Week 12—11/22/11) Advanced Inheritance

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Chapter 12 Advanced
Inheritance
Jim Burns
Creating and Using Abstract
Classes

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Child classes are more specific than their
parents
When you create a child class, it inherits all the
general attributes you need
Thus you must create only the new, more
specific attributes
Superclasses contain the features that are
shared by their subclasses

For example, the members of the Dog class are
shared by the Poodle and Spaniel subclasses
Parent classes…
Are sometimes so general that you never
intend to create any specific instances of
the class
 An abstract class is one from which you
cannot create any concrete instantiations,
but from which you can inherit
 Abstract classes usually have one or more
empty abstract methods

Abstract Classes

You use the keyword ______ when you
declare an abstract class
Abstract methods

Have no body…
No braces, and no method statements.
 When you create an abstract method, you use
the keyword _____

public abstract class Animal
{
private String nameOfAnimal;
public abstract void speak();
public String getAnimalName()
{
return nameOfAnimal;
}
public void setAnimalName(String name)
{
nameOfAnimal = name;
}
}
Note…

If you declare any method to be an
abstract method, you must also declare its
class to be _______.
For ____ classes
You cannot place a statement such as
 Animal myPet = new Animal(“Murphy”);
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You create an abstract class such as
Animal only so you can extend it.
Example of extending an abstract class
public class Dog extends Animal
{
public void speak()
{
System.out.println(“Woof!”);
}
}

The speak() method within the Dog class
is required because the abstract, parent
Animal class contains an abstract speak()
method. You can code any statements
you want within the Dog speak() method.
Public class Cow extends animal
{
public void speak()
{
System.out.println(“Moo!”);
}
}
THE COW CLASS
Public class Snake extends animal
{
public void speak()
{
System.out.println(“Ssss!”);
}
}
THE SNAKE CLASS
public class UseAnimals
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
Dog myDog = new Dog();
Cow myCow = new Cow();
Snake mySnake = new Snake();
myDog.setAnimalName("My dog Murphy");
myCow.setAnimalName("My cow Elsie");
mySnake.setAnimalName("My snake Sammy");
System.out.print(myDog.getAnimalName() + " says ");
myDog.speak();
System.out.print(myCow.getAnimalName() + " says ");
myCow.speak();
System.out.print(mySnake.getAnimalName() + " says ");
mySnake.speak();
}
}
The above code produces the
following at the command prompt:
C:\Java>java UseAnimals
 My dog Murphy says Woof!
 My cow Elsie says Moo!
 My snake Sammy says Ssss!
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C:\Java>
Using Dynamic Method Binding
An instantiation of a subclass “is a”
superclass object.
 Every SalariedEmployee “is an” employee;
every Dog “is an” animal
 The opposite is not true—an Animal is not
a Dog
 Because every subclass object “is a”
superclass member, you can convert
subclass objects to superclass objects

More on dynamic method binding
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Even though you cannot instantiate any objects
of an abstract class, you can indirectly create a
reference to a superclass abstract object
A reference is not an object, but it points to a
memory address
When you create a reference, you do not use
the keyword new; instead, you create a variable
name in which you can hold the memory
address of a concrete object
Even though a reference to an abstract
superclass object is not concrete, you can store
a reference to a concrete subclass object there
An example of the use of reference
public class AnimalReference
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
Animal ref;
ref = new Cow();
ref.speak();
ref = new Dog();
ref.speak();
}
}
Recall from chapter 11…
That you can use the instanceof keyword
to determine whether an object is an
instance of any class in its hierarchy.
 For example, using the Animal and Dog
classes, both of the following are true if
myPoodle is a dog object:
 myPoodle instanceof Animal
 myPoodle instanceof Dog

Polymorphic behavior
The example above demonstrates
polymorphic behavior
 After the variable ref is assigned an
address, the ref.speak() method calls the
correct speak() method
 An application’s ability to select the correct
subclass method is known as dynamic
method binding
 When the application executes, the correct
method is attached to the application
based on the current changing content

