slides - Department of Computer Science

advertisement
Bayesian Generative Modeling
Jason Eisner
Summer School on Machine Learning
Lisbon, Portugal – July 2011
1
Bayesian Generative Modeling
what’s a model?
Jason Eisner
Summer School on Machine Learning
Lisbon, Portugal – July 2011
2
Bayesian Generative Modeling
what’s a generative model?
Jason Eisner
Summer School on Machine Learning
Lisbon, Portugal – July 2011
3
Bayesian Generative Modeling
what’s Bayesian?
Jason Eisner
Summer School on Machine Learning
Lisbon, Portugal – July 2011
4
Task-centric view of the world
x
Task
e.g., p(y|x) model
and decoder
y
evaluation
(loss function)
5
Task-centric view of the world
x
Task
p(y|x) model
y
loss function
 Great way to track progress & compare systems
 But may fracture us into subcommunities
(our systems are incomparable & my semantics != your semantics)
 Room for all of AI when solving any NLP task
Spelling correction could get some benefit from deep semantics,
unsupervised grammar induction, active learning, discourse, etc.
 But in practice, focus on raising a single performance number
 Within strict, fixed assumptions about the type of available data
Do we want to build models & algs that are good for just one task?
6
Variable-centric view of the world
When we deeply understand language, what representations
(type and token) does that understanding comprise? 7
Bayesian View of the World
observed data
probability
distribution
hidden data
8
Different tasks merely change which variables are
observed and which ones you care about inferring
comprehension production
sentence
syntax tree
semantics
facts about
speaker/world
facts about
the language
?
learning

(?)
(?)
()

()
()
(?)
()
()


?
latent
9
Different tasks merely change which variables are
observed and which ones you care about inferring
comprehension production
learning
surface form of word

?

surface  underlying
alignment
(?)
latent
()
underlying form of word
(?)
latent
()
abstract morphemes in
word
(?)

()
underlying form of
morphemes (lexicon)


(?)
constraint ranking
(grammar)


(?)
10
Different tasks merely change which variables are
observed and which ones you care about inferring
MT
decoding
MT
training
cross-lingual
projection

Chinese
sentence
Chinese parse


latent
latent
English parse
latent
latent
English sentence
?

?


translation &
language models

?
?
11
All you need is “p”


Science = a descriptive theory of the world
Write down a formula for
p(everything)





everything = observed  needed  latent
Given observed, what might needed be?
Most probable settings of needed are those that give
comparatively large values of
∑latent p(observed, needed, latent)
Formally, we want p(needed | observed)
= p(observed, needed) / p(observed)
Since observed is constant, the conditional probability of needed
varies with p(observed, needed), which is given above
(What do we do then?)
12
All you need is “p”


Science = a descriptive theory of the world
Write down a formula for
p(everything)

everything = observed  needed  latent

p can be any non-negative function you care to design
 (as long as it sums to 1)
 (or another finite positive number: just rescale)

But it’s often convenient to use a graphical model
 Flexible modeling technique
 Well understood
 We know how to (approximately) compute with them
13
Graphical model notation
slide thanks to Zoubin Ghahramani
14
Factor graphs
slide thanks to Zoubin Ghahramani
15
Rather basic NLP example

First, a familiar example

Conditional Random Field (CRF) for POS tagging
Possible tagging (i.e., assignment to remaining variables)
…
v
v
v
…
preferred
find
tags
Observed input sentence (shaded)
16
Rather basic NLP example

