SQA_G_003_8D_Guideline_EN

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8D GUIDELINE
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Guideline
8D
Guideline
8D
AQF
8D / Objectives
 Eradicate issues by catching the root cause.
 Permanently use a structured methodology for issue resolution in order to:
- Immediately contain and limit the issue
- Implement adequate preventive and corrective actions
 Promote multi skilled team work
 Share and progress continuously
8D Guideline
Page 1
8D / Synopsis
1
2
3
4
5
Contain
Define
Team
Describe
the issue
6
8
Eradicate
Secure
customer
WWWWHW
Root cause
analysis
Brainstorming
Action plan set
up
Efficiency
measure
Prevent,
capitalize
Communicate,
congratulate
ISHIKAWA / 5Why?
Eradicate = 3 months max*
Contain = 48 hours
* Eradication lead-time is function of the
complexity of the implemented
solutions
8D Guideline
7
Page 2
Enlarge /
Capitalize
8D / THE FORM AT A GLANCE
8D Guideline
Page 3
8D / « Administrative » references
Part-Number / both references
(company & Supplier) if need be
Your company Chrono reference
8D Reference
SQA8D_0912
8D opening date
05/02/09
Product or process reference
Update:
12 h Beam …
11/02/09
TRIGGER ELEMENT
Origin
Supplier
Internal
Customer
Type & reference of the notification:
Mail
Quality reclamation
Concession
Other
Ref:
Ref:
Ref:
Ref:
Safran CAR 200_-503
Identification of the trigger (internal or external) and associated reference
Leader (at the supplier)
8D Leader
8D closure date
Goal dates lead-time
Goal leadtime:
Acknowledgement feedback (in case of customer claim)
Containment / Customer
Corrective actions implementation
8D Guideline
Page 4
8D / First meeting
 Team constitution and issue description are key elements for an efficient
containment action. At this extent, during 1st meeting:
•
•
•
8D Guideline
Remind the objectives
Make sure the issue is clearly understood
Determine extensively how to best secure the customer
Page 5
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 1
D1 - TEAM MEMBERS
NAMES
8D Guideline
FUNCTIONS
Page 6
8D / Step 1 : Team constitution
D1 - TEAM MEMBERS
NAMES
John
Mark
Theresa
Clair
FUNCTIONS
Manufacturing Enginner
Operator / Lay-up
Production Quality Leader / 8D leader
Inspector
 The team has to be relevant in terms of skills, background and size
•
•
•
Composition : it must be pertinent regarding the issue, calls out the right
departments and the experts.
 Attention : do not forget key actors, such as people from an other production
site, or a supplier, a customer…
Leader : he must be designated and is responsible of the correct coordination of
the 8D, up to the end (8 steps). Intercessions are really important to follow-up.
Presenter : he knows the methodology and has got animation competencies, in
order to make the meeting alive and to drive people to the issue resolution .
 It is neither necessarily the leader, nor someone from quality department.
8D Guideline
Page 7
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 2
D2 - CARACTERISATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM
Problem clear description (precise references if adequate):
Tracability (Despatch note, Batch / Serial Numbers…) and affected quantities
Can this issue affect
similar parts ?
similar process ?
parts already shipped to
the customer ?
8D Guideline
NO
YES
Is this issue recurrent ?
Which ones ?
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
Page 8
TOOL = WWWWHW
8D / Step 2 : Describe the issue
 Use WWWWHW tab when the subject is not deeply enough known / detailed / documented
 The subject must be described in a very factual manner (how?), so as not be discussed further on.
 Characterization of the issue
 Describe a “Should” compared to a “Should be”
 Attach sketch, picture, draw whenever necessary
 Traceability : mention
 Date / affected quantity
 Delivery note / manufacturing number
 Reference
 Serial or batch N°
8D Guideline
Page 9
TOOL = WWWWHW
8D / Step 2 : Describe the issue
8D Guideline
Page 10
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 3
D3 - CONTAINMENT (IMMEDIATE ACTIONS)
What are the performed actions to prevent the delivery of NC products or processes ?
Area
Action
Manufacturing WIP (incl. At dispatch)
Stores (incl. Support)
Stores (assy lines)
Supplier returns
Supplier WIP
Supplier stores
Customer WIP
Other
How are conforming products identified ?
Tracability for next conforming products (Despatch Note, CoC, Introduction batch…)
8D Guideline
Page 11
Responsible
8D / Step 3 : Contain (immediate actions)

