Overview of Maritime and Land Empires 1450-1750 AP World History Unit 3 6 Major Changes from 1450-1750 1. Global Connections. Western hemisphere contacted with the eastern hemisphere for the first time. Technological innovations, strengthened political organization, and economic prosperity • • • All contributed to major changes that altered world trade patterns. 6 Major Changes from 1450-1750 2. Sea-based trade equaled the level of land-based trade. • • Technological advancements and willingness of political leaders to invest, meant that sea-based trade became more important. Old land-based empires lost relative power to the new sea-based powers. 6 Major Changes from 1450-1750 3. European kingdoms emerged as world powers. The power and prosperity of Europe increased dramatically during this time period in comparison to empires in the early civilized areas. • • Europe did not completely eclipse strong empires in Southwest Asia, Africa, and East Asia. 6 Major Changes from 1450-1750 4. The relative power of nomadic groups declined. • • • Continued to play an important role in trade and cultural diffusion. Continued to threaten the borders of the large land-based empires. Power declined as travel and trade by water became more important. 6 Major Changes from 1450-1750 5. Labor systems were transformed. • • • Result of colonies in North and South America. Slave labor became important all over the Americas. Other labor systems, such as the mita and encomienda in South America, were adapted from previous native traditions by the Spanish and Portuguese. 6 Major Changes from 1450-1750 6. "Gunpowder Empires" emerged in the Middle East and Asia. Empires in older civilization areas gained new strength from new technologies in weapons. Basing their new power on "gunpowder," they still suffered from the old issues that land-based empires have always faced. • • • • Defense of borders, communication within the empire, and maintenance of an army. By the end of the era, many were less powerful than the new sea-based kingdoms of Europe. Overview of Major Developments • Changes in Trade, Technology, and Global Interactions. • The Atlantic Ocean trade eventually led to the crossing of the Pacific Ocean. • New maritime technologies made these interactions possible. • Global trade patterns changed dramatically. Overview of Major Developments • Major Maritime and Gunpowder Empires. • Major maritime empires were Portugal, Spain, France, and England. • Major gunpowder empires were the Ottoman, Ming and Qing China, the Mughal, Russia, Tokugawa, Songhai, and Benin. Overview of Major Developments • Slave systems and slave trade. • The biggest era for slave systems and slave trade. • The new European colonies in the Americas relying heavily on slavery. • The slave trade was an important link in the Atlantic Ocean trade. Overview of Major Developments • Demographic and environmental changes. • New trade patterns altered habitats for plants and animals. • Resulted in changes in human diet and activities as well. • Major migrations across the Atlantic Ocean altered demographic patterns. Overview of Major Developments • Cultural and intellectual development. • Shaped by the European Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, and Enlightenment. • Neo-Confucianism grew in influence in China. • New art forms developed in the Mughal Empire in India.