VEGETATION ANALYSIS

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DEFINITION
VEGETATION ANALYSIS IS THE WAY TO
STUDY SPECIES COMPOSITION AND
STRUCTURE OF PLANT COMMUNITY
VEG. ANALYSIS
VEGETATION ANALYSIS
SPECIES
COMPOSITION
VEGETATION
STRUCTURE
AREA
SAMPLING
UNIT
SAMPLING
SIZE
UNIT
SAMPLING
FORM
VEG. ANALYSIS
VEGETATION
ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUES
UNIT
SAMPLING
SETTING
SIZE AND FORM OF SAMPLING UNIT
SU SIZE
CONSIDERATION




SEMI OBJECTIVE
WAY
 SPECIES CURVE AREA
VEGETATION SIZE
DENSITY
SPECIES DIVERSITY
LIFE FORM
1. MINIMUM SIZE OF SAMPLE UNIT ?
2. MINIMUM NUMBER OF SAMPLE UNIT ?
THE SHAPE OF
SAMPLE PLOT
CONSIDERATION
VEG. ANALYSIS
•EASY TO LAYOUT
•EFFICIENCY OF SAMPLING
 SQUARE
 STRIP (RECTANGULAR)
 CIRCLE
EXAMPLES :
TOTAL NUMBER OF SPECIES (CUMULATIVE)
SAMPLE PLOT (S.P) 1 (1M2)
S.P. 2
(4M2)
S.P. 3
(8M2)
S.P. 4
(16M2)
S.P. 5
(32M2)
11 SPECIES
15 SPECIES
17 SPECIES
19 SPECIES
20 SPECIES
n
20
5
4
3
2
1
m
10
1
VEG. ANALYSIS
:
:
:
:
:
A
4
8
2
SAMPLE PLOT AREA (m2)
16
32
HOW TO PUT SAMPLE PLOT
1. RANDOM SAMPLING
2. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
 MORE PRACTICAL
 MORE APPROXIMATION
TO STAND
CHARACHTERISTIC
3. PURPOSIVE SAMPLING
VEG. ANALYSIS
GROWTH STAGE CRITERIA
SEEDLING
: GERMINATION UNTIL H<1,5 M
SAPLING
: H>1,5 M UNTIL D<10 CM
POLE
: DIAMETER BETWEEN 10 CM UNTIL < 35 CM
TREE
: DIAMETER  35 CM
GROUND COVER : WITH EXCEPTION OF TREE
REGENERATION
VEG. ANALYSIS
SUB-PLOT SIZE OF VARIOUS
GROWTH STAGE
NESTED SAMPLING
4
3
2
1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
SEEDLING AND GROUND COVER : 2 X 2 M2, 2 X 5 M2, 1 X 1 M2
SAPLING
: 5 X 5 M2
POLE
: 10 X 10 M2
TREE
: 20 X 20 M2
VEG. ANALYSIS
MEASURED VEGETATION PARAMETER
IN THE FIELD
SPECIES NAME
NUMBER OF INDIVIDU
CROWN DIAMETER
STEM DIAMETER :
 DIAMETER AT BREAST-HEIGHT (DBH)
 DIAMETER AT 20 CM ABOVE STAND ROOT
 DIAMETER AT 20 CM ABOVE TOP OF AERIAL ROOT
TOTAL TREE HEIGHT AND TREE BOLE HEIGHT
STEM LOCATION
VEG. ANALYSIS
VEGETATION ANALYSIS METHOD
A. COMPARTMENT METHOD
1. QUADRAT METHOD
1.1. SINGLE COMPARTMENT
1.2. DOUBLE COMPARTMENT
2. TRANSECT METHOD
3. LINE COMPARTMENT METHOD
4. COMBINATION BETWEEN TRANSECT
AND LINE COMPARTMENT METHOD
VEG. ANALYSIS
VEGETATION ANALYSIS METHOD
B. PLOTLESS METHOD
1. BITTERLICH METHOD
2. POINT QUARTER METHOD
3. RANDOM PAIR METHOD
4. LINE INTERCEPT METHOD
5. POINT INTERCEPT METHOD
VEG. ANALYSIS
A. Quadrat Sampling Technique (Continued)
A.1. Quarter Method
A.1.1. SINGLE COMPARTMENT
40M
10M
20M
5M
2M
40M
VEG. ANALYSIS
A.1. Quarter Method (Continued)
A.1.2. DOUBLE COMPARTMENT
RANDOM
VEG. ANALYSIS
SISTEMATIC
A.2. Transect Method
20 m
10 m
2m
5m
VEG. ANALYSIS
A.3. Line Kompartment Method
20 m
xm
2m
5m
10 m
VEG. ANALYSIS
A.4. Combination between Transect and Line
Compartment Method
20 m
2m
5m
10 m
VEG. ANALYSIS
A. Quadrat Sampling Technique (Continued)
TALLY SHEET FOR SEEDLINGS AND SAPLINGS
Quadrat
VEG. ANALYSIS
Species
N (ind)
1
...
...
...
...
...
...
2
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
n
...
...
...
...
A. Quadrat Sampling Technique (Continued)
TALLY SHEET FOR POLES AND TREES
Quadrat
1
Species
Diameter (cm) Height (m)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
2
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
n
...
...
...
...
...
...
VEG. ANALYSIS
A. Quadrat Sampling Technique (Continued)
Summary of vegetation Analysis by the Quadrat Sampling Technique
Species
Density
(ind/ha)
A
B
C
D
...
