WPF I Hour - Google Code

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Windows Presentation Foundation
Agenda
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Introduction
Developing Applications
WPF and WF interoperability
Custom Controls
Styles and Templates
Data Binding
Graphics
Not covered sections
Resume
Introduction
Progress
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WinAPI
MFC
Windows Forms
WPF
WPF Components
Main features
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New GUI core
Declarative programming using XAML
Layout system
Styles
Control Templates
Data Templates
Flexible Data Binding
Graphics and Multimedia support
Improved security model
Unified document format (XML Paper Specification)
Compatibility with Windows Forms
Developing Applications
Developer Environment
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Visual Studio 2005
.NET 3.0
Visual Studio Extensions
Windows SDK
Application types
• XAML browser applications
• Stand-alone applications
– Windows Applications
– Hosted in WPF Navigation Window
XAML browser application
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WPF Everywhere for XAML + browser plug-in
Installed using ClickOnce
Run in browser
Internet Zone security
Stand-alone application
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User permissions
Like a standard Windows Application
Creating stand-alone application
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Create WPF project
– Windows Application (WPF)
– Custom Control Library (WPF)
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Create class
– User Control (WPF)
– Custom Control (WPF)
– Window (WPF)
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Create styles and templates
– Resource dictionary
– Local resource
Kinds of WPF Project objects
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User control
– CS code-behind file
– XAML declaration
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Custom control
– CS implementation
– Style in XAML resource dictionary
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XAML Resource
– Style or Data Template or Control Template in XAML resource
dictionary
WPF Application Project structure
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Application class (User control)
– Based on System.Windows.Application
– Build action – ApplicationDefinition
– StartupUri property in XAML – Window class
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Window class (User control)
– Based on System.Windows.Window
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User Control class (User control)
– Based on System.Windows.Controls.UserControl
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Custom Control class (Custom control)
– Based on System.Windows.Controls.Control
– Overrides metadata in static constructor
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Resource Dictionary (XAML Resource)
– Top file tag ResourceDictionary
– Main file “themes\generic.xaml”
WPF Application Project screen shot
WPF and WF interoperability
WPF and WF interoperability Agenda
• Hosting a Windows Form Control in WPF
• Hosting a WPF Control in Windows Forms
• Troubleshooting Hybrid Applications
Hosting a WF Control in WPF
1. Create Windows Application (WPF) project
2. Add reference to the WindowsFormsIntegration
assembly
3. Add reference to the System.Windows.Forms assembly
4. Create System.Windows.Forms.Integration.
WindowsFormsHost host object
5. Set WF control to Child property of host object
6. Add host object onto WPF panel (for example, Window)
Hosting a WF Control in WPF - sample
// Creating Windows Form control
MaskedTextBox mtbDate = new MaskedTextBox("00/00/0000");
// Creating Integration host
WindowsFormsHost host = new WindowsFormsHost();
host.Child = mtbDate;
// Appending host to Window
this.AddChild(host);
Hosting a WPF Control in WF
1. Create Windows Application (WinForms) project
2. Add references to WindowsFormsIntegration,
PresentationCore, PresentationFramework and WindowsBase
assemblies
3. Add into project file the following line :
<Import Project="$(MSBuildBinPath)\Microsoft.WinFX.targets" />
Just after
<Import Project="$(MSBuildBinPath)\Microsoft.CSharp.targets" />
5. Create System.Windows.Forms.Integration.ElementHost host
object
6. Add WPF control to host object
7. Add host object on WF Form
Hosting a WPF Control in WF
// Create WPF Control
TextBlock textBlock = new TextBlock();
textBlock.Text = "WPF TextBlock control";
// Create host
