海洋生物簡介 - 國立台灣大學漁業科學研究所

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Ch. 1 The Science of Marine Biology
(海洋生物科學)
1. Marine biology is the scientific study of the
2.
organisms that live in the ocean.
What are marine organisms or marine life?
棘冠海星
Why study Marine Biology?
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It is often the beauty, mystery, and variety of life in
the sea that attracts students to a course in marine
biology.
Marine life represents a vast source of human
wealth. It has been estimated that the ocean’s
living systems are worth more than $20 trillion a
year.
Marine organisms may also create problems…
Marine life helps determine the very nature of our
planet.
Marine organisms provide clues to the earth’s past,
the history of life, and even our own bodies that we
must learn to understand.
海洋生物學的範疇
1. 海洋生物學(Marine Biology)
2. 生物海洋學(Biological Oceanography)
3. 應用海洋生物學: 包括: 漁業生物學
(Fishery Biology)、水產養殖學
(Aquaculture)、海洋生物技術(Marine
Biotechnology)…等。
海洋生物研究的歷史-遠古時代
• Ancient Pacific
Islanders had detailed
knowledge of marine
life
• The storyboards of
the Micronesian
inhabitants of Palau.
The Phoenicians, ancient
Greeks and the
Mediterranean Sea.
海洋生物研究的歷史-啟蒙時代
• 海洋生物的觀察、分類和描述
(1) 亞里斯多德 (Aristotle, 384-329 B.C.)
(2) 林奈(Carl Linnaeus, 1707-1778): 分類文獻中
包含許多海洋生物
(3) G. Cuvier (1769-1832): 將動物分為四大類:
Articulata, Radiata, Vertebrata, Mollusca.
科學航海時代: 以科學探索為目的
• Captain James Cook (庫克船
長): three great voyages
from 1768-1779.
• 達爾文 (Charles Darwin,
1809-1882): 搭乘H.M.S.
Beagle 小獵犬號航行
(1832-1836),描繪珊瑚礁,
創珊瑚礁演變說, 也是藤
壺分類專家、演化論的創
始者 。
海洋實驗時代 “The ocean as a laboratory”
Edward Forbes
1840s-1850s
Deep sea biology
The Challenger
Expedition
挑戰者號探測航行
Charles W. Thompson
1872-1876年在大西洋和太平洋航行127,500 km, 進行物
理海洋和海洋生物調查,共發現 4,717個新種海洋生物,
為海洋科學研究的重要里程碑。
漁業科學時代:
•19世紀以來, 漁業資源研究一直是海洋生物研究的重要領域。
二十世紀以來的海洋生物研究
• 海洋實驗站(Marine Laboratory)的設立
MBL at Woods Hole; 1888年成立
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO): 1903 年
成立於加州 La Jolla, 位於University of California,
San Diego (UCSD)校區.
․海下科技的應用: sonar, scuba, ROV, submersibles,
undersea habitat
․生物技術的應用
The Marine
Biological
Laboratory at
Woods Hole
(MBL), 1888年
成立於美國麻
州鱈魚岬(Cape
Cod)的Woods
Hole.
Sonar (聲納): sound navigation ranging,
應用於海底地形及魚群探測
Scuba (水肺): self-contained underwater
breathing apparatus (自給式水下呼吸器)
• 1943年由Jacques-Yves
Cousteau & Emile Gagnan發
明, 又稱為Aqua-lung (水肺)。
1960年代以後,被廣泛應用
於淺海的水下研究(稱為科
學潛水 scientific diving), 也
發展成一種風行的休閒活動
(稱為休閒潛水recreation
diving或運動潛水sport
diving)。
水下研究設備:
• ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicles)
水下遙控載具
係指由船上或岸上遙控,而在水下作業 (觀測、
攝錄影及採樣) 的器具,不載人。
• 研究潛艇 (submersibles)
可以載人到水下從事研究工作的小型潛艇。
Alvin (亞爾文號)- 美國WHOI所
擁有,可下潛 4,000 m;
Seacliff II -- 下潛 6,000 m;
深海 – 日本的研究潛艇, 可下潛
6500 m
Trieste - 下潛至 10,915 m 的
Mariana Trench)
R/V FLIP
海洋觀測資金處理需要運用先進的資料和影像處理技術
圖示為ROV 航行路徑及觀測到的魚群-
浮游植物密度
海洋生物技術的發展和應用
•水產增養殖技術、食物資源開發
•海洋天然藥物資源開發
•海洋應用微生物的研究—污染物處理
台灣的海洋生物研究機構
•台灣大學:海洋研究所海洋生物組、生命科學系、
漁業科學研究所
•台灣海洋大學:海洋生物研究所、水產養殖系所、
海洋生物技術研究所、生命科學系、
海洋環境及漁業系所
•中山大學:海洋生物研究所、海洋科技及資源系所
•中央研究院:細胞及個體研究所、生物多樣性中心
•國立海洋生物博物館、海洋科技博物館
•台灣水產試驗所: 總所位於基隆市和平島, 所屬有:
沿近海資源研究中心、淡水繁養殖研究中心、海水繁
養殖研究中心、東部海洋生物研究中心、澎湖海洋生
物研究中心等五個中心。
科學方法 (The Scientific Method)
• The goal of science is to discover facts about the
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natural world and the principles that explain these
facts.
Observation is the currency of science.
Two ways of thinking: induction (歸納法) and
deduction (演繹法)
In the process of induction, general conclusions are
made on the basis of specific observations.
In the process of deduction, specific predictions are
made by applying a general principle.
• A scientific hypothesis is a statement about the
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world that might be true and is testable. A
testable hypothesis is one that at least potentially can
be proved false.
No hypothesis can be scientifically proved to be
true. Instead, hypotheses are accepted for as
long as they are supported by the available
evidence.
In experiments scientists create situations to test
hypothesis instead of relying on simple
observations of nature.
A scientific theory is a hypothesis that has been
so extensively tested that it is generally regarded
as true. Like any hypothesis, however, it is
subject to rejection if enough evidence
accumulates against it.
Limitations of Scientific Method
• No one can be completely objective all the
time.
• Science cannot make judgment about
values, ethics, or morality.
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