First Aid

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First Aid
Chapter 5
Wounds
Open Wounds
Break in
skin
surface
with
external
bleeding
Open Wounds
At risk
for blood
loss and
infection
Open Wounds
Abrasion
Several
types of
open
wounds
Laceration
Incision
Contusion
Hematoma
Puncture
Avulsion
Amputation
Open Wounds
Abrasion
Top layer of skin is
removed.
Little or no blood
loss
Painful because
nerve ending are
also abraded
Open Wounds
Abrasion
Ground in debris
may be present
“Scrape”
“Road rash”
“Rug burn”
abrasion
abrasion
abrasion
Open Wounds
Laceration
Cut skin with
jagged edges.
Caused by
forceful tearing
away of tissue.
laceration
laceration
laceration
Open Wounds
Incision
Smooth edges
Resemble surgical
cut or paper cut
Amount of bleeding
depends on depth,
location, size
incision
incision
incision
incision
Open Wounds
Puncture
Usually deep,
narrow
wounds in
skin and
underlying
organs.
Open Wounds
Puncture
Entrance is usually
small
High risk of
infection
Object may still be
present
puncture
puncture
Open Wounds
Avulsion
Flap of skin is
torn loose and
hanging.
Can bleed heavily
Most often involve
ears, fingers and
hands
Open Wounds
Avulsion
If possible, lay
flap flat and
realign in
normal
position
Open Wounds
Amputation
Cutting of
tearing off of a
body part
Fingers, hand,
toes, foot, arm
leg
amputation
Open Wounds: What to Do
Wear gloves
Expose
wound
Control
bleeding with
direct
pressure
Open Wounds: What to Do
Cleaning the
wound:
Helps
prevent
infection
May restart
bleeding
Open Wounds: What to Do
Cleaning the
wound:
Shallow:
Wash with soap
and water
Irrigate with water
SMA as needed
Animal
bites,
puncture
wounds,
serious
wounds:
always
SMA
Open Wounds: What to Do
Cleaning the
wound:
Cover wound with
sterile dressing
Keep clean and
dry
Change dressing
as needed
Open Wounds: What to Do
DO NOT
 Clean large
or lifethreatening
wounds
 Scrub a
wound
Open Wounds: What to Do
DO NOT
 Irrigate with
full strength
alcohol or
Betadine
 Use hydrogen
peroxide
Hydrogen
peroxide
can effect
blood flow
and wound
healing
Open Wounds: What to Do
DO NOT
 Soak the
wound
 Close the
wound with
tape
 Blow on the
wound
Infection
more likely
when
bacteria is
trapped in
wound
Open Wounds: What to Do
Covering the
wound
Small does not
require sutures:
Apply antibiotic
ointment
Cover with sterile
dressing
Open Wounds: What to Do
Infection
Swelling
Redness
Throbbing pain
Drainage
Fever
Red streaks
Chills
Serious
sign of
infection.
SMA
Open Wounds: What to Do
Tetnus
Enters a
wound with
little oxygen,
(puncture
wound)
releases
toxins
Toxin
travels to
nervous
system,
brain and
spinal cord
Open Wounds: What to Do
Tetnus
Muscle
contractions
and paralysis
Starts with
jaw - “Lock
Jaw”
No know
antidote.
Vaccination
to prevent
Open Wounds: What to Do
Amputation
Control
bleeding
Treat for shock
Recover
amputated part
Open Wounds: What to Do
Amputation
Rinse to
remove
debris.
Do not scrub
Wrap in clean
dry dressing
Open Wounds: What to Do
Amputation
Place in plastic
bag
Place in
another plastic
bag with ice
SMA
Open Wounds: What to Do
Amputation
DO NOT:
 Wrap in wet cloth
 Place directly on ice
 Use dry ice
 Cut off partially
attached body part
Open Wounds: What to Do
Impaled Object
DO NOT remove
Control bleeding with
direct pressure on skin
around object
Stabilize object
Shorten only if necessary
Closed Wounds
Happens when a
blunt object
strikes the body
Skin is not
broken
Tissue and blood
vessels beneath
skin is crushed
Closed Wounds
Contusion
Another name for
a bruise.
Caused when
blood vessels are
damaged or
broken from a
blow to the skin
contusion
Closed Wounds
Hematoma
is a collection
of blood outside
the blood
vessels,
Caused by
internal
bleeding
hematoma
hematoma
Closed Wounds
What to do:
Control bleeding
with an ice pack
Elastic bandage as
needed
Check for fracture
Elevate to decrease
pain, swelling
Wounds that Require Attention
Arterial bleeding
Uncontrolled
bleeding
Deep or large
wound
Embedded objects
Animal bites
Internal bleeding
Use
Common
Sense
Sutures
“Stitches”
Should be done within 6-8 hours
of injury
Learning Activities 5
Wound Care
1. Wash shallow wounds
with soap and water.
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Wound Care
2. Irrigating a wound with
water needs pressure.
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Wounds
3. Wounds with a high risk for
infection require medical
attention .
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Wounds
4. Antibiotic ointment can
be applied to any
wound.
No
Learning Activities 5
Wounds
5. Hydrogen Peroxide works
well on wounds.
No
Learning Activities 5
Scenerio: 23 y/o. Knife wound on
hand. shallow What to do
Apply pressure
Clean wound
Keep clean and dry
Apply dresing
Learning Activities 5
Amputation
1.
Recover amputated
part, take with victim to
hospital.
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Amputation
2.
Cut off partially
attached part.
no
Learning Activities 5
Amputation
3.
Wrap amputated part in
dry, clean cloth. Place in
plastic bag. Keep cool.
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Amputation
4.
Keep amputated part
buried in ice.
No
Learning Activities 5
Amputation
5.
DO NOT let amputated
part become water
logged.
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Scenario: Fingers stuck in mower
blade. Two fingers cut off. What to
do?
Stop bleeding
Retreive part – place in bag
(ice)
Tx for shock
Learning Activities 5
Impaled Object
1. Removing an Impaled Object
could cause more bleeding
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Impaled Object
2. Prevent an Impaled Object from
moving by placing bulky
padding around object
Yes
Learning Activities 5
Scenario:
Construction worker drove large nail
through hand. What to do?
Don’t remove object
Control bleeding
SMA
First Aid Kits
Item
Plastic baggie
Quantity
1
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