List ALL parts (batches, S/N) that could be
affected by the issue so as to inspect them and
to make a clear statement about their conformity.
IDENTIFY the parts in a visible and
unquestionable way (GREEN/RED labels for
example) and TRACE this inventory.
 Do not forget parts that could be in the
transport, in the manufacturing process, at the
customer, at the suppliers. Wonder about WHEN
the non-conformance should have been detected
to guide your mind.
 Containment can also be: stop the process,
quarantine parts, return parts to the supplier or
make necessary actions to make sure parts do
conform to the design.
D3 - CONTAINMENT (IMMEDIATE ACTIONS)
What are the performed actions to prevent the delivery of NC products or processes ?
Area
Action
Manufacturing WIP (incl. At dispatch)
Stores (incl. Support)
Stores (assy lines)
Supplier returns
Supplier WIP
Supplier stores
Inspection according to routine ACD, see
inventory screening attached
N/A = no parts
Inspection according to routine ACD, see
inventory screening attached
N/A = no parts
N/A = no parts
N/A = no parts
Inspection according to routine ACD, see
Customer WIP
inventory screening attached
Other
How are conforming products identified ?
GREEN LABEL ON THE PACKAGING
Tracability for next conforming products (Despatch Note, CoC, Introduction batch…)
S/N130
Responsible
Mr A
Mr A
Mr B
CONTAIN IS PROTECTING ITS CUSTOMER TO RECEIVE NON-CONFORMING PARTS
8D Guideline
Page 12
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 4
D4 - CAUSES SEARCH (cf. Ishikawa or 5W if need be)
Ref
Potential Cause
Priority
Verification
The issue should have been detected:
At the supplier
At Goods Inwards
During manufacture
During in-step inspections
During final inspection
Before dispatch
Other:
Reason(s) for non detection:
8D Guideline
Page 13
Responsible & date
TOOLS = Brainstorming
ISHIKAWA
5 Why’s ?
8D / Step 4 : Root cause analysis_1
 Root cause analysis can be driven in different ways: Ishikawa, 5 why’s …
Case of an Ishikawa:
 At the right of the main arrow, indicate the issue,
 At the end of each single arrow, indicate the 5M : Machinery, Manpower, Material, environMent, Method,
Note: in certain cases, instead o the 5M, it is possible to indicate the process steps
 For each “M”, list all the linked potential causes.
Potential causes
issue
5M
8D Guideline
Page 14
8D / Step 4 : Root cause analysis_2
Case of a 5 why’s
 The 1st why is why did the
issue occur ? And to each
answer, an other why is asked,
up to the root cause.
 The implementation of such a
method can be called causes
tree.
8D Guideline
Page 15
TOOLS = Brainstorming
ISHIKAWA
5 Why’s ?
8D / Step 4 : Root cause analysis_3
TOOLS = Brainstorming
ISHIKAWA
5 Why’s ?
 For a beginning team in root cause analysis process, prefer a post it’ version.
 The presenter role is to drive the analyze without influencing and to prioritize.
 Do not reject any idea, do not deny any idea to start with.
 Precise on the Ishikawa the influent parameters, and not a potential defect.
 E.g.: « Lay-up personnel training » and not « personnel training not performed »
 Once potential causes identified, they will be either cleared or confirmed as real causes.
Note: they can be immediately cleared (by logic, history, data, etc.) or deeper analyze can be
necessary to clear or confirm (lab test, process analyze, documentary check, etc. ).