Using a Superclass as a Method
Parameter
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Dynamic method binding is most useful when
you want to create a method that has one or
more parameters that might be one of several
types
In the following, the header for the
talkingAnimal() method in Figure 12-9 accepts
any type of Animal argument
The talkingAnimal() method can be used in
programs that contain Dog objects, Cow objects
or objects of any class that descends from
Animal
public class TalkingAnimalDemo
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
Dog dog = new Dog();
Cow cow = new Cow();
dog.setAnimalName("Ginger");
cow.setAnimalName("Molly");
talkingAnimal(dog);
talkingAnimal(cow);
}
public static void talkingAnimal(Animal animal)
{
System.out.println("Come one come all");
System.out.println("See the amazing talking animal!");
System.out.println(animal.getAnimalName() + " says");
animal.speak();
System.out.println("***************");
}
}
The above code produces the
following at the command prompt:
C:\Java>java TalkingAnimalDemo
Come one come all
See the amazing talking animal!
Ginger says
Woof!
****************
Come one come all
See the maxing talking animal!
Molly says
Moo!
*****************
C:\Java>
Creating Arrays of Sublcass
Objects
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It can be convenient to create an array of generic Animal
references
An Animal array might contain individual elements that
are Dog, Cow, or Snake objects
The following statement creates an array of three Animal
references
Animal[] ref = new Animal[3];
This statement reserves enough computer memory for
three Animal objects named ref[0], ref[1], and ref[2]
The statement does not actually instantiate Animals as
Animals are abstract
public class AnimalArrayDemo
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
Animal[] ref = new Animal[3];
ref[0] = new Dog();
ref[1] = new Cow();
ref[2] = new Snake();
for(int x = 0; x < 3; ++x)
ref[x].speak();
}
}
The above code produces the
following at the command prompt:
C:\Java>java AnimalArrayDemo
Woof!
Moo!
Ssss!
C:\Java>
Using the Object Class and Its
Methods
The toString() Method
 The equals() Method

Using the Object Class and Its
Methods
Every class in Java is actually a subclass,
except one
 When you define a class, if you do not
explicitly extend another class, your class
is an extension of the Object class
 The Object class is defined in the
java.lang package, which is imported
automatically every time you write a
program; it includes methods that you can
use or override as you see fit

Using the toString() Method
The Object class toString() method
converts an Object into a string that
contains information about the Object
 If you do not create a toString() method for
a class, you can use the superclass
version of the toString() method

public abstract class Animal
{
private String nameOfAnimal;
public abstract void speak();
public String getAnimalName()
{
return nameOfAnimal;
}
public void setAnimalName(String name)
{
nameOfAnimal = name;
}
}
public class Dog extends Animal
{
public void speak()
{
System.out.println("Woof!");
}
}
Public class DisplayDog
{
public static void main(String[ ] args)
{
Dog myDog = new Dog();
string dogString = myDog.toString();
System.out.println(dogString);
}
}
Public class DisplayDog
{
public static void main(String[ ] args)
{
Dog myDog = new Dog();
string dogString = myDog.toString();
System.out.println(dogString);
}
}
The above produces the following
output at the command Prompt
C:\Java>java DisplayDog
[email protected]
C:\Java>
The output is the word Dog ‘at’ 19821f,
which is a hexadecimal number
representing the reference
It is better to write your…
own toString() method to override the one
supplied so you can, among other
purposes, debug a program
 The following example shows a
BankAccount class that contains a mistake
in the pink line

public class BankAccount
{
private int acctNum;
private double balance;
public BankAccount(int num, double bal)
{
acctNum = num;
balance = num; // Mistake! Should be balance = bal
}
public String toString()
{
String info = "BankAccount acctNum = " + acctNum +
" Balance = $" + balance;
return info;
}
public boolean equals(BankAccount secondAcct)
{
boolean result;
if(acctNum == secondAcct.acctNum &&
balance == secondAcct.balance)
result = true;
else
result = false;
return result;
}
}
public class TestBankAccount
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
BankAccount myAccount = new
BankAccount(123, 4567.89);
System.out.println(myAccount.toString());
}
}
The above produces the following
output at the Command Prompt
C:\Java>java TestBankAccount
BankAccount accNum = 123
Balance = $123.00
C:\Java
The advantage of using the
toString()
toString() is Java’s universal name for a
method that converts an object’s relevant
details into String format
 As you use other programmers classes,
you can hope that they have provided a
toString() method that provides output that
you would want to see.

