COP 3003 Object-Oriented Programming

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COP 3003 Object-Oriented
Programming - Polymorphism
Dr. Janusz Zalewski, Fall 2013
Prepared by Dr Dahai Guo
Outline
• Introduction to Polymorphism
• Superclass Reference and Subclass
Object
• Abstract Classes and Methods
• instanceof operator
• Creating and Using Interfaces
Introduction to Polymorphism (1/7)
• Based on and enabled by inheritance.
• Enables us to “program in the general”
rather than “program in the specific”.
• Makes systems easily extensible.
– New classes can be added with little or no
modification to the general portions of the
program.
Introduction to Polymorphism (2/7)
class Animal
public void move()
class Fish
public void move()
class Mammal
public void move()
class Cat
public void move()
class Tortoise
public void move()
class Dog
public void move()
Introduction to Polymorphism (3/7)
• Problem:
– In classes Animal and Mammal, the move( )
method is hard to define, because it is too
general (or abstract).
– Keep this in mind.
Introduction to Polymorphism (4/7)
• What can polymorphism do for us?
– Example: you want to write a simulation
program where 100 animals are created
randomly and are moving.
• Without polymorphism
– Generate four random numbers
– Create four arrays (cats, dogs, fish, tortoises) using the
random numbers as the sizes
• What if we want to be random when creating each
object? In other words, the program runs the
random number generation method 100 times,
instead of only four.
Introduction to Polymorphism (5/7)
• What can polymorphism do for us?
– Animal animals[ ]=new Animal[100];
animal[0]
animal[1]
.
.
.
animal[99]
An Animal reference can
refer to any class’s object
as long as this class directly
or indirectly inherits class
Animal.
Introduction to Polymorphism (6/7)
•
What can polymorphism do for us?
– Animal animals[ ]=new Animal[100];
1. /* creating 100 Animal-derived objects */
2. …
3. for(int i=0; i<100;i++){
4.
// we do not know which actual object
5.
// animals[i] references to,
6.
// but polymorphism can decide the sub7.
// class and invoke correct method
8.
9. }
animals[i].move();
Question:
Do we still need to implement the
move method for class Animal?
Introduction to Polymorphism (7/7)
• The two most important points of
polymorphism:
– A superclass reference refers to a subclass
object. (Note the opposite is a syntax error.)
– Which subclass’s method to invoke is decided
at the execution time. In detail, it depends on
the data type of the object.
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (1/8)
• A program can create an array of
superclass references that refer to objects
of many subclass types.
• This is allowed because each subclass
object is-a object of its superclass. This is
referred to as dynamic binding.
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (2/8)
• Anything wrong?
– class Test1 {
–}
– class Test2 {
–}
– ……
– Test1 test = new Test2();
– ……
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (3/8)
• Note in the “reference  object”
relationship, the reference’s class must be
the superclass of the object’s class or
exactly the object’s class.
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (4/8)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
class CommissionEmployee {
}
class BasePlusCommissionEmployee
extends CommissionEmployee {
}
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (5/8)
1.
2.
CommissionEmployee employee
= new BasePlusCommissionEmployee(…);
3.
4.
5.
employee.toString(); // which method will be invoked?
employee.earnings(); // which method will bei nvoked
employee.getBaseSalary(); // which method will be invoked?
Illegal Statement!
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (6/8)
• Important: when invoking a subclass’s
method through a superclass’s reference,
this method must be declared in the super
class.
• If the method is subclass-specific, the
program must first cast the superclass
reference to the subclass reference a
technique known as downcasting.
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (7/8)
1.
2.
employee.getBaseSalary(); // illegal statement
((BasePlusCommissionEmployee)employee).getBaseSalary();
Superclass Reference and
Subclass Object (8/8)
•
Benefit of polymorphism.
– Animal animals[ ] = new Animal[100];
1. /* creating 100 Animal-derived objects */
2. …
3. for(int i=0; i<100;i++){
4.
animals[i].move();
5. }
Question:
If another Animal-based class is created, do we
need to change anything to the for loop?
Abstract Classes and Methods
(1/7)
class Fish
public void move()
class Animal
public void move()
Difficult to define,
because only “animal” is
too abstract.
class Mammal
public void move()
class Tortoise
public void move()
class Cat
public void move()
class Dog
public void move()
Abstract Classes and Methods
(2/7)
• Why do not we leave out the move
method in class Animal? And what we
actually want is to force the subclasses to
implement this function.
• This can be achieved by abstract
classes.
Abstract Classes and Methods
(3/7)
abstract class Animal
public abstract void move();
class Fish
public void move()
class Mammal
public void move()
class Cat
public void move()
class Tortoise
public void move()
class Dog
public void move()
Now, all the classes, except Animal, must
implement method move to be instantiated.
Abstract Classes and Methods
(4/7)
• Rules:
– An abstract method is declared using keyword
abstract.
– Once a class has at least one abstract
method, it must be declared as abstract class.
– Important: abstract classes cannot be used
to instantiate objects, because they are
incomplete.
Abstract Classes and Methods
(5/7)
• Rules: (cont)
– If a superclass is an abstract class, its
subclasses must implement all the abstract
methods in order to be instantiated objects;
otherwise they are also abstract.
– The previous statement implies that both the
superclass and subclass can be abstract.
Abstract Classes and Methods
(6/7)
abstract class Animal
public abstract void move();
class Fish
public void move()
abstract class Mammal
Does not implement move()
class Cat
public void move()
class Tortoise
public void move()
class Cat
public void move()
•Class Mammal inherits abstract method move
from class Animal and does not implement it.
