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Sedge Biology and Control in
Warm-Season Turf
Tim R. Murphy
The University of Georgia
Taxonomy of Sedges
Order – Graminales
Class – Angiospermae
Subclass – Monocotyledoneae
Family – Cyperaceae (grasses are in Poaceae)
Problem Genera – Cyperus and Kyllinga
Purple Nutsedge – Cyperus rotundus
Introduced, native to Eurasia
S. East U.S., CA and AZ
Ranked world’s worst weed
Forms chains of
interconnected tubers
Prefers medium to finetextured soils
Highly adapted to compacted
soils
Yellow Nutsedge – Cyperus esculentus
Native to North America
Found in all of U.S.
Ranked 16th worst weed
in world
Forms tubers
Commonly found in
sandy soils
Thrives in non-compacted
soils
Other Key Differences
How do nutsedges reproduce?
Seed - ?????
– Research indicates seed production and viability is
very low
Tubers
– The primary method of reproduction
– Numerous buds per tuber
Yellow Nutsedge Tuber Biology
Begin to form at tips of rhizomes 4 to 6 weeks
after plant emerges
80% located in top 6 inches of soil
Counts as high as 4 to 12 million/acre
Shade will decrease tuber production
Yellow Nutsedge Tuber Longevity
Longer as tuber burial depth increases
4 month half-life at 4 inches
6 month half-life at 8 inches
3 consecutive yrs of control reduced tuber density
85%
In SC, 200,000 tubers/ac remained after 4
consecutive yrs of > 90% control in bermudagrass
Tuber Sprouting
Buds form new shoots
Yellow – 54 F.
Purple – 68 F.
Kyllinga species
Sedge family
Annuals – seed
Perennials - seed and rhizomes
No tuber formation
Thrive in wet soils
Increasing in severity
Lack of MSMA use??
Green (perennial) kyllinga
Sedge & Kyllinga Herbicides
Basagran T/O - yellow, annual sedges, kyllinga
Manage - yellow, purple, annual sedges, kyllinga
Monument - yellow, purple, annual sedges,
kyllinga
Katana & Battalion – in development
MSMA/DSMA - yellow, purple, annual sedges,
kyllinga
Image - yellow, purple, annual sedges, kyllinga
Pennant - yellow, annual sedges & annual
kyllinga
Research Data
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)
Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus)
False green kyllinga (Kyllinga gracillima)
(Appreciation is extended to Dr. Fred Yelverton, NCSU
for use of data slides)
Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Control
100
99a
Monument .35 oz
91b
% Control
85c
80
74d
60
74d
Monument .59 oz
Monument .35 oz +
Bueno 6 1.33pt
40
Manage 1.27 oz
20
Image 2.67 pt
0
6 WAIT
Rates are per acre. Trial initiated 6-21. Sequential applied 8-2.
Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Control
% Control
100
80
Monument .35 oz
94a
78bc
Monument .59 oz
69cd
63d
60
63d
Monument .35 oz +
Bueno 6 1.33pt
40
Manage 1.27 oz
20
Image 2.67 pt
0
14 WAIT
Rates are per acre. Trial initiated 6-21. Sequential applied 8-2.
Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Control
# Shoots/FT²
100
Untreated
92a
80
Monument .35 oz
60
Monument .59 oz
40b 38b
40
20
16bc
35b
Monument .35 oz +
Bueno 6 1.33pt
Manage 1.27 oz
5c
Image 2.67 pt
0
14 WAIT
Rates are per acre. Trial initiated 6-21. Sequential applied 8-2.
Untreated
Monument .35 fb .35 oz
Monument .59 fb .59 oz
Manage 1.27 fb 1.27 oz
Image 2.67 fb 2.67 pt
False Green Kyllinga (Kyllinga gracillima) Control
100
97 a
% Control
85 a
80
82 a
84 a
87 a
Monument .47 oz
Monument .47 fb .47 oz
60
Manage 1.33 oz
40
Manage 1.33 fb 1.33 oz
20
Image + MSMA .5 + 2 lb ai
0
6 WAIT
Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-7. Sequential applied 5-27.
