FFA Entomology---Changes in 2011 • 100 Common Insects are NOW 110 Common Arthropods • But instead of simply adding 10 more arthropods to the old list, we decided to update nomenclature to reflect the current ‘state of the art’ • Here’s what happened in this 2011 revision…. – Two new orders were added: Thysanoptera (Thrips-new) and Uropygi (Whipscorpion-new) – Order Anoplura was replaced with new Order Phthiraptera (thir-RAP’-tera), including both Chewing and Sucking lice; ‘Chewing louse’ is new – Order Hemiptera now includes the Order Homoptera; latter was dropped – ‘Spider’ replaced with ‘Widow spider,’ ‘Violin spider’ and ‘Jumping spider.’ – ‘Tick’ replaced with ‘Soft tick’ and ‘Hard tick.’ – ‘Picture-winged fly’ is now called ‘Fruit fly’ – Other additions to Common Names include: Big-eyed bug, Mealybug, Bed Bug & Whitefly These new additions might be found in your house, other buildings, your yard or garden (greenhouse, maybe?), on you, your family, pets, livestock, wild animals, the rangeland or any crop you might be producing… 100 Common Insects Manual Still Good for Now The basic information is still sound; you’ll note recent changes. The manual will be revised next. (Richman, Sutherland & Oseto. 2004. Circular 570---on NMSU Extension pubs website) the NEW Identification List (P. 2) See This theiscomplete list of critters---p. 2… This is the NEW Page 2 for your 100 Common Insects Manual. Print it. 110 Common Names listed alphabetically It currently has all of the answers you’ll need for the Identification Contest Updates in the Order section Classes & Metamorphosis are the same 2 additions to Mouthparts 2011-2012 Entomology Study Materials for FFA Classes • Examples, Fact Sheets for the New Arthropods; • Print these, too (yes, these have more info) Series of 7 PowerPoint Programs Covering All 110 Arthropods These will show at least one good photograph of each common arthropod. These programs can be used with the fact sheets and your manual to find one or more useful distinguishing features for each arthropod. Basic Entomology---Introductory Material _____________ • • • • What IS an Arthropod? The Classification Hierarchy-Overview Metamorphosis and Molting Mouthparts Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU What IS an Arthropod? • ‘Arthropod’ is derived from two Greek/Latin root words--– ‘arthro-’ meaning ‘jointed’….and – ‘-pod’ or ‘-poda’---meaning ‘foot’ or ‘leg’ Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU • Here, it refers to a member of a very large group of animals---the Phylum Arthropoda, the ‘jointed foot animals’ What IS an Arthropod? • The Arthropods include well over 1 million species of animals distributed world wide; some estimates are for 30+ million species of insects alone • They are major components of our ecosystems • Arthropods literally are all around us---at home, at school, at work, at recreation sites---on the farm and on the ranch Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU Features of the Phylum Arthropoda •Paired, jointed legs •Segmented bodies •Bilateral symmetry •Exoskeleton with chitin; molting •Tubular digestive system with mouth & anus •Open circulatory system—dorsal tubular heart •Striated skeletal muscles •Body cavity is a ‘blood cavity’ (blood bathes organs) Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU Features of the Phylum Arthropoda (cont.) • Nervous system---anterior ‘brain’ located above alimentary canal, paired connectives join brain to paired ventral nerve cords located below alimentary canal. Paired ganglia/segment. • Excretory system---Malpighian tubules collect wastes in blood, empty them into hind gut • Respiratory system---gills or tracheae & spiracles • No cilia or nephridia • Sexes nearly always separate. (Some are known from ‘female only’ populations.) Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU How to Keep Track of 1+ Million Arthropods & Their Relationships? Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU • This is the role of ‘Taxonomy’: Science of classification into categories of varying rank, and the describing and naming of these categories. • ‘Systematics’ is the broader study of relationships among organisms ________________ • The species is a unique biological unit whose members have the potential to interbreed & produce viable, fertile offspring (a biological ‘reality’). • Categories above the species rank are ‘man-made entities’. With new or better data, these categories may be revised---e.g. new taxa (group of organisms classified together) recognized and named or a taxon split or ‘lumped’ with another Arthropod Classification*---The Hierarchy Kingdom Phylum Class (more specific) Order(more (Family/Taxon Common Name) Inclusive) Family Genus Species---some are used as examples These are 3 elements of Arthropod Classification that you will learn __________ *(Think of this as a file inside a file inside a file….) Phylum Arthropoda is Divided into Classes: • Common Classes* include: • Insecta---insects • Arachnida---mites and ticks, spiders, others • Crustacea---sowbugs; crab, shrimp, lobster, krill, others have been included in this group, FYI • Diplopoda---millipedes • Chilopoda ---centipedes ___________ *These are the 5 classes you will learn---see New Page 2. After a Few More Basics… • We will introduce you to each of these classes and show you common examples • In the Class Insecta---especially---you’ll meet other taxa such as Orders and members of these Orders. • You will be learning the ‘Common Names’ of Families or unique members of these families • For identification quizzes---you will be responsible identifying the adult stages only Photo: D.B. Richman, NMSU Arthropod Classification Incorporates Metamorphosis & Mouthpart Types* (as well as other criteria) You will learn the types of metamorphosis and mouthparts associated with each of the 110 arthropods We will simplify these for FFA students. Those who study arthropods in greater detail will learn additional categories of metamorphosis and mouthparts. They differ in ‘fine details.’ ‘Metamorphosis’ • Means ‘change in form’ during development • Arthropods do not ‘grow up’ in the same way that humans and other vertebrates do; instead, they go through definite step-wise changes separated by molts---adding and modifying organs and tissues and often changing in appearance as they grow larger and mature. • The arthropod exoskeleton is both a liability and an asset for these animals (discuss how). Molting is the complex physiological process of periodically replacing the old exoskeleton with a new one, permitting both increase in size and advanced development. Note: Insects DO NOT molt again after becoming adults. Members of other arthropod classes may continue to molt as adults. Leafhopper molting from nymph to adult stage. Photos: Univ. Florida, IFAS, Ent. & Nem. Dept. We Will Recognize 3 Types of Metamorphosis… • ‘None’---other than getting larger, minimal changes in appearance occur between the hatchling and adult stage. Adults are always wingless. Immatures & adults often occur in the same habitats, eat the same foods, behave similarly (eggseries of immaturesadult) • ‘Simple’---immatures progressively grow larger, but resemble adults they will become. For species with winged adults, external wing pads appear in older immature stages. Nymphs & adults often occur in the same habitats, eat the same foods, behave similarly (eggseries of nymphsadult) • ‘Complete’---larvae radically different in appearance from adults; behavior, habitats and food sources often very different (eggseries of larvaepupaadult) • Diagrams and pictures will follow… “No Metamorphosis” ’No Metamorphosis’---other than getting larger, minimal changes in appearance occur between the hatchling and adult stage. Adults are always wingless. Immatures & adults often occur in the same habitats, eat the same foods, behave similarly (eggseries of immaturesadult) e.g.Order Thysanura,Silverfish “Simple Metamorphosis” Bugs, Termites, Cockroaches, Earwigs, Grasshoppers, Others Egg I II Wing Pad III Nymphs V IV Plant Bug Adult ‘Simple’---immatures progressively grow larger, but resemble adults they will become. For species with winged adults, external wing pads appear in older nymphs. Nymphs & adults often occur in the same habitats, eat the same foods, behave similarly (eggseries of nymphsadult) “Complete Metamorphosis” Beetles, Flies, Butterflies, Moths, Wasps, Bees, Others Egg -------Series of Larvae ------- Pupa Adult ‘Complete’---larvae radically different in appearance from adults; behavior, habitats and food sources often very different (eggseries of larvaepupaadult) Mouthparts • For simplicity, we will recognize four types of mouthparts--– Chewing – Sucking – Combination of sucking & chewing – None – Diagrams and examples will follow Chewing Mouthparts---e.g. Grasshopper Labrum (upper ‘lip’) Maxilla (paired) Mandible ** (paired) Labium (lower ‘lip’) Paired mandibles may both cut and grind food before it enters the alimentary canal. The other parts shown above contain various sense organs that help the insect find and evaluate food sources. They also act like our cheeks and lips---holding food in place as the jaws process it. Sucking Mouthparts---e.g. ‘Bugs’ (these have the same mouthpart components as those shown for chewing but they are radically modified) Mandible (paired) Maxilla (paired) Cicada nymph (muscle operates oral ‘pump’ Cross-section through beak True bug feeding, Side view Note the 2 channels made by the paired maxillae---one allows uptake of liquid food while the other allows injection of salivary enzymes. Combination of Sucking & Chewing Spiders employ a combination of sucking and chewing mouthparts Pedipalp Chelicera Fang (not a leg) (1 of 2) Answer at the end of this program Photo: Jim Kalisch This spider has 3 pairs of eyes located on a fiddle-shaped marking on the cephalothorax. What is it? No Mouthparts • Shocking as it may seem, there are some arthropods that have NO MOUTHPARTS as adults---or the mouthparts of these adults are so reduced they are non-functional. • One good example here: Giant Silkworm Moths---but there are others, too. • Topic for discussion: How is this possible? Answer at the end of this program On to the Specimens!!! Answer to the spider question Photo: Jim Kalisch It’s a violin spider----specifically, a brown recluse spider Answer to the question about ‘no mouthparts’ While the adults may not have any mouthparts---or have ‘reduced mouthparts’--their immature stages certainly DO have mouthparts---and they use them. These immatures consume more food than they need to grow and molt through their various immature stages; the excess calories are stored in ‘fat bodies’ that persist into the adult stage. Adults that do not eat are basically operating on ‘one tank of gas.’ Their obligations to the species---dispersal, finding mates, successful reproduction---must be accomplished on that ‘one tank.’ When it is gone, so are they. Interestingly, adults like the above have little or no ‘maturation period’ before mating. Females often emerge as adults with full complements of eggs ready for fertilization and deposition.