First, a familiar example

Conditional Random Field (CRF) for POS tagging
Possible tagging (i.e., assignment to remaining variables)
Another possible tagging
…
v
a
n
…
preferred
find
tags
Observed input sentence (shaded)
17
Conditional Random Field (CRF)
”Binary” factor
that measures
compatibility of 2
adjacent tags
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
n
2
1
3
a
1
0
1
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
n
2
1
3
a
1
0
1
Model reuses
same parameters
at this position
…
find
…
preferred
tags
18
Conditional Random Field (CRF)
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
n
2
1
3
a
1
0
1
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
n
2
1
3
a
1
0
1
…
…
v 0.3
n 0.02
a 0
find
v 0.3
n 0
a 0.1
preferred
v 0.2
n 0.2
a 0
tags
can’t be adj
19
Conditional Random Field (CRF)
p(v a n) is proportional
to the product of all
factors’ values on v a n
…
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
v
a
1
0
1
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
a
v 0.3
n 0.02
a 0
find
n
2
1
3
n
2
1
3
a
1
0
1
…
n
v 0.3
n 0
a 0.1
preferred
v 0.2
n 0.2
a 0
tags
20
Conditional Random Field (CRF)
p(v a n) is proportional
to the product of all
factors’ values on v a n
…
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
v
a
1
0
1
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
a
v 0.3
n 0.02
a 0
find
n
2
1
3
n
2
1
3
a
1
0
1
= … 1*3*0.3*0.1*0.2 …
…
n
v 0.3
n 0
a 0.1
preferred
v 0.2
n 0.2
a 0
tags
MRF vs. CRF?
21
Inference: What do you know how to
compute with this model?
p(v a n) is proportional
to the product of all
factors’ values on v a n
…
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
v
a
1
0
1
v
v 0
n 2
a 0
n
2
1
3
a
1
0
1
a
v 0.3
n 0.02
a 0
find
n
2
1
3
= … 1*3*0.3*0.1*0.2 …
…
n
v 0.3
n 0
a 0.1
preferred
v 0.2
n 0.2
a 0
tags
Maximize, sample, sum …
22
Variable-centric view of the world
When we deeply understand language, what representations
(type and token) does that understanding comprise? 23
semantics
lexicon (word types)
entailment
correlation
inflection
cognates
transliteration
abbreviation
neologism
language evolution
tokens
sentences
N
translation
alignment
editing
quotation
discourse context
resources
speech
misspellings,typos
formatting
entanglement
annotation
To recover variables,
model and exploit
their correlations
24
How do you design the factors?

It’s easy to connect “English sentence” to
“Portuguese sentence” …


… but you have to design a specific function that
measures how compatible a pair of sentences is.
Often, you can think of a generative story in
which the individual factors are themselves
probabilities.

May require some latent variables.
25
Directed graphical models (Bayes nets)
Under any model: p(A, B, C, D, E) = p(A)p(B|A)p(C|A,B)p(D|A,B,C)p(E|A,B,C,D)
Model above says:
slide thanks to Zoubin Ghahramani (modified)
26
Unigram model for generating text
w1
w2
w3
…
p(w1)  p(w2)  p(w3) …
27
Explicitly show model’s parameters 
“ is a vector that says
which unigrams are likely”

w1
w2
w3
…
p()  p(w1 | )  p(w2 | )  p(w3 | ) …
28
“Plate notation” simplifies diagram
“ is a vector that says
which unigrams are likely”

w
N1
p()  p(w1 | )  p(w2 | )  p(w3 | ) …
29
Learn  from observed words
(rather than vice-versa)

w
N1
p()  p(w1 | )  p(w2 | )  p(w3 | ) …
30
Explicitly show prior over  (e.g., Dirichlet)
 given
  Dirichlet()
wi  


“Even if we didn’t observe
word 5, the prior says that
5 = 0 is a terrible guess”
w
N1
p()  p( | )  p(w1 | )  p(w2 | )  p(w3 | ) …
31
Dirichlet Distribution
Each point on a k dimensional simplex is a multinomial probability
distribution:
2
i  1
 0.2 
 