ElementHost host = new ElementHost();
host.Child = textBlock;
host.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
// Add host to Form
this.Controls.Add(host);
Troubleshooting Hybrid Applications
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Overlapping Controls
Child Property
Scaling
Adapter
Nesting
Focus
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Property Mapping
Layout-related Properties on Hosted Content
Navigation Applications
Opacity and Layering
Dispose
Enabling Visual Styles
Licensed Controls
Custom Controls
Models for Control Authoring
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Restyle existed controls
Derive from UserControl
Derive from Control
Derive from FrameworkElement
Restyle existed controls
• Simplest way
• No additional properties
• Custom control logic only in XAML
Restyle existed controls – example
<Window x:Class="RestyleControls.Window">
<Window.Resources>
<Style TargetType="{x:Type TextBox}">
<Setter Property="Background" Value="Red"/>
<Setter Property="FontWeight" Value="Bold" />
<Setter Property="FontStyle" Value="Italic" />
<Setter Property="Foreground" Value="Blue" />
</Style>
</Window.Resources>
<StackPanel>
<TextBox Text="Restyled TextBox"/>
</StackPanel>
</Window>
Restyle existed controls – screen shot
Derive from UserControl
• Built like Application
• Composite of existed controls
• No complex customization
Deriving from UserControl - example
<UserControl x:Name="parent“
x:Class="UserControls.UserControl">
<StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
<TextBlock
Text="{Binding
ElementName=parent,Path=LabelText}"
Margin="5"/>
<TextBox
Text="{Binding
ElementName=parent,Path=ValueText}"
Margin="5"/>
</StackPanel>
</UserControl>
Deriving from UserControl – example
<Window
x:Class="UserControls.Window"
xmlns:l="clr-namespace:UserControls">
<StackPanel>
<l:UserControl
LabelText="Label Text“
ValueText="Value Text"/>
</StackPanel>
</Window>
Deriving from UserControl – screen shot
Deriving from Control
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Flexible way
Like most WPF controls
Support Control Templates
Support Themes
Deriving from Control - example
<Style TargetType="{x:Type local:EditControl}" >
<Setter Property="Template">
<Setter.Value>
<ControlTemplate TargetType="{x:Type local:EditControl}">
<Grid Name="TextBoxGrid">
<Border Name="Border" Padding="2" BorderThickness="0" >
<TextBox Name="ContentTextBox" Text="Text!" OverridesDefaultStyle="True">
<TextBox.Template>
<ControlTemplate TargetType="{x:Type TextBox}">
<ScrollViewer Margin="6,0,6,0" x:Name="PART_ContentHost" VerticalAlignment="Center" />
</ControlTemplate>
</TextBox.Template>
</TextBox>
</Border>
<TextBlock Name="MandText" Margin="0,0,6,0" HorizontalAlignment="Right" VerticalAlignment="Center" Visibility="Hidden" Text="*"/>
<Ellipse Stroke="Blue"/>
<Grid Name="FocusBrackets" Visibility="Hidden" >
<Line StrokeThickness="1" Stroke="Red" X1="1" Y1="1" X2="1" Y2=“…"/>
<Line StrokeThickness="1" Stroke="Red" X1="1" Y1="1" X2="10" Y2="1"/>
</Grid>
</Grid>
<ControlTemplate.Triggers>
<Trigger Property="Mandatory" Value="True">
<Setter TargetName="MandText" Property="Visibility" Value="Visible"/>
</Trigger>
<Trigger SourceName="ContentTextBox" Property="IsFocused" Value="True">
<Setter TargetName="FocusBrackets" Property="Visibility" Value="Visible"/>
</Trigger>
</ControlTemplate.Triggers>
</ControlTemplate>
</Setter.Value>
</Setter>
</Style>
Deriving from FrameworkElement
• Own Render way
• Appearance is defined by own render logic
Styles and Templates
Styling and Templating
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Resources
Style structure
Data Templates
Control Templates
Triggers
Styling and Templating - Resources
• Store local Styles, Data Templates and Control
Templates
• Apply to FrameworkElement and
FrameworkContentElement
• Share resources via Resource Dictionaries
• Static and Dynamic resources
Resources example
<ResourceDictionary xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation" xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
xmlns:local="clr-namespace:ControlLibrary">
<ResourceDictionary.MergedDictionaries>
<ResourceDictionary Source="Shared.xaml"/>
</ResourceDictionary.MergedDictionaries>
<Style TargetType="{x:Type local:EditControl}" >
<Setter Property="Template">
<Setter.Value>
<ControlTemplate TargetType="{x:Type local:EditControl}">
<Grid Name="TextBoxGrid">
<TextBox Name="ContentTextBox" Text="Text!" OverridesDefaultStyle="True“/>
</Grid>
<ControlTemplate.Triggers>