Using the equals() Method
The Object class equals() method returns
a boolean value indicating whether the
objects are equal
if(someObject.equals(someOtherObjectOfTh
eSameType)) system.out.println( “The
objects are equal”);
 Two objects are equal only if they have the
same memory address

public class CompareAccounts
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
BankAccount acct1 = new BankAccount(1234,
500.00);
BankAccount acct2 = new BankAccount(1234,
500.00);
if(acct1.equals(acct2))
System.out.println("Accounts are equal");
else
System.out.println("Accounts are not equal");
}
}
Command Prompt output
C:\Java>java CompareAccounts
Accounts are not equal
C:\Java>
If you want two bank accounts…

To be equal if they have the same account
number and balance, then you must write
your own equals() method…
public class BankAccount
{
private int acctNum;
private double balance;
public BankAccount(int num, double bal)
{
acctNum = num;
balance = num; // Mistake! Should be balance = bal
}
public String toString()
{
String info = "BankAccount acctNum = " + acctNum +
" Balance = $" + balance;
return info;
}
public boolean equals(BankAccount secondAcct)
{
boolean result;
if(acctNum == secondAcct.acctNum &&
balance == secondAcct.balance)
result = true;
else
result = false;
return result;
}
}
Example of your own equals()
public boolean equals(BankAccount secondAcct)
{
boolean result;
if(acctNum == secondAcct.acctNum &&
balance == secondAcct.balance)
result = true;
else
result = false;
return result;
}
Command Prompt output
C:\Java>java CompareAccounts
Accounts are equal
C:\Java>
Using Inheritance to Achieve Good
Software Design
When new car models are created, not
every feature and function is redesigned
from scratch
 With inheritance, you can reuse existing
superclasses to create good designs
quickly

Advantages of Inheritance
Subclass creators save development time
because much of the code needed for the
class has already been written
 Subclass creators save testing time
because the superclass code has already
been tested and used in a variety of
situations

More advantages…
Programmers who create or use new
subclasses already understand how the
superclass works, so the time it takes to
learn the new class features is reduced
 When you create a new subclass in Java,
neither the superclass source code nor the
superclass bytecode is changed

Creating and Using Interfaces
Some programming languages like C++
allow for a subclass to inherit from more
than one superclass
 The ability to inherit from more than one
class is called multiple inheritance
 Multiple inheritance is a difficult concept—
to which superclass should super refer to?
 Sooo, multiple inheritance is disallowed in
Java
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Interfaces
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Java provides an alternative to multiple
inheritance—an Interface
An interface looks much like a class, except that
all of its methods are implicitly public and
abstract, and all of its data items are implicitly
public, static and final
When you create a class that uses an interface,
you include the keyword implements and the
interface name in the class header
This notation requires class objects to include
code for every method in the interface that has
been implemented
More on Interfaces
Whereas using extends allows a subclass
to use nonprivate, nonoverriden members
of its parent’s class, implements requires
the subclass to implement its own version
of each method in the interface
 In the following, a worker interface is
defined that contains the single method
called work()
 When any class implements worker, it
must also include a work() method

