Chapter 7

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Chapter 1
7 Lecture
HUMAN ANATOMY
Chapter 7
The Skeletal System:
Appendicular Division
Introduction
• The appendicular skeleton is involved in
changing your position in the external
environment.
– Standing
– Walking
– Sitting
– Dressing
– Driving a car
Introduction
Figure 7.1 The Appendicular Skeleton
The Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limb
• Includes the S-shaped clavicle (collarbone)
and the flattened scapula (shoulder blade).
• The clavicle articulates with the sternum’s
manubrium; is the only direct connection
between the axial skeleton and the pectoral
girdle.
• The scapula is attached to the clavicle
anteriorly but has no connection to the
actual axial skeleton; instead skeletal
muscles and ligaments support it.
The Clavicle
Figure 7.3 The Clavicle
The Scapula
Figure 7.5a,b,c The Scapula
The Scapula
supraspinous fossa
superior border
subscapular fossa
acromion
coracoid process
glenoid fossa
spine
medial border
infraspinous fossa
lateral border
inferior angle
infraglenoid tubercle
supraglenoid tubercle
Figure 7.5d,e,f The Scapula
The Upper Limb
• Consists of the:
– Brachium (humerus)
– Antebrachium (ulna and radius)
– Wrist (carpals)
– Hand (metacarpals and phalanges)
The Humerus: Anterior
Humerus
Head
medial epicondyle
anatomical neck
surgical neck
olecranon fossa
lateral epicondyle
Capitulum
greater tubercle
Trochlea
lesser tubercle
coronoid fossa
deltoid tuberosity
intertubercular groove
Figure 7.6a The Anterior Humerus
The Humerus: Posterior
Figure 7.6d The Posterior Humerus
The Ulna and Radius: Posterior
Ulna
Olecranon
styloid process
trochlear notch
coronoid process
radial notch
Radius
Head
Radial tuberosity
styloid process
ulnar notch
Figure 7.7a The Posterior Forearm
The Ulna and Radius: Anterior
Figure 7.7d The Anterior Forearm
The Wrist and Hand
• The carpal bones are the eight bones of
the wrist.
• The five metacarpal bones articulate with
the distal carpal bones and make up the
palm of the hand.
• The fourteen phalanges of the hand make
up the finger bones.
Hand
• SLTPTTCH
The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
• The pelvic girdle supports and protects the
lower viscera and developing fetus in females.
• The bones of the pelvic girdle and lower limb
are much more massive than their homologues
of the upper limb.
• Consists of two ossa coxae bones.
• The lower limb includes the thigh (femur),
kneecap (patella), leg, (tibia and fibula), ankle
(tarsals), and foot (metatarsals and
phalanges).
The Pelvic Girdle
Ilium
iliac crest
auricular surface
greater sciatic notch
iliac fossa
anterior superior iliac spine
posterior superior iliac spine
posterior inferior iliac spine
anterior inferior iliac spine
Ischium
ischial spine
ischial ramus
ischial tuberosity
Pubis
superior ramus
inferior ramus
symphysis pubis
pubic tubercle
Figure 7.10a Lateral Pelvic Girdle
The Pelvic Girdle
Figure 7.10b Medial Pelvic Girdle
The Pelvis
Figure 7.11a Anterior Pelvis
Figure 7.11b Posterior Pelvis
The Pelvis
Figure 7.12a Superior Pelvis
Figure 7.12c Inferior Pelvis
The Pelvis: Male vs. Female
• The male and female pelvis contains
numerous differences.
– Generally the male pelvis is heavier with more
prominent markings due to the larger muscles
attached to it.
The Pelvis: Male vs. Female
• Characteristics of the female pelvis:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Enlarged pelvic outlet, due to wider ischial spines
Less curvature of the sacrum and coccyx
Wider, more circular pelvic inlet
Broader, lower pelvis
Widely fanning ilia
Pubic angle greater than 100°
The Femur: Anterior
Femur
Head
Neck
greater trochanter
lesser trochanter
intercondylar fossa
patellar surface
linea aspera
fovea capitis
medial condyle
lateral condyle
intertrochanteric line
intertrochanteric crest
Figure 7.14a The Anterior Femur
The Femur: Posterior
Figure 7.14d The Posterior Femur
The Patella
Figure 7.15 The Patella
The Tibia and Fibula: Anterior
Tibia
lateral condyle
medial condyle
tibial tuberosity
intercondylar eminence
medial malleolus
fibular notch
Fibula
Head
lateral malleolus
shaft
Figure 7.16a The Anterior Tibia and Fibula
The Tibia and Fibula: Posterior
Figure 7.16d The Posterior Tibia and Fibula
The Ankle and Foot
• Seven tarsal bones make up the ankle.
• The five metatarsal bones articulate with
the distal tarsal bones and make up the
arches of the foot.
• The fourteen phalanges of the foot make
up the toe bones.
Foot
Tarsals
Talus
Calcaneus
Cuboid
navicular
cuneiforms - 1st, 2nd, 3rd
3 Arches
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