Marine Biology

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Marine Biology
Where have we been, and where
are we going?
What is Marine Biology?

Marine biology is the scientific study of
organisms in the marine environment

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What does the marine environment encompass?
The different disciplines of science covered
in marine biology
Marine biology is a combination of functional
biology and ecology
Introduction
2
Why should we study the
marine habitat?
Marine life provides
different resources
 Widely used for
recreation and essential
in many coastal
economies

Problems created by
the marine environment
and marine animals

Introduction
3
The History of Marine Biology

Man has been attracted to the ocean since the
Stone Age

Aristotle lived in the 4th century B.C. (first marine
biologist)
During the 9th and 10th century Vikings (Leif
Eriksson) explored much of the North Atlantic

As seamanship and navigation skills improved
so did our knowledge of the environment

Introduction
4
James Cook

James Cook was one of the first
captains to make scientific
observations

Carried an accurate chronometer and
full-time naturalist

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In 3 voyages he explored all of the
worlds oceans
Killed in 1779 in Kealakekua Bay by
native Hawaiians
Through his example in the 19th
century most ships carried naturalists
James Cook
Introduction
5
James Cook Voyages

Introduction
Francesco Bartolozzi and William Byrne The death of Captain Cook
6
Marine Biology History

In 1831 the H.M.S. Beagle
sailed around the world for
5 years carrying Charles
Darwin

What are Darwin’s notable
contributions to science and
marine biology?
Charles Darwin
Introduction
7
Atoll Reefs and Barnacles
Introduction
8
Edward Forbes


One of the first true marine biologists
Naturalist on the Beacon and sampled the
bottom using a dredge


Discovered that animal density decreased with
depth and that species diversity changes with
depth
Up to this point it was believed that no life
existed in the oceans depths
Introduction
9
The British are Coming!!



In 1872 the British government
funded the first major
oceanographic expedition.
A light warship, the Challenger
was used
 It took 19 years and 50
volumes to publish all the
results
 4,700 new species were
discovered
New standards were set in
studying the ocean.
Introduction
Challenger
10
HMS Challenger Voyage
Introduction
11
Marine Laboratories

Marine labs were created at the
shore to tackle long term studies
of the marine habitat


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The first major American lab was the
Woods Hole lab in Massachusetts
 http://www.whoi.edu/home/
Another important lab was created in
Pacific Grove, California. The Scripps
Institute
 http://www-sio.ucsd.edu/
These and many other marine
labs are crucial in the growth of
marine biology today
Introduction
Woods Hole Institute
12
Marine Biology Today

The description of animals and
the general picture of marine
biology is now well understood


With advances in technologies
new areas are now available to
explore

Alvin
Introduction
Marine biologist are concerned
with why patterns exist and how
animals live
Submersibles (Alvin) and ROV’s are
used to explore the deep sea and
hydrothermal vents
13
Aquarius Habitat
Introduction
14
UNC-W’s Center for Marine Science
http://www.uncwil.edu/cmsr
Introduction
15
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