Public abstract class animal
{
private String nameOfAnimal;
public abstract void speak();
public String getAnimalName()
{
return nameOfanimal;
}
public void setAnimalName(String name)
{
nameOfanimal = name;
}
}
Public class Dog extends Animal
{
public void speak()
{
System.out.println(“woof!”);
}
}
Public interface Worker
{
public void work();
}
public class WorkingDog extends Dog implements Worker
{
private int hoursOfTraining;
public void setHoursOfTraining(int hrs)
{
hoursOfTraining = hrs;
}
public int getHoursOfTraining()
{
return hoursOfTraining;
}
public void work()
{
speak();
System.out.println("I am a dog who works");
System.out.println("I have " + hoursOfTraining +
" hours of professional training!");
}
}
public class DemoWorkingDogs
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
WorkingDog aSheepHerder = new WorkingDog();
WorkingDog aSeeingEyeDog = new WorkingDog();
aSheepHerder.setAnimalName("Simon, the Border Collie");
aSeeingEyeDog.setAnimalName("Sophie, the German Shepherd");
aSheepHerder.setHoursOfTraining(40);
aSeeingEyeDog.setHoursOfTraining(300);
System.out.println(aSheepHerder.getAnimalName() + " says ");
aSheepHerder.speak();
aSheepHerder.work();
System.out.println();
System.out.println(aSeeingEyeDog.getAnimalName() + " says ");
aSeeingEyeDog.speak();
aSeeingEyeDog.work();
}
}
Command Prompt output
C:\Java>java demoWorkingDogs
Simon, the Border Collie says
Woof!
Woof!
I am a dog who works
I have 40 hours of professional training!
Sophie, the German Shepherd says
Woof!
Woof!
I am a dog who works
I have 300 hours of professional training!
C:\Java>
More on Interfaces
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Abstract classes and interfaces are similar in
that you cannot instantiate concrete objects from
either one
Abstract classes differe from interfaces because
abstract classes can contain nonabstract
methods, but all methods within and interface
must be abstract.
A class can inherit from only one abstract
superclass, but it can implement any number of
iterfaces
Creating Interfaces to Store
Related Constants
Interfaces can contain data fields, but the
must be public, static and final
 The purpose in creating an interface
containing constants is to provide a set of
data that a number of classes can use
without having to re-declare the values
 An example follows
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public interface PizzaConstants
{
public static final int SMALL_DIAMETER = 12;
public static final int LARGE_DIAMETER = 16;
public static final double TAX_RATE = 0.07;
public static final String COMPANY =
"Antonio's Pizzeria";
}
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public class PizzaDemo implements PizzaConstants
{
public static void main(String[] args)
{
double specialPrice = 11.25;
System.out.println("Welcome to " + COMPANY);
System.out.println("We are having a special offer:\na
"+
SMALL_DIAMETER + " inch pizza with four
ingredients\nor a " +
LARGE_DIAMETER + " inch pizza with one
ingredient\nfor only $" +
specialPrice);
System.out.println("With tax, that is only $" +
(specialPrice + specialPrice * TAX_RATE));
}
}
Command Prompt output
C:\Java>javaPizzaDemo
Welcome to Antonio’s Pizzeria
We are having a special offer:
A 12 inch pizza with four ingredients
Or a 16 inch pizza with one ingredient
For only $11.25
With tax, that is only $12.0375
C:\Java>
Creating and Using Packages

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You know how to import packages into your
programs
Java.lang package is automatically imported into
every program your write
A package is a named collection of classes
When you create your own classes, you can
place them in packages so that you can easily
import related classes into new programs
More on packages
Creating packages encourages others to
reuse software because it makes it
convenient to import many related classes
at once
 When you create classes for others to use,
you do not want to provide the users with
your source code in the files with .java
extensions

So you compile your classes
You are creating compiled classes with the
.class extensions
 The .class files are the files you place in a
package so other programmers can import
them
 You include a package statement at the
beginning of your class file to place the
compiled code into the indicated folder

The package statement
package com.course.animals;
Indicates that the compiled file should be placed in
a folder named com.course.animals
The compiled program goes into an animals folder
within the course folder within the com folder
The package statement should be the first such
statement and should be outside the class
definition
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