<MultiTrigger>
<MultiTrigger.Conditions>
<Condition SourceName="ContentTextBox" Property="Text" Value=""/>
<Condition Property="Mandatory" Value="True"/>
</MultiTrigger.Conditions>
<Setter TargetName="MandText" Property="Visibility" Value="Visible"/>
</MultiTrigger>
</ControlTemplate.Triggers>
</ControlTemplate>
</Setter.Value>
</Setter>
</Style>
</ResourceDictionary>
Styling and Templating – Style structure
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Naming and Referencing
Deriving Styles
Setters
Data Template
Control Template
Triggers
Styling and Templating – Data Templates
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Name and Data Type
Visual data content
Content Control and Content Presenter
Triggers
Styling and Templating – Control Templates
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Name and Target Type
Visual data content
Template Attributes
Triggers
Styling and Templating – Triggers
• Trigger and Multi Trigger
<Trigger Property="IsMouseOver" Value="true">
<Setter Property = "Background" Value="Red"/>
</Trigger>
• Data Trigger and Multi Data Trigger
<DataTrigger Binding="{Binding Path=State}" Value="WA">
<Setter Property="Foreground" Value="Red" />
</DataTrigger>
• Event Trigger and Multi Event Trigger
<EventTrigger RoutedEvent="MouseLeave">
<BeginStoryboard>
<Storyboard>
<DoubleAnimation Duration="0:0:1.5" AccelerationRatio="0.10“ DecelerationRatio="0.25"
Storyboard.TargetProperty="(Canvas.Width)" />
</Storyboard>
</BeginStoryboard>
</EventTrigger>
Data Binding
Binding a dependency property to a
CLR property
<TextBox ...>
<TextBox.Text>
<Binding Path="Age" />
</TextBox.Text>
</TextBox>
<TextBox TextContent="{Binding Path=Age}" />
<TextBox TextContent="{Binding Age}" />
• Path == DaraSource
• Binding only to dependency properties
Data Context
1. The binding looks for a non-null DataContext on the TextBox itself
2. The binding looks for a non-null DataContext on the Grid
3. The binding looks for a non-null DataContext on the Window
Master-Detail Binding
public class Families : ObservableCollection<Family> { }
public class Family
{
string familyName;
public string FamilyName
{
get { return familyName; }
set { familyName = value; }
}
People members;
public People Members
{
get { return members; }
set { members = value; }
}
public class People :
ObservableCollection<Person> { }
public class Person
{
string name;
public string Name
{
get { return name; }
set { name = value; }
}
int age;
public int Age
{
get { return age; }
set { age = value; }
}
}
}
Master-Detail Binding
<!-- Window1.xaml -->
<?Mapping
XmlNamespace="local" ClrNamespace="MasterDetailBinding" ?>
<Window ... xmlns:local="local">
<Window.Resources>
<local:Families x:Key="Families">
<local:Family FamilyName="Stooge">
<local:Family.Members>
<local:People>
<local:Person Name="Larry" Age="21" />
<local:Person Name="Moe" Age="22" />
<local:Person Name="Curly" Age="23" />
</local:People>
</local:Family.Members>
</local:Family>
<local:Family FamilyName="Addams">
<local:Family.Members>
<local:People>
<local:Person Name="Gomez" Age="135" />
<local:Person Name="Morticia" Age="121" />
<local:Person Name="Fester" Age="137" />
</local:People>
</local:Family.Members>
</local:Family>
</local:Families>
</Window.Resources>
...
</Window>
Master-Detail Binding
<!-- Window1.xaml -->
<?Mapping ... ?>
<Window ...>
<Window.Resources>
<local:Families x:Key="Families">...</local:Families>
</Window.Resources>
<Grid DataContext="{StaticResource Families}">
...
<!-- Families Column -->
<TextBlock Grid.Row="0" Grid.Column="0">Families:</TextBlock>
<ListBox Grid.Row="1" Grid.Column="0"
IsSynchronizedWithCurrentItem="True"
ItemsSource="{Binding}">
<ListBox.ItemTemplate>
<DataTemplate>
<TextBlock TextContent="{Binding Path=FamilyName}" />
</DataTemplate>
</ListBox.ItemTemplate>
</ListBox>
</Window>
Graphics
Not covered sections
Sections
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Security model
Web Browser Applications
Using multimedia and graphics
Easy to restyle application
Resume
Advantages
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WPF has very flexible model
XAML is a great advance in declarative programming
Easy to use multimedia and graphics
Easy to restyle application
Disadvantages
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WPF functionality is not so high as WF one
WPF and WF interoperability is buggy
VS support of XAML is buggy and not full
Most available WPF documentation is out of date
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