False Green Kyllinga (Kyllinga gracillima) Control
100
99 a
99 a
99 a
99 a
% Control
Monument .47 oz
80
Monument .47 fb .47 oz
64 b
60
Manage 1.33 oz
40
Manage 1.33 fb 1.33 oz
20
Image + MSMA .5 + 2 lb ai
0
16 WAIT
Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-7. Sequentials were applied 5-27.
Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control
100
100 a
98 a
93 a
% Control
Monument .47 oz
80
Monument .47 fb .47 oz
63 bc
60
Manage 1.33 oz
40
35 d
Manage 1.33 fb 1.33 oz
20
Image + MSMA .5 + 2 lb ai
0
6 WAIT
Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-13. Sequential applied 6-23.
Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control
100
100 a
98 a
93 a
% Control
Flaz 1.5 fb 1.5 oz
80
80 ab
Flaz 3 oz
60
45 cd
40
Flaz 3 fb 3 oz
Sulfo 1.33 fb 1.33 oz
20
MSMA 2 fb 2 lb ai
0
6 WAIT
Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-13. MSMA seq applied 5-26, flaz seq applied 6-3, sulfo seq applied 7-28.
Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control
100
% Control
Monument .47 oz
80
69 ab
60
Monument .47 fb .47 oz
61 abc
56 abc
Manage 1.33 oz
40
30 bcd
Manage 1.33 fb 1.33 oz
19 cd
20
Image + MSMA .5 + 2 lb ai
0
16 WAIT
Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-13. Sequential applied 6-23.
Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Control
% Control
100
Flaz 1.5 fb 1.5 oz
81 a
80
Flaz 3 oz
60
58 abc
Flaz 3 fb 3 oz
39 a-d
40
25 bcd
20
Sulfo 1.33 fb 1.33 oz
20 cd
MSMA 2 fb 2 lb ai
0
16 WAIT
Rates are per acre. All trts included 0.25% v/v NIS. Trial initiated 5-13. MSMA seq applied 5-26, flaz seq applied 6-3, sulfo seq applied 7-28.
Key Factors for Sedge Control
Make initial application when sedges are
actively-growing (need good soil moisture)
Repeat the application
MSMA – 7 to 10 days
Basagran T/0 – 7 to 10 days
Monument, Manage, Katana, Battalion, Image
– 4 to 8 weeks (when regrowth is noted)
Key Factors for Sedge Control
Be aware of rainfast periods
Image - NA (water 1 to 7 d after)
Monument – 3 hrs
 Manage – 3 to 8 hrs
Basagran T/O – 4 hrs
MSMA/DSMA – 24 hrs
Add adjuvant as per label.
Key Factors for Sedge Control
Map infestations
Include MSMA in rotation plan, especially
for kyllinga
Include Basagran T/O in rotation plan,
especially for yellow nutsedge
Key Factors for Sedge Control
Follow all approved cultural practices
Eliminate drainage problems
Don’t over-irrigate and create habitat
favored by sedges and kyllinga
Plan on a multi-year program
Persistence will be required
Sedge control ratings for selected turfgrass herbicides.
(From McCarty, Murphy and Yelverton)
Annual
Sedge
G
Purple
Nutsedge
P
Ronstar
G
P
P
F
P
Basagran T/O
G
P
G
F-G
F-G
Image
G
G
P-F
G
G
Manage
G
G
G
G
F-G
MSMA/DSMA
G
P-F
F
G
G
Image +
MSMA
G
G-E
G
G
G
Monument
??
G-E
G
G
G-E
Herbicide
Pennant
Yellow
Annual
Green
Nutsedge Kyllinga Kyllinga
G
F-G
P
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