FFA Entomology---Changes in 2011

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FFA Entomology---Changes in 2011
• 100 Common Insects are NOW 110 Common Arthropods
• But instead of simply adding 10 more arthropods to the old list, we
decided to update nomenclature to reflect the current ‘state of the art’
• Here’s what happened in this 2011 revision….
– Two new orders were added: Thysanoptera (Thrips-new) and Uropygi
(Whipscorpion-new)
– Order Anoplura was replaced with new Order Phthiraptera (thir-RAP’-tera),
including both Chewing and Sucking lice; ‘Chewing louse’ is new
– Order Hemiptera now includes the Order Homoptera; latter was dropped
– ‘Spider’ replaced with ‘Widow spider,’ ‘Violin spider’ and ‘Jumping spider.’
– ‘Tick’ replaced with ‘Soft tick’ and ‘Hard tick.’
– ‘Picture-winged fly’ is now called ‘Fruit fly’
– Other additions to Common Names include: Big-eyed bug, Mealybug, Bed
Bug & Whitefly
These new additions might be found in your house, other buildings, your yard
or garden (greenhouse, maybe?), on you, your family, pets, livestock, wild
animals, the rangeland or any crop you might be producing…
100 Common Insects Manual
Still Good for Now
The basic information
is still sound; you’ll
note recent changes.
The manual will be
revised next.
(Richman, Sutherland & Oseto. 2004.
Circular 570---on NMSU Extension pubs
website)
the NEW Identification
List (P. 2)
See This
theiscomplete
list of critters---p.
2…
This is the NEW
Page 2 for your 100
Common Insects
Manual. Print it.
110 Common
Names listed
alphabetically
It currently has
all of the answers
you’ll need for
the Identification
Contest
Updates in the Order section
Classes & Metamorphosis
are the same
2 additions to Mouthparts
2011-2012 Entomology Study
Materials for FFA Classes
• Examples, Fact Sheets for the New Arthropods;
• Print these, too (yes, these have more info)
Series of 7 PowerPoint Programs
Covering All 110 Arthropods
These will show at least one good photograph of each common arthropod. These programs
can be used with the fact sheets and your manual to find one or more useful distinguishing
features for each arthropod.
Basic Entomology---Introductory
Material
_____________
•
•
•
•
What IS an Arthropod?
The Classification Hierarchy-Overview
Metamorphosis and Molting
Mouthparts
Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU
What IS an Arthropod?
• ‘Arthropod’ is derived from two Greek/Latin
root words--– ‘arthro-’ meaning ‘jointed’….and
– ‘-pod’ or ‘-poda’---meaning ‘foot’ or ‘leg’
Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU
• Here, it refers to a member of a very large
group of animals---the Phylum Arthropoda,
the ‘jointed foot animals’
What IS an Arthropod?
• The Arthropods include well over 1 million species
of animals distributed world wide; some estimates
are for 30+ million species of insects alone
• They are major components of our ecosystems
• Arthropods literally are all around us---at home, at
school, at work, at recreation sites---on the farm
and on the ranch
Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU
Features of the Phylum Arthropoda
•Paired, jointed legs
•Segmented bodies
•Bilateral symmetry
•Exoskeleton with chitin; molting
•Tubular digestive system with mouth & anus
•Open circulatory system—dorsal tubular heart
•Striated skeletal muscles
•Body cavity is a ‘blood cavity’ (blood bathes organs)
Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU
Features of the Phylum Arthropoda
(cont.)
• Nervous system---anterior ‘brain’ located above
alimentary canal, paired connectives join brain to
paired ventral nerve cords located below alimentary
canal. Paired ganglia/segment.
• Excretory system---Malpighian tubules collect wastes
in blood, empty them into hind gut
• Respiratory system---gills or tracheae
& spiracles
• No cilia or nephridia
• Sexes nearly always separate. (Some are known from
‘female only’ populations.)
Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU
How to Keep Track of 1+ Million
Arthropods & Their Relationships?
Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU
• This is the role of ‘Taxonomy’: Science of
classification into categories of varying rank, and the
describing and naming of these categories.
• ‘Systematics’ is the broader study of relationships among
organisms
________________
• The species is a unique biological unit whose members have the
potential to interbreed & produce viable, fertile offspring (a
biological ‘reality’).
• Categories above the species rank are ‘man-made entities’. With
new or better data, these categories may be revised---e.g. new
taxa (group of organisms classified together) recognized and
named or a taxon split or ‘lumped’ with another
Arthropod Classification*---The Hierarchy
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
(more
specific)
Order(more
(Family/Taxon Common Name)
Inclusive) Family
Genus
Species---some are used as
examples
These are 3 elements of Arthropod Classification that you will learn
__________
*(Think of this as a file inside a file inside a file….)
Phylum Arthropoda is Divided into
Classes:
• Common Classes* include:
• Insecta---insects
• Arachnida---mites and ticks, spiders, others
• Crustacea---sowbugs; crab, shrimp, lobster, krill,
others have been included in this group, FYI
• Diplopoda---millipedes
• Chilopoda ---centipedes
___________
*These are the 5 classes you will learn---see New Page 2.
After a Few More Basics…
• We will introduce you to each of these classes and
show you common examples
• In the Class Insecta---especially---you’ll meet other
taxa such as Orders and members of these Orders.
