Overview of Maritime and Land Empires 1450-1750

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Overview of Maritime and
Land Empires 1450-1750
AP World History
Unit 3
6 Major Changes from 1450-1750
1. Global Connections.
Western hemisphere contacted with the
eastern hemisphere for the first time.
Technological innovations, strengthened
political organization, and economic
prosperity
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All contributed to major changes that altered
world trade patterns.
6 Major Changes from 1450-1750
2. Sea-based trade equaled the level
of land-based trade.
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Technological advancements and
willingness of political leaders to invest,
meant that sea-based trade became more
important.
Old land-based empires lost relative
power to the new sea-based powers.
6 Major Changes from 1450-1750
3. European kingdoms emerged as
world powers.
The power and prosperity of Europe
increased dramatically during this time
period in comparison to empires in the early
civilized areas.
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Europe did not completely eclipse strong empires
in Southwest Asia, Africa, and East Asia.
6 Major Changes from 1450-1750
4. The relative power of nomadic
groups declined.
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Continued to play an important role in
trade and cultural diffusion.
Continued to threaten the borders of the
large land-based empires.
Power declined as travel and trade by
water became more important.
6 Major Changes from 1450-1750
5. Labor systems were transformed.
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Result of colonies in North and South America.
Slave labor became important all over the
Americas.
Other labor systems, such as the mita and
encomienda in South America, were adapted
from previous native traditions by the Spanish
and Portuguese.
6 Major Changes from 1450-1750
6.
"Gunpowder Empires" emerged in the Middle
East and Asia.
Empires in older civilization areas gained new
strength from new technologies in weapons.
Basing their new power on "gunpowder," they still
suffered from the old issues that land-based empires
have always faced.
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Defense of borders, communication within the empire, and
maintenance of an army.
By the end of the era, many were less powerful than
the new sea-based kingdoms of Europe.
Overview of Major Developments
• Changes in Trade, Technology, and
Global Interactions.
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The Atlantic Ocean trade eventually led to
the crossing of the Pacific Ocean.
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New maritime technologies made these
interactions possible.
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Global trade patterns changed dramatically.
Overview of Major Developments
• Major Maritime and Gunpowder
Empires.
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Major maritime empires were Portugal,
Spain, France, and England.
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Major gunpowder empires were the
Ottoman, Ming and Qing China, the Mughal,
Russia, Tokugawa, Songhai, and Benin.
Overview of Major Developments
• Slave systems and slave trade.
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The biggest era for slave systems and
slave trade.
• The new European colonies in the Americas
relying heavily on slavery.
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The slave trade was an important link in
the Atlantic Ocean trade.
Overview of Major Developments
• Demographic and environmental
changes.
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New trade patterns altered habitats for
plants and animals.
• Resulted in changes in human diet and
activities as well.
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Major migrations across the Atlantic Ocean
altered demographic patterns.
Overview of Major Developments
• Cultural and intellectual
development.
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Shaped by the European Renaissance,
Protestant Reformation, and Enlightenment.
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Neo-Confucianism grew in influence in
China.
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New art forms developed in the Mughal
Empire in India.
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