattle
1.
SURVIVAL
REDWATER
2. ENHANCE REPR0DUCTION AND PROTECT FETUS
AGAINST ABORTIONSVIBRIO, LEPTO, IBR, BVD,
BRUCELLOSIS AS A HEIFER
3. TO PROTECT NEWBORN BLACKLEG, LEPTO, IBR,
BVD, PI3, PASTEURELLA
4. PROVIDE A DISEASE BARRIER IN THE HERD ALL OF
THE ABOVE
3 Vaccine Forms
Inactivated or Killed Vaccines
•
KILLED VACCINES CONTAIN ORGANISMS OR SUBUNITS
THAT HAVE BEEN INACTIVATED DURING THE
MANUFACTURING PROCESS. THEY DO NOT REPLICATE.
•
REQUIRE INITIAL VACCINATION FOLLOWED BY A
BOOSTER VACC 3-4 WEEKS LATER.
•
ANNUAL BOOSTER VACCINATION IS RECOMMENDED.
USE AS EARLY AS 2 MO. AND ARE NOT NEUTRALIZED BY
MATERNAL ANTIBODIES.
•
EXTREMELY SAFE IN ALL CATTLE
•
DO NOT REQUIRE MIXING
CAN BE REUSED IF KEPT COLD AND STERILE
•
EXAMPLES: LEPTO, VIBRIO, PINKEYE, BLACKLEG, BVD,
IBR, BRSV, PI3
Modified Live
•
MLVS CONTAIN COMPONENTS OF THE ACTUAL PATHOGEN
(ANTIGEN) THAT REPLICATE (REPRODUCE) IN THE ANIMAL’S
BODY BEFORE THE RESISTANCE LEVEL IS INCREASED.
•
MLVS STIMULATE A STRONG IMMUNE RESPONSE WITH THE FIRST
INJECTION AND USUALLY DO NOT REQUIRE A BOOSTER
VACCINATION.
•
MLVS MUST BE
MIXED TO BE ACTIVATED
USED WITHIN 1 HOUR POST MIXING
ARE LIGHT SENSITIVE AND MUST BE KEPT COLD
•
EXAMPLES BRUCELLOSIS VACCINE, AND SOME RESPIRATORY
VIRUSES SUCH AS BVD, IBR AND PI3
•
MOST MODIFIED LIVE VACCINES ARE NOT LABELED FOR
PREGNANT ANIMALS
•
THEY ARE INACTIVATED OR NEUTRALIZED IN THE PRESENCE OF
MATERNAL ANTIBODIES.
•
THEY ARE USED PRIMARILY IN CALVES GREATER THAN 6 MONTHS
OF AGE AND IN HEIFERS PRIOR TO FIRST BREEDING.
Intra-Nasal Vaccines
•
INTRA-NASAL VACCINES: REPLICATING VACCINES THAT
REPLICATE ONLY IN SURFACE CELLS OF THE UPPER
RESPIRATORY TRACT.
PROVIDE RESISTANCE WITHIN 48 HOURS OF
ADMINISTRATION. SHORTLIVED PROTECTION
BOOSTER VACC 3 WEEKS LATER WITH A MLV OR KILLED
VACC STIMULATES A HIGH LEVEL OF RESISTANCE (HIGH
ANTIBODY LEVELS) FOR A LONGER PERIOD.
•
ROUTINELY USED ON THE RECEIVING END WHEN SHIPPED
FOR PRECONDITIONING, STOCKER OR FEEDLOTS
•
EXAMPLES NASAL IBR | NASAL PI3
What Are The Diseases?
Bacterial Diseases
•
BLACKLEG (CLOSTRIDIUM CHAUVOEI)
HIGHLY FATAL TO YOUNG CATTLE. ACUTE DEATH.
•
PASTEURELLOSIS (MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA)
CAUSES SHIPPING FEVER PNEUMONIA OFTEN AFTER
INFECTION WITH ONE OF THE RESPIRATORY VIRUSES
SUCH AS IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV
•
PINKEYE (MORAXELLA BOVIS)
CONTAGIOUS INFECTION OF THE EYE SPREAD BY FLYS
DRAINAGE AND ULCERATIONS
VIBRIOSIS (CAMPYLOBACTOR FETUS)
VENEREAL DISEASE RESULTING IN FAILURE OF EARLY
PREGNANCY AND EXTENDED BREEDING SEASON
LEPTOSPIROSIS (5 STRAINS OR VARIETIES)
CAUSES KIDNEY DISEASE, ABORTION IN PREGNANT
FEMALES AND SICKNESS IN CALVES
HAEMOPHILUS (HISTOPHILUS SOMNI)
A BACTERIUM THAT CAN CAUSE SEPTICEMIA,
RESPIRATORY, NERVOUS SYSTEM, REPRODUCTIVE
DISEASES, ARTHRITIS, MYOCARDITIS
•
CALFHOOD VACCINATION
VACC AGAINST BRUCELLA ABORTUS FOR HEIFERS
BETWEEN 4 AND 11 MONTHS OLD
•
ANAPLASMOSIS
AN OFTEN FATAL INFECTIOUS DISEASE OF CATTLE
CAUSED BY A MICROSCOPIC PARASITE OF RED BLOOD
CELLS, SPREAD BY TICKS OR HORSEFLY BITES OR BY
REUSING NEEDLES OR INSTRUMENTS BETWEEN INFECTED
ANIMALS. A VACCINE IS AVAILABLE WITH A
CONDITIONAL USDA LICENSE, BUT UNLESS THE RISK IS
HIGH, A ROUTINE VACCINATION FOR ANAPLASMOSIS
IS NOT RECOMMENDED.
•
TRICHOMONIASIS (TRICHOMONAS FOETUS) PROTOZOA
VENEREAL DISEASE RESULTING IN FAILURE OF EARLY
PREGNANCY AND EXTENDED BREEDING SEASONS
Viral Diseases
•
BVD (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA)
RESULTS IN PROBLEMS, SUCH AS DAMAGE TO THE
DIGESTIVE AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS, PNEUMONIA,
ABORTIONS, CALF DEFORMITIES, AND OTHERS.
•
IBR (INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS)
HERPES VIRUS, RESULTING IN RESPIRATORY SIGNS,
REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE, AND ABORTIONS.
SOMETIMES CALLED RED NOSE
OFTEN INITIATES THE SHIPPING FEVER COMPLEX.
•
PI3 (PARAINFLUENZA-3 VIRUS)
CAUSES RESPIRATORY DISEASE.
•
BRSV (BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS)
CAUSES SEVERE, ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE,
ESPECIALLY IN YOUNG CATTLE.
Vaccination Schedule
Cows and Bulls
Vaccine
IBR
(Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis)……..Recommended / Annual
BVD (Bovine viral diarrhea)……………………Recommended / Annual
PI3
(Parainfluenza)……………………………..Recommended / Annual
BRSV (Bovine resp. syncytial virus)……………Recommended / Annual
Leptospirosis (5-Way)……………………………Recommended / Annual
(or 2x/yr depending on challenge)
Vibriosis (30-60 dys before breeding)………Recommended / Annual
Blackleg (8 way)…………………………………Recommended / Annual
Trichomoniasis (30-60 dys before breeding)……….Optional / Annual
Pinkeye……………………………………………………..Optional / Annual
Calves
Blackleg (7 way)………………..Recommend / Preweaning 2x
IBR-BVD-PI3-BRSV…………........Recommend / Preweaning 2x
Lepto 5………………………………..Recommend / Preweaning
Brucellosis………………………..Recommend / (Heifers 4-11m)
Pasteurella……………………….......Recommend / for keepers
(Ideally 30 days preweaning)
Haemophilus somnus…………………………………......Optional
Pinkeye………………………………………………………Optional
Replacement Heifers
Brucellosis……………………………….Calfhood (4-12 months)
IBR-BVD-PI3-BRSV………………………………..Prior to breeding
Vibriosis……………………………………………Prior to breeding
Leptospirosis (5 way)……………………………Prior to breeding
Blackleg (8 way)…………………………………Prior to breeding
Trichomoniasis……………………………………Prior to breeding
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