• You will be learning the ‘Common Names’ of
Families or unique members of these families
• For identification quizzes---you will be responsible
identifying the adult stages only
Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU
Arthropod Classification Incorporates
Metamorphosis & Mouthpart Types*
(as well as other criteria)
You will learn the
types of metamorphosis
and mouthparts
associated with each of
the 110 arthropods
We will simplify these for FFA students. Those who study arthropods in greater
detail will learn additional categories of metamorphosis and mouthparts. They differ
in ‘fine details.’
‘Metamorphosis’
• Means ‘change in form’ during development
• Arthropods do not ‘grow up’ in the same way that humans and other
vertebrates do; instead, they go through definite step-wise changes
separated by molts---adding and modifying organs and tissues and
often changing in appearance as they grow larger and mature.
• The arthropod exoskeleton is both a liability and an asset for these
animals (discuss how). Molting is the complex physiological process
of periodically replacing the old exoskeleton with a new one,
permitting both increase in size and advanced development.
Note: Insects DO NOT molt
again after becoming adults.
Members of other arthropod
classes may continue to molt
as adults.
Leafhopper molting from nymph to adult stage.
Photos: Univ. Florida, IFAS, Ent. & Nem. Dept.
We Will Recognize 3 Types of
Metamorphosis…
• ‘None’---other than getting larger, minimal changes in appearance
occur between the hatchling and adult stage. Adults are always
wingless. Immatures & adults often occur in the same habitats, eat
the same foods, behave similarly (eggseries of
immaturesadult)
• ‘Simple’---immatures progressively grow larger, but resemble adults
they will become. For species with winged adults, external wing
pads appear in older immature stages. Nymphs & adults often
occur in the same habitats, eat the same foods, behave similarly
(eggseries of nymphsadult)
• ‘Complete’---larvae radically different in appearance from adults;
behavior, habitats and food sources often very different
(eggseries of larvaepupaadult)
• Diagrams and pictures will follow…
“No Metamorphosis”
’No Metamorphosis’---other than
getting larger, minimal changes in
appearance occur between the
hatchling and adult stage.
Adults are always wingless.
Immatures & adults often occur in
the same habitats, eat the same
foods, behave similarly
(eggseries of immaturesadult)
e.g.Order Thysanura,Silverfish
“Simple Metamorphosis”
Bugs, Termites, Cockroaches,
Earwigs, Grasshoppers, Others
Egg
I
II
Wing
Pad
III
Nymphs
V
IV
Plant Bug
Adult
‘Simple’---immatures progressively grow larger, but resemble adults they will become. For
species with winged adults, external wing pads appear in older nymphs. Nymphs & adults
often occur in the same habitats, eat the same foods, behave similarly (eggseries of
nymphsadult)
“Complete Metamorphosis”
Beetles, Flies, Butterflies, Moths,
Wasps, Bees, Others
Egg
-------Series of Larvae -------
Pupa
Adult
‘Complete’---larvae radically different in appearance from adults; behavior, habitats and
food sources often very different (eggseries of larvaepupaadult)
Mouthparts
• For simplicity, we will recognize four types of
mouthparts--– Chewing
– Sucking
– Combination of sucking & chewing
– None
– Diagrams and examples will follow
Chewing Mouthparts---e.g. Grasshopper
Labrum
(upper
‘lip’)
Maxilla
(paired)
Mandible **
(paired)
Labium
(lower ‘lip’)
Paired mandibles may both cut and grind food before it enters the alimentary canal.
The other parts shown above contain various sense organs that help the insect find and
evaluate food sources. They also act like our cheeks and lips---holding food in place as the
jaws process it.
Sucking Mouthparts---e.g. ‘Bugs’
(these have the same mouthpart components
as those shown for chewing but they are radically modified)
Mandible (paired)
Maxilla (paired)
Cicada nymph
(muscle operates
oral ‘pump’
Cross-section
through beak
True bug feeding,
Side view
Note the 2 channels made by the paired maxillae---one allows uptake
of liquid food while the other allows injection of salivary enzymes.
Combination of Sucking & Chewing
Spiders employ a combination of sucking and chewing mouthparts
Pedipalp Chelicera Fang
(not a leg) (1 of 2)
Answer at the end of this program
Photo: Jim Kalisch
This spider has
3 pairs of eyes
located on a
fiddle-shaped
marking on the
cephalothorax.
What is it?
No Mouthparts
• Shocking as it may seem, there are some arthropods that have NO
MOUTHPARTS as adults---or the mouthparts of these adults are so
reduced they are non-functional.
• One good example here: Giant Silkworm Moths---but there are
others, too.
• Topic for discussion: How is this possible?
Answer at the end of this program
On to the
Specimens!!!
Answer to the spider question
Photo: Jim Kalisch
It’s a violin spider----specifically, a brown recluse spider
Answer to the question about ‘no
mouthparts’
While the adults may not have any mouthparts---or have ‘reduced mouthparts’--their immature stages certainly DO have mouthparts---and they use them.
These immatures consume more food than they need to grow and molt through
their various immature stages; the excess calories are stored in ‘fat bodies’ that
persist into the adult stage.
Adults that do not eat are basically operating on ‘one tank of gas.’ Their obligations
to the species---dispersal, finding mates, successful reproduction---must be
accomplished on that ‘one tank.’ When it is gone, so are they.
Interestingly, adults like the above have little or no ‘maturation period’ before mating.
Females often emerge as adults with full complements of eggs ready for fertilization
and deposition.
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