   0.5 
 0.3 
 
1
dog the cat
0
1
3
1
1
1
 
  0
0
 
i
i  1
dog the cat
i
32
slide thanks to Nigel Crook
Dirichlet Distribution
A Dirichlet Distribution is a distribution over multinomial
distributions  in the simplex.
2
1
0
1 1
0
1
3
2
2
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
33
slide thanks to Nigel Crook
34
slide thanks to Percy Liang and Dan Klein
Dirichlet Distribution
Example draws from a Dirichlet Distribution over the 3-simplex:
2
0
3
2
1
0
3
2
Dirichlet(5,5,5)
1
Dirichlet(0.2, 5, 0.2)
1
Dirichlet(0.5,0.5,0.5)
1
3
35
slide thanks to Nigel Crook
Explicitly show prior over  (e.g., Dirichlet)
Posterior distribution
p( | , w)
is also a Dirichlet
just like the prior p( | ).
“Even if we didn’t observe
word 5, the prior says that
5 = 0 is a terrible guess”
prior = Dirichlet()  posterior = Dirichlet(+counts(w))
Mean of posterior is like the max-likelihood estimate of ,
but smooth the corpus counts by adding “pseudocounts” .
(But better to use whole posterior, not just the mean.)


w
N1
p()  p( | )  p(w1 | )  p(w2 | )  p(w3 | ) …
36
Training and Test Documents
“Learn  from document 1,
use it to predict document 2”
test
w
N2
train


w
What do good
configurations look
like if N1 is large?
What if N1 is small?
N1
37
Many Documents
“Each document has its
own unigram model”

3
w
2
w
1
w
N3
Now does observing
docs 1 and 3 help still
predict doc 2?
N2
Only if  learns that
all the ’s are similar
(low variance).
N1
And in that case,
why even have
separate ’s?
38
Many Documents
or tuned to maximize
training or dev set likelihood
“Each document has its
own unigram model”
 given
d  Dirichlet()
wdi  d


w
ND
D
39
Bayesian Text Categorization
“Each document chooses
one of only K topics
(unigram models)”
 given
k  Dirichlet()
wdi  k but which

k?

K
w
ND
D
40
Bayesian Text Categorization
 given
  Dirichlet()
zd  

 given
k  Dirichlet()
wdi  zd


K
“Each document chooses
one of only K topics
(unigram models)”

a distribution
over topics 1…K
z
Allows documents to differ
a topic considerably while some
in 1…K
still share  parameters.
w
ND
D
And, we can infer the
probability that two
documents have the
same topic z.
Might observe some topics.
41
Latent Dirichlet Allocation
“Each document
chooses a mixture
of all K topics;
each word gets its
own topic”
(Blei, Ng & Jordan 2003)


z


K
w
ND
D
42
(Part of) one assignment to LDA’s variables
slide thanks to Dave Blei
43
(Part of) one assignment to LDA’s variables
slide thanks to Dave Blei
44
Latent Dirichlet Allocation: Inference?




K
z1
z2
z3
…
w
w1
w2
w3
…
D
45
Finite-State Dirichlet Allocation
(Cui & Eisner 2006)

“A different HMM for
each document”



K
z1
z2
z3
…
w1
w2
w3
…
D
46
Variants of Latent Dirichlet Allocation





Syntactic topic model: A word or its topic is
influenced by its syntactic position.
Correlated topic model, hierarchical topic model, …:
Some topics resemble other topics.
Polylingual topic model: All versions of the same
document use the same topic mixture, even if
they’re in different languages. (Why useful?)
Relational topic model: Documents on the same
topic are generated separately but tend to link to
one another. (Why useful?)
Dynamic topic model: We also observe a year for
each document. The k topics  used in 2011 have
evolved slightly from their counterparts in 2010.
47
Dynamic Topic Model
slide thanks to Dave Blei
48
Dynamic Topic Model
slide thanks to Dave Blei
49
Dynamic Topic Model
slide thanks to Dave Blei
50
Dynamic Topic Model
slide thanks to Dave Blei
51
Remember: Finite-State Dirichlet Allocation
(Cui & Eisner 2006)

“A different HMM for
each document”



K
z1
z2
z3
…
w1
w2
w3
…
D
52
Bayesian HMM

“Shared HMM for
all documents”
(or just have 1 document)



K
z1
z2
z3
w1
w2
w3
…
D
We have to estimate
transition parameters 
and emission parameters .
53
FIN
54
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards