ciscos3c7

advertisement
S2C7 – Novell NetWare
IP and IPX Services
Novell Protocols
• Transport Layer
– TCP/IP
– SPX Internetwork Packet Exchange
• Network Layer
– NLSP (Netware Link Service Protocol) SPF
– IPX
– RIP
Novell Protocols
• Data/Link and Physical Layer
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.5
Fast Ethernet
FDDI
PPP
High Speed Serial Interface
ISDN
ATM
Novell Protocols
• Layers 7-6-5
– SAP Service Advertising Protocol to
advertise network services
– NCP NetWare Core Protocol to provide
client-to-server connections & applications
– NetWare Shell
– NETBIOS
Novell NetWare Features
• 80-bit address
network.node
• MAC Interface address part of logical address
• Multiple LAN encapsulations
supports multiple logical networks
• Novell RIP is default routing protocol
• SAP advertises network services
• GNS packets help clients find servers
Novell Protocol Details
• Distance Vector
– Novell RIP
• Uses ticks (network delay) and hop count
• 15 hops is maximum
• Updates sent every 60 seconds
• Link-State
– NLSP – Netware Link Services Protocol
IPX Addresses
• DIX – Digital, Intel, & Ethernet worked on
Ethernet Standards prior to IEEE standard
• Get from Network Administrator
• Telnet to neighbor router
– Show Protocols
– Show IPX Interface
Novell IPX Frame
• Ethernet_802.3
3.11 or earlier
– Ethernet RAW
– 802.3 IPX
• Ethernet_802.2
3.12 or later
802.3 802.2 LLC IPX
• Ethernet_II
Ethernet/IPX
– Standard Ethernet header
• Ethernet_SNAP 802.3 802.2 LLC
» SNAP IPX
» Used with TCP/IP and AppleTalk
Novell/Cisco Names
• Ethernet
E_802.3
novell-ether
» E_802.2
» E_II
» E_SNAP
• Token Ring
• FDDI
Token-Ring
sap
arpa
snap
snap
» Token Ring_SNAP
snap
FDDI_SNAP
SNAP
» FDDI_802.2
» FDDI_RAW
SAP
NOVELL-FDDI
Cisco/Novell
• Cisco supports all Novell encapsulations
– Can tell the difference between packet types
– Can support multiple encapsulations on single
LAN INTERFACE
• Must configure multiple logical networks
– Multiple IPX encapsulations support reduces
equipment expenses, minimizes configuration
complexity, and eases migration
IPX Packet Format
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Checksum
Length
Transport Control
Packet Type
Destination Network; Destination Node
Destination Socket
Source Network; Source Node & Socket
Simple Split Horizon
• Routing updates sent to a neighbor should
not contain information about routes learned
from that neighbor
• Load Sharing is used when the distance
vector metric for ticks and hop counts is
identical
– Improves network performance
SAP
• Each service has a SAP identifier
– 4 file server; 7 print server; 24 remote bridge
• Updates sent every 60 seconds
• Routers build tables based on SAP
broadcasts
• Cisco router does not respond to GNS but
will supply server address from its SAP
table
GNS
• Broadcast from client needing services
• Netware Server and Cisco router get request
– Can distribute clients evenly among available
servers
– Can support serverless LAN segments
– Provides network-based load sharing
• Assumes servers are identical
• NetWare servers provide GNS response
Novell IPX Configuration
• Global Configuration
– IPX Routing
• IPX routing [node address]
– If no node address, Cisco uses MAC address of interface
– Address must be specified if there are only S0 ports
– Configures round-robin load sharing over multiple equal metric
paths
– Default is 1; maximum is 512
– Load Sharing
• Interface Configuration
– Network numbers
– Encapsulation Type
Assigning IPX Network Numbers
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ipx routing
selects IPX for routing
IPX maximum-paths 2 load sharing 2 paths
Interface ethernet 0.1 first sub-interface
Encapsulation novell-ether Ethernet_802.3
IPX network 9e network number assigned to E0.1
Encapsulation sap
specifies Ethernet 802.2
frame format
IPX Monitoring
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Show ipx interface ipx status and values
Show ipx route
routing table contents
Show ipx servers IPX server list
Show ipx traffic
Number & type packets
Debug ipx routing activity
RIP update
Debug ipx sap
SAP update
Ping
node information
Show IPX Interface
• Tick metric can be set manually
– Use ipx delay number
• Cisco router defaults
– LAN interfaces
– WAN interfaces
1 tick
6 ticks
IPX Tables
• Codes
–
–
–
–
–
–
C – directly connected to primary network
C - directly connected to secondary nw
R – route learned from RIP
E – Route learned from EIGRP
S - Statically defined route
W – Directly connected route via IPXWAN
IPX Routing Tables
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Total IPX routes
Maximum number of parallel paths
Routing protocol in use
Network number
Delay/Metric
Network.node address
Age – elapsed time; Uses – number of lookups
Ethernet 0 interface to be used
Encapsulation frame type – HDLC SAP SNAP
Novell-ether
IPX Servers
• Show ipx servers [sorted] [name|net|type]
–
–
–
–
Codes P server learned during updates
H
server is down
S
server is defined statically
I
server learned using SAP Incremental
• Total IPX Servers
• Table Order, Type, Name, Network number
• Node Address, etc.
Show IPX Traffic
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Packets Received
Number of format errors
Number of checksum errors
Number of bad hop counts
Number of pitched packets
Number packets sent to local destination
Number of multicast packets
Debug ipx sap [events|activity]
• Displays information about IPX SAP
packets
• SAP responses
–
–
–
–
0x1
0x2
0x3
0x4
general query
general response
GNS request
GNS response
IPX Ping
• Ipx network.node
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
!
..
U
C
I
?
&
Received
network waiting for reply
unreachable
congestion
interrupted
Unknown packet type
packet life exceeded
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards