EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION USING CARBON-NANOTUBE SENSORS (…A Research Based Project…) PROJECT GUIDE : Mr. B.T.VENKATESHMURTHY PRESENTED BY : SHUHAB-U-TARIQ 7th sem E&C INTRODUCTION • Earthquakes… What ? Why ? How ? • Carbon Nanotubes Definition Structure Properties EARTHQUAKES • Vibration of the Earth produced by a rapid release of energy. • Occur principally by the sudden displacement on faults. • Caused by plate movement at subduction zones or other fault lines. • Theory of Plate Tectonics • Rigid plates that collide, separate and then translate. CARBON NANOTUBES • Extremely thin hollow cylinders made of carbon atoms. • diameter is about 10,000 times smaller than a human hair ! PROPERTIES • Size : 0.6 to 1.8 nanometer in diameter • Density : 1.33 to 1.40 grams per cubic centimeter • Tensile strength : • Resilience : 45 billion pascals Can be bent at large angles and restraightened without damage • Current carrying capacity : Estimated at a 1 billion amps per square centimeter PROPERTIES CONTD. • Field emission : Can activate phosphors at1 to 3 volts if electrodes are spaced 1 micron apart • Heat transmission : Predicted to be as high as 6,000 watts per meter per kelvin at room temperature • Temperature stability : Stable up to 2,800 degrees Celsius in vacuum, 750degrees C in air • Cost : $1,500 per gram from Bucky USA in Houston Effect of Twisting on Nanotube Electronic Structure: • the metallic nanotube to a semiconducting one with a band-gap that varies with the twist angle. Effect of bending: • Variation of the local density of states (LDOS) along the length of a (6,6) nanotube as a function of the bending angle. Implementation of C nanotube: • Wheatstone Bridge Subjecting the circuit to suitable Frequency vibrations due to which there should be a significant change in electrical property of C-nanotubes resulting the bridge unbalanced. Rx = C - Nanotube sensor CONCLUSION : • Detect the precursor waves that precede any surface or destructive earthquake. • Earthquake prediction is accomplished and a significant loss of life and property could be reduced .