...
...
VEG. ANALYSIS
Relative
Density
Frequency
(%)
Relative
Frequency
(%)
Dominance
(m2/ha)
Relative
Dominance
(%)
Importance
Valur
DATA ANALYSIS FOR QUADRAT
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
DENSITY 
NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL S
AREA SAMPLED
RELATIVE DENSITY 
DOMINANCE 
DENSITY FOR A SPECIES
X 100
TOTAL DENSITY FOR ALL SPECIES
TOTAL OF BASAL AREA OR AREAL COVERAGE VALUES
AREA SAMPLED
RELATIVE DOMINANCE 
VEG. ANALYSIS
DOMINANCE FOR A SPECIES
X100
TOTAL DOMINANCE FOR ALL SPECIES
DATA ANALYSIS FOR QUADRAT
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE (Continued)
FREQUENCY 
NUMBER OF PLOTS IN WHICH SPECIES OCCURS
TOTAL NUMBER OF PLOTS SAMPLED
RELATIVEFREQUENCY
FREQUENCY VALUE FOR A SPECIES
X 100
TOTALOF FREQUENCYVALUESFOR ALL SPECIES
IMPORTANCE
VALUE  RELATIVEDENSITY RELATIVEDOMINANCE
 RELATIVEFREQUENCY
VEG. ANALYSIS
B. Plotless Sampling Technique
B.1. BITTERLICH METHOD
66 CM
Bitterlich Stick
VEG. ANALYSIS
B.1. Bitterlich Method (Continued)
Tally Sheet of Bitterlich Method
Species
Sampling Points
1
Total
VEG. ANALYSIS
2
3
...
Total
n
Average
Basal Area
B.1. Bitterlich Method (Continued)
DATA ANALYSIS
N
BA = x 2,3 (m2/ha)
n
BA = BASAL AREA; 2.3 = BITTERLICH STICK FACTOR
VEG. ANALYSIS
B.2. Point Quarter Method
d1
d2
VEG. ANALYSIS
d3
d4
B.2. Point Quarter Method (Continued)
TALLY SHEET OF POINT QUARTER METHOD
Sampling
Point
Species
VEG. ANALYSIS
Quadrat 1
D
(cm)
H
(m)
Quadrat 2
d
(m)
D
(cm)
H
(m)
Quadrat 3
d
(m)
D
(cm)
H
(m)
Quadrat 4
d
(m)
D
(cm)
H
(m)
d
(m)
B.2. Point Quarter Method (Continued)
Data Analysis
Total density of all species =
Relative Density =
Density =
Unit area
(mean point-to-plant distance)2
Individuals of a species
Total individuals of all species
Relative density of a species
100
X 100
X total density of all species
Dominance = density of species X average dominance value for species
Relative Dominance =
VEG. ANALYSIS
Dominance for a species
Total dominance for all species
X 100
B.2. Point Quarter Method (Continued)
Data Analysis (Continued)
Frequency =
Number of points at which species occurs
Total number of points sampled
Relative Frequency =
Frequncy value for a species
Total of frequency values for all species
X 100
Importance Value = relative density + relative dominance + relative frequncy
VEG. ANALYSIS
B.3. Ramdom Pairs Method
Individual nearest to point
Measured
distance
90
Nearest neighbor
in opposite 180o sector
VEG. ANALYSIS
Random
point
B.3. Ramdom Pairs Method (Continued)
Sampling
Points
VEG. ANALYSIS
Species
D
(cm)
H
(m)
d
(m)
B.3. Ramdom Pairs Method (Continued)
DATA ANALYSIS
Total density of all species =
Unit area
(0.80 X mean point-to-plant distance)2
Absolute and relative values for density, dominance, and
frequency and the importance value may be determined
by the formulas previously given for the point-quarter
method
VEG. ANALYSIS
B.4. Line Intercept Method
50 – 100 kaki ( 1 kaki = 30,48 cm)
Pita Ukur
xm
xm
xm
xm
TALLY SHEET OF LINE INTERCEPT METHOD
Species
Interval
1
VEG. ANALYSIS
2
3
....
N
B.4. Line Intercept Method (Continued)
DATA ANALYSIS
Relative density =
Total individuals of a species
Total individuals of all species
X 100
Total of intercept lengths for a species
Dominance or cover
=
X 100
(as % of ground surface)
Total transect lenght
Relative dominance =
VEG. ANALYSIS
Total of intercept lengths for a species
Total of intercept lenghts for all species
X 100
B.4. Line Intercept Method (Continued)
DATA ANALYSIS
Frequency =
Intervals in which species occurs
Total number of transect intervals
Relative frequency =
X 100
Frequency value for a species
Total of frequrncy values for all species
X 100
Importance Value = relative density + relative dominance + relative frequncy
VEG. ANALYSIS
B.5. Point Intercept Method
kawat
110 cm
10 cm
10 cm
VEG. ANALYSIS
B.5. Point Intercept Method (Continued)
TALLY SHEET OF POINT INTERCEPT METHOD
Species
Random Point Intercept
1
VEG. ANALYSIS
2
3
....
N
B.2. Point Intercept Method (Continued)
Data Analysis
Number of point intercept for a species
Dominance =
Total of point intercept for all species
X 100
Dominance values of a species
Relative Dominance =
Dominance values of all species
X 100
Absolute and relative values for density, and frequency
and the importance value may be determined by the
formulas previously given for the quadrat sampling
technique
VEG. ANALYSIS
VEG. ANALYSIS
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