Chapter 6 “Religion” Religions of the World This next slide contains a map that was on last year’s AP Final exam. 1. The map above shows the distribution of three religious groups in the contiguous United States. A. Using the letters in the legend, name the three religious groups shown on the map. B. For ONE of the three religious groups, first identify and then explain TWO factors that have influenced the distribution shown on the map. C. Explain how the map as presented at this scale is an incomplete representation of the geography of religion in the United States. • Religion and Language lie at the foundation of culture • Universalizing religions – … • Ethnic religions (cultural) – … Religion Christianity Roman Catholic Protestant Major World Religions Predominant Region(s) Am, Eur, Aus, Rus C & S Am, Eur N Am, N Eur, Aus Orthodox E Eur, Rus, C Asia Islam Sunni Shia (Shiite) N Afr, SW Asia, Indo. Hinduism Buddhism Chinese Religions Sikhism Judaism N Afr, SW Asia Iran India SE Asia, China, Japan China S Asia US, Eur Followers (in millions) 1524 829 503 192 1157 996 163 757 347 263 22 17 The Universalizing Religions can be divided into Branches, Denominations and Sects. A Branch is a large fundamental division with a religion. Eg. Roman Catholic is a branch of Christianity. A Denomination is a division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body. Eg. Baptist, Methodist, Pentecostal and Lutheran are denominations of the Protestant church. A Sect is a relatively small group broken away from an established denomination. The ‘Community of the Ladies of all Peoples’ is a sect of the Protestant Church. Christianity - > 1.5 billion, Bible • Major denominations – Roman Catholic – Papacy (Rome) – Protestant – Luther (Germany) – Orthodox – Constantinople (Turkey) • Source, Beliefs, Diffusion - Bible - holy book – Jesus – son of God (Jerusalem); – Roman Emperor Constantine (312 AD) spreads Christianity (hierarchical and relocation diff), – spreads throughout Europe & Balkans (contagious diff) – European colonialism - Americas & Africa (relocation diff) Diffusion of Christianity Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa. Islam - > 1 billion • Major denominations – Sunni – orthodox (majority) - leadership of the Muslim nation – can be elected – Shiite – leadership of the Muslim nation – must be related to the Prophet Muhammad or appointed by him • Source & Beliefs – Qu’ran - holy book – Muhammad is the messenger of God – (571 AD, Mecca, Medina); – “Five Pillars” – shahada (profession of faith), pray 5 X day, fasting (Ramadan), almsgiving, pilgrimage to Mecca - Haj – Mosque • Diffusion – Spread from Medina (Saudi Arabia) follows hierarchical diffusion – conquest – Ottoman Empire – Spread through Arab traders throughout N Africa (contagious diff) – convert many animist believers. – Crusades - stop the spread of Islam (1095 – 1199) – illustrate struggle b/w Christianity & Islam – Spread to Malaysia & Indonesia (largest Muslim country today) – relocation diffusion Diffusion of Islam Hinduism - >750 million • Oldest major religion • Source & Beliefs – Indus Valley (Pakistan; 4,000 yrs. ago) – Ganges River – Caste system (Untouchables – lowest, Brahman highest caste), – Karma (force generated by a person’s actions) – affects transmigrations into future existence), reincarnation) – Cremation • Diffusion – Spread into SE Asia, Bali (Indonesia) – relocation diff as well as contagious diff - mainly through trade and migration Buddhism - <350 million • Source and Beliefs – Gautama (the Buddha – enlightened one (wealthy founder, 6th c. BC) – Buddha sought to end suffering, seek to achieve nirvana (highest level of enlightenment), no true God or deity, believe in reincarnation – Pagodas and shrines, often bell-shaped (protect burial mounds), Buddha (cross-legged pose) • Diffusion – Spread from Nepal to the South and the East – relocation diff and contagious diff - trade and migration Diffusion of Buddhism Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan. Judaism - >12.8 million • Source and Beliefs - Torah (Five Books of Moses) - Belief in God – special relationship with God (Covenant); Abraham, Moses - Waiting for the Messiah - Synagogue • Diffusion - Zionist movement led to homeland (Israel); - Jerusalem - Diffusion due to migration and persecution (Diaspora - forced dispersion). Chinese Religions: • Taoism: Lao-Tsu, Fung Shui • organizing life & space • Confucianism: • Confucian Classics (13 texts, 5th c. BC) • elements of Buddhism Other Religions: • Sikhism - Punjab (NW India), monotheistic, elements of Hinduism & Islam • Shintoism – Buddhism & Japanese culture • Shamanism– people follow a shaman (religious leader) • Baha’l – Iran – new - began in the 19th Century – open to other religions – main holy place is in Haifa - Israel Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth. Click here to see an excellent animation (Flash) that illustrates the diffusion of the major religions through time. Diffusion of the 4 Major Religions Key Terms: • Monotheistic – … • Syncretism – … • Secularism – … • Theocracy – … • Ghetto - … • Fundamentalist - … • Animism - … •Polytheism - … Three main religions have similar origins – Christianity, Judaism, Islam: - All three believe Adam was the first Man - Abraham was one of his descendants -These 3 religions all believe in God/Allah and that Abraham was a great prophet. Jerusalem is the area where the Canaanites lived (the promised land given to them from God. The Canaanites were the ancestors of the Hebrews, also called Israelites and today Jews. Jerusalem is a major city for all three faiths. - Judaism – Temple Mount – Wailing Wall (Western Wall) – Where God gathered dust and created Adam - Islam – Dome of the Rock – East side of the wailing wall – Muhammad assent into Heaven - Christianity – Where Jesus lived, preached and died. Jerusalem The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. All three began roughly the same part of the world – Center of Population at the time, major trade routes. This area was at one time or another controlled by the Egyptians, The Romans, The Hebrews and the Ottomans. Interesting to discuss how each Religion views or effects the following: • Cosmogony – origins of the universe • Religious Calendar • Rituals for the Dead • Toponyms • Pilgrimages - location of Holy Places • How conflicts have been centered on Religion Middle East, Northern Ireland, Iraq/Iran • Religious Landscape/Architecture • How each Religion handles expansion and defence of it’s faith Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the 1948–49 War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War. Protestants in Northern Ireland Percent Protestant population by district in Ireland, 1911. When Ireland became independent in 1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom. Religion and Geography Landscape and Sacred Space -Places possess sacredness Religious Ecology -Mountains, rivers and natural hazards are holy Religion and Environmental Modification -Humans rule the earth and have dominion of the animals and plants Religion and the Economy -Wine, Pork, alcohol, food taboos Religion and Political Geography -Theocracies Landscapes of the Dead -Cemeteries, tombs, ceremonies Religious Names on the land -Toponyms Religion and Geography Landscape and Sacred Space -Places possess sacredness Religious Ecology -Mountains, rivers and natural hazards are holy Religion and Environmental Modification -Humans rule the earth and have dominion of the animals and plants Religion and the Economy -Wine, Pork, alcohol, food taboos Religion and Political Geography -Theocracies Landscapes of the Dead -Cemeteries, tombs, ceremonies Religious Names on the land -Toponyms Architecture - Cultural Landscape Christianity First Church of Christ, Connecticut Basilica of St. Francis, Assisi, Italy Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France Ideal Gothic Church Greek Orthodox (Byzantine) Church in Crete, Greece St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City - Rome Islam Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, Israel The Blue Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey Santa Sophia (Hagia) – Istanbul, Turkey Mecca, Saudi Arabia Sikhism Golden Temple, Amritsar, India Hinduism Shiva Temple, Rameshvaram & Badrinath, India Rajarani Temple, Bhubaneshwar, India Bathing in the Ganges River by Hindu Pilgrims Buddhism Swayabhunath Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal That Phanom Shrine, Thailand Buddha Statue Shintoism Senjokaku Shrine, Miyajima, Japan Judaism Wailing Wall, Jerusalem, Israel Holy Blossom, Toronto Western Wall & Temple Mount, Jerusalem, Israel Baha’i One Temple in each of the Continents: Chile India USA Western Samoa Panama Australia Uganda Turkmenistan Baha’i Temple - Illinois Vocabulary List Unit III. Cultural Patterns and Processes, Part 2—Basic Vocabulary and Concepts Religion Animism Buddhism Cargo cult pilgrimage Christianity Confucianism Ethnic religion Exclave/enclave Fundamentalism Geomancy (feng shui) Hadj Hinduism Interfaith boundaries Islam Jainism Judaism Landscapes of the dead Monotheism/polytheism Mormonism Muslim pilgrimage Muslim population Proselytic religion Reincarnation Religion (groups, places) Religious architectural styles Religious conflict Religious culture hearth Religious toponym Sacred space Secularism Shamanism Sharia law Shintoism Sikhism Sunni/Shia Taoism Theocracy Universalizing Zoroastrianism The End!