Midterm Review

Midterm Review
It goes in order of units but does not
necessarily cover every question. Make
notes where you need to.
Renewable and Non-Renewable
Atmosphere- All of Earth’s
air elements. (Climate)
Hydrosphere- All of Earth’s
water elements.
Lithosphere- Land elements.
Plate tectonics
Biosphere- all three
spheres combined
Factors affecting Climate
LATITUDE, air pressure, mountain
barriers(OROGRAPHIC EFFECT), elevation,
continental location, ocean currents, wind
belts, storms.
Mountain Barrier-Orographic Effect
Less Developed Country
High Birth Rate
High Death Rate
Low literacy rates
Poor healthcare
Subsistence agriculture
Primary economic activities
Newly Industrialized Country
Improving GDP
Improving health care
Secondary economic activities
Lowering birth and death rates
Improved life expectancy
The “Arrow” or “Hershey Kiss”
Developed Country w/negative growth
● Once developed
● More Emigrants than
● Negative population growth
Developed Countries
● High standard of living
● Steady birth and death
● High GDP and GDP per
● High literacy rates
● Tertiary and quaternary economic activities
Primary Economic Activities
● The most basic economic activity.
● Involves the growing of foods and extraction, or
harvesting of resources.
● The smaller the number of a country’s citizens
involved in primary activities, the likelihood of it
being more developed increases.
Secondary Economic Activities
● Adding value to raw materials by processing them or
changing their form.
● The manufacture and production of goods.
Tertiary Economic Activities
● Means “Third Level”
● Identified by a variety of services performed by people
and businesses.
● In the U.S., tertiary workers make up 80% of labor force.
Quaternary Economic Activities
● Means “Fourth Level”
● Involves information processing and management.
● Conducting and Interpreting Data
Gross Domestic ProductAverage national
production value
How much money a
country makes
Gross Domestic Product per capita
GDP divided by population
GDP= $16 trillion
Pop: 300,000,000
GDP per capita~$53,000
Religions of Southwest Asia
A.K.A. the Middle East
● Three of the worlds major
religions begin in
Southwest Asia
● Judaism (1800 BCE)
● Christianity (40 CE)
● Islam (610 CE)
● All three religions share a
common faith in one God
= Monotheism
Quick Facts for Christianity
Christianity is the most practiced
religion in the world with over 2 billion
Christians believe that Jesus was the
Messiah promised in the Old
Christians believe that Jesus Christ is
the Son of God.
Christians believe that God sent his
Son to earth to save humanity from
the consequences of its sins
Christians worship in churches.
Their spiritual leaders are called
priests or ministers.
The Christian holy book is the Bible,
and consists of the Old and New
Islamic Quick Facts
Islam is the second largest religion in the
world with over 1 billion followers
Muslims believe that the final Prophet
was Muhammad.
Muslims base their laws on their holy
book the Qur'an, and the Sunnah.
Muslims believe the Sunnah is the
practical example of Prophet Muhammad
and that there are five basic Pillars of
These pillars are the declaration of faith,
praying five times a day, giving money to
charity, fasting and a pilgrimage to Mecca
(at least once).
Quick Facts about Judaism
● 13.1 million Jewish people in the
world in 2007
● The central and most important
religious document is the Torah.
● Spiritual leaders are called
● Jews worship in Synagogues.
● Two primary branches of Judaism.
Orthodox and Reformed
● 6 million Jews were murdered in
the Holocaust in an attempt to
wipe out Judaism.
Quick Facts about Hinduism
One of the oldest religions in the world
No one founder
3rd Largest Religion(1st- Christianity, 2nd- Islam)
Founded in the Indus valley
Moska- gain freedom from the circle of life
Believe in reincarnation
Quick Facts on Buddhism
● Founder- Siddhartha
● Founded around 520
● Fourth Largest Religion
● Nirvana- enlightenment
● Founded in Southern
● Polytheistic
Quick Fact on Sikhism
● Founded in the Punjab
region of India
● Founder- Guru Nanak
● Monotheistic
● Worship in temples
● Reincarnation
What factors influence where people settle?
Physical Factors
Political centers(capitals)
Natural transportation routes
In valleys and plains(flat land)
Economic centers(Big cities)
Arable land (fertile soil)
Near sources of fresh water
Along coastlines
Traditional Economy
● People meet their needs
much like their
ancestors did.
● Subsistence agriculturegrowing just enough to
feed themselves.
● Cottage Industriesgoods like textiles
produced at home.
● Inuit of the Arctic Region
Free Enterprise
● People are free to
produce what they want
and buy what they want.
● Prices determined by
supply and demand.
● Commercial agriculturegrowing food to sell to
● Commercial factories
manufacturing goods.
● United States
Communist Economy
● Government owns and
operates all businesses.
● State managers develop
plan for production and
distribution of goods and
● China
Socialist Economies
Also called a Mixed
Government owns major
business industries.
Some private ownership.
Government and control group:
1. Totalitarian
2. Democracy
3. Dictatorship
4. Theocracy
5. Monarchy
A. Individual or small
B. Dictatorial
C. Religious leaders
D. Hereditary ruler
E. Ordinary citizens
United States and Canada
Livestock, commercial
farming, forestry, trade and
manufacturing, fishing
Varied Climate
Because it covers
many different
North America has
climates from tropical
to tundra.
Canadian colonial powers
Majority of Canadians...
Roman Catholics
NAFTA- North American Free Trade
Promotes economic
growth and political
Panama Canal- located on an isthmus