The color tag will enable to visualize the cause status:
 cleared
Green tag
 WIP
TBD
 primary
Red tag
 secondary
Orange tag
8D Guideline
Page 16
8D / Step 4 : Root cause analysis_4
TOOLS = ISHIKAWA
5 Why’s ?
Brainstorming
Example :
Potential causes already cleared =
These are not causes
Causes not
cleared yet
Confirmed
cause
8D Guideline
Page 17
8D / Step 4 : Root cause analysis_5
TOOLS = ISHIKAWA
5 Why’s ?
Brainstorming

Identify which actions will enable to clear the potential causes, also identify responsibles of the actions and the
leadtime.
 Identify the priority of the clearance actions (estimation based on the fact that if the cause is confirmed, then
the cause will be either primary or secondary).
 Once checks performed, indicate what the results are in the verification cell, and do not forget to update the
color of the tag in the Ishikawa diagram, up to full update (no more TBD).
References are identical to the Ishikawa ones.
Potential causes to be checked as a priority (red
square)
Checked cause (this is why te priority square has
been removed)
8D Guideline
Page 18
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 5
D5 - DEFINE & PLAN PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
Ref
8D Guideline
Action
Responsible
Page 19
Leadtime
Completed
8D / Step 5 : Action plan set up

Once the root causes are identified, the permanent correctives actions that will enable to eradicate
the issue can be defined.
 Each action has got a responsible and a lead-time. Obviously, the 8D leader will check that
actions are implemented within due date.
References are identical to the Ishikawa ones.
D5 - DEFINE & PLAN PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
Ref
C2
Action
Tooling Repair
Responsible
C2
Cutter restriction in Aircelle clean room
Leadtime
Completed
Mr JK
27/02/09
26/02/09
Ms UM
13/02/09
10/02/09
Remark : each responsible is liable for his single action.
The 8D leader is liable for the overall action plan.
8D Guideline
Page 20
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 6
D6 - IMPLEMENT ACTIONS PLAN & EFFICIENCY EVIDENCE
Record evidence of actions implementation
Are completed actions confirmed as being efficient ?
YES
NO
Record evidence of actions efficiency (eg: non recurrence of this issues on X manufactures/deliveries, etc.)
8D Guideline
Page 21
8D / Step 6 : Implementation and efficiency evidence

It is important to collect all evidences of the
implementation of the actions, and to gather them
in the “Additional elements” tab
 Demonstrate in a non-arguable way the efficiency,
by recording evidence elements:
E.g.: 10 successive conform serials (S/N 151 to 160)
8D Guideline
D6 - IMPLEMENT ACTIONS PLAN & EFFICIENCY EVIDENCE
Record evidence of actions implementation
See attached file: maintenance plan.doc, instruction AFJ.pdf, routine version B.pdf
Are completed actions confirmed as being efficient ?
YES
NO
Record evidence of actions efficiency (eg: non recurrence of this issues on X manufactures/deliveries, etc.)
S/N151 to 160 are conforming. Refer to inspection data in "Additional elements" tab.
Page 22
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 7
D7-CAPITALIZE, IMPLEMENT PREVENTIVE ACTIONS
After actions implementation, do following elements need update ?
Reference
Responsible
Leadtime
Responsible
Leadtime
Instruction sheets
Instructions/ control means
Production flow
FMEA (product and process)
Drawings
Maintenance plan
Other products or similar process
Sub-tiers follow-up
Documents of the quality system
Customer elements
Other
Other preventive actions to be implemented:
Ref
8D Guideline
Action
Page 23
Completed
8D / Step 7 : Capitalize, Implement preventive actions
 Put the fix at the highest possible level, in order to manage this type of issue the soonest.
E.g.: modification of the specification « customer requirements acknowledgement », implementation of lessons learnt
data base, accessible from all, global maintenance plan implementation, etc.
 Capitalize on other process / product type
E.g.: preventive modification of the instructions of similar products
 Get a « supply chain » reflex in order to make sure prevention is applied all along the process
 All these actions must also have responsible and lead-time
THIS IS THE MOST DIFFICULT STEP BUT ALSO ONE OF THE MAJOR STEPS TO BENEFIT
FROM CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT LOOP (PDCA)
8D Guideline
Page 24
8D / DETAILED VIEW – STEP 8
D8 - COMMUNICATE & PROMOTE EXPERIENCE (To the customer, to other departments….)
8D Guideline
Page 25
8D / Step 8 : Communicate, Congratulate


Gather and congratulate members (participants…) of the team
Communicate the definitive closure information to all areas / people that need the information
(internal, customers, suppliers)
 File the 8D and perform its lessons learnt if need be in order to standardize practices.
8D Guideline
Page 26
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