IP Addresses

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Binary to Decimal Conversion
27
128
26
64
25
32
24
16
23
8
22
4
21
2
20
1
IP Addresses
A computer only knows binary (0s and 1s)
An IP address in IP version 4 has
32 bits
(separated by periods into 4 octets)
11000000.10101000.00001010.10010110
IP Addresses
Humans are more familiar with
decimal numbers, so we use a
Dotted decimal format
An IP address of 192.168.10.150
has a Binary equivalent of
11000000.10101000.00001010.10010110
Conversion can be done in Windows calculator. Make sure to
include any leading zeros to make a full octet.
IP Addresses
IP Addresses have 2 Parts:
Network Number and Host Number.
In the IP Address 192.168.10.150
the Network Number is 192.168.10
and the Host Number is 150
The Correct Notation is 192.168.10.0
and 0.0.0.150
IP Addresses
IP Address Classes
Class
A
Decimal
0-126
Binary
00000000 01111110
B
128-191
1000000 10111111
C
192-223
11000000 –
11011111
IP Addresses
• In binary, the highest number 8 bits can
designate is 11111111 or 255 in decimal.
IP Class Subnet masks
Class Subnet mask - Decimal Subnet mask - Binary
A
255.0.0.0
11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
B
255.255.0.0
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
C
255.255.255.0
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
IP Addresses
To differentiate between the network portion and the host
portion, network administrators use subnet masks.
The default subnet mask for the Class C IP address of
192.168.10.150 is 255.255.255.0
In binary:
11000000.10101000.00001010.10010110
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000
11000000.10101000.00001010.00000000
192
.168
.10
.0
Convert decimal to binary in
Windows calculator
• Go to Start, Run and type in: calc
• Type in a decimal number: 100
• Click on radio button beside bin (binary)
and the binary equivalent will show in
the answer box: 1100100 (7 bits)
• Be careful the answer box doesn’t show
leading 0s: 01100100 (8 bits)
Ipconfig - Windows 2000
•
•
•
•
•
Go to Start, Run and type in cmd
Type in ipconfig /?
Type in ipconfig /all
Type in ipconfig /release
Type in ipconfig /renew
PING
Packet Internet Groper (PING) is a utility that
can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to
the NIC, configured correctly, and
communicating with the network.
• Type ping 127.0.0.1
• Type ping your IP address
• Type ping another computer in your
network
• Type ping your default gateway
• Type ping www.yahoo.com (internet host)
An Example
• Subnet a Class C network, 200.133.175.0, into 14
subnets for security, traffic control and multiple
locations.
• 2n - 2 = number of subnets (need minimum of 14
subnets) where n = number of bits borrowed
2?-2 > 14
24-2 = 16
• Borrow four bits = subnet mask 255.255.255.240
• Table
An Example
200.133.175.0
11001000.100000101.10101111.00000000
255.255.255.240
11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000
Example
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