So method move remains abstract. Therefore,
class Mammal is also abstract.
•Now both Animal and Mammal are abstract.
Abstract Classes and Methods
(7/7)
• Rules: (cont)
– Classes that can be used to instantiate
objects are called concrete classes.
– The subclass of an abstract superclass can
be abstract or concrete, depending on
whether it implements all the abstract
method(s) in the superclass.
How Can We Find the Type of the
Object? (1/7)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SuperClass superRef;
superRef=new SubClass1();
……
superRef=new SubClass2();
……
superRef=new SubClass3();
……
superRef can be
used to point to
different subclass
objects.
How Can We Find the Type of the
Object? (2/7)
• Sometimes, we want to figure out what type of object is
referenced in order to call subclass-specific methods.
– ……
– // are you sure a SubClass1 object is referenced?
– ((SubClass1)superRef).method1();
– // are you sure a SubClass2 object is referenced?
– ((SubClass2)superRef).method2();
– // are you sure a SubClass3 object is referenced?
– ((SubClass3)superRef).method3();
How Can We Find the Type of the
Object? (3/7)
• instanceof operator
– Can help figure out what type of object is referenced
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
if (superRef instanceof SubClass1) {
// downcasting
((SubClass1)superRef).method1();
}
if (superRef instanceof SubClass2) {
// downcasting
((SubClass2)superRef).method2();
}
if (superRef instanceof SubClass3) {
// downcasting
((SubClass3)superRef).method3();
}
How Can We Find the Type of the
Object? (4/7)
• Requirements of the operands of
instanceof
– The data type of the reference and the right
operand must have inheritance relationship,
directly or indirectly.
How Can We Find the Type of the
Object? (5/7)
Employee
HourlyEmployee
CommissionEmployee
SalariedEmployee
BasePlusCommissionEmployee
How Can We Find the Type of the
Object? (6/7)
•
instanceof operator
–
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Anything wrong?
HourlyEmployee employee=
new HourlyEmployee();
if(employee instanceof
BasePlusCommissionEmployee) {
System.out.println(“BasePlusCommissionEmployee”);
}
HourlyEmployee and BasePlusCommissionEmployee has
neither direct nor indirect inheritance relationship.
How Can We Find the Type of the
Object? (7/7)
•
Downcasting
1. Employee employee =
2.
new BasePlusCommissionEmployee();
3. ……
4. if(employee instanceof
5.
BasePlusCommissionEmployee) {
6.
employee.setLastName(“Johnson”);
7.
((BasePlusCommissionEmployee)employee).
8.
9. }
setBaseSalary(1000);
Creating and Using Interfaces
(1/12)
• Interfaces are abstract classes without
non-abstract methods.
• An interface declaration begins with the
keyword interface and contains only
constants and abstract methods.
• All interface methods are implicitly public
and abstract.
• All interface instance variables are
implicitly public, static, and final.
Creating and Using Interfaces
(2/12)
• Anything wrong?
1. interface MyInterface {
2. int i;
3. }
i is final, so it must be initialized at the declaration.
Creating and Using Interfaces
(3/12)
• Anything wrong?
1. interface MyInterface {
2. protected int test();
3. }
Any interface methods must be public and abstract.
Creating and Using Interfaces
(4/12)
• To use an interface, a concrete class must
specify that it implements the interface
and must declare each method in the
interface with the signature specified in the
interface declaration.
• An interface reference can point to the
objects of classes that implement it and
their subclasses.
Creating and Using Interfaces
(5/12)
• Anything wrong?
1.interface MyInterface {
2. int test();
3.}
4.class MyClass implements MyInterface {
5. protected int test();
6.}
One cannot change the access control of the interface method.
Creating and Using Interfaces
(6/12)
Payable
Invoice
Employee
HourlyEmployee
CommissionEmployee
SalariedEmployee
BasePlusCommissionEmployee
Creating and Using Interfaces
(7/12)
1. interface Payable {
2.
double getPaymentAmount();
3. }
4. class Invoice implements Payable {
5.
public double getPaymentAmount() {
6.
…
7.
}
8.
…
9. }
10. abstract class Employee implements Payable {
11.
// getPaymentAmount() not implemented
12. }
Creating and Using Interfaces
(8/12)
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Equivalent?
abstract class Payable {
public abstract double getPaymentAmount();
}
class Invoice extends Payable {
public double getPaymentAmount() {
…
}
…
}
abstract class Employee extends Payable {
getPaymentAmount not implemented
}
Creating and Using Interfaces
(9/12)
• Discussion:
– One can often see, esp. in GUI programs, that
classes are defined like
• class MyClass extends ExistingClass
•
implements Interface1, Interface2,
…Interfacex {
•
// a class can implement multiple interfaces
•
•}
// implementations of interface methods
Creating and Using Interfaces
(10/12)
• Discussion (cont):
– One often faces the following situation:
• There is some existing code.
• But the existing code cannot exactly solve a new
problem.
• We want to take advantage of already-developed
programs in solving the new problem.
Creating and Using Interfaces
(11/12)
• Discussion (cont):
Existing
Program
extends
New Program
implements
New Problem
Creating and Using Interfaces
(12/12)
• Discussion (cont):
Existing
Super-Class
Program
extends
New
Sub-Class
Program
implements
New
Interface
Problem
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