WGarlette-Organic Gardening-Jan 2007

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Principals of Organic
Horticulture
JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners
Training Course
January 2007
presented by
Bill Garlette
[email protected]
www.nnmastergardeners.org
Just Say No To
Garden and Lawn
Drugs
Principals of Organic
Horticulture
JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners
Training Course
January 2007
presented by
Bill Garlette
[email protected]
www.nnmastergardeners.org
Outline
 Overview
 Virginia Tech’s new interdisciplinary offering 
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

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
Organic Horticulture and Landscape Systems
Soil Biology
Healthy Soil and the Ecology of Organics
Composting and Compost Use
Vermicomposting and Actively Aerated Compost
Teas
Disease and Insect Pest Management
Weed Control Without Poison
First, Let’s Put It Into
Perspective
In Perspective
In Perspective
In Perspective
In Perspective
So
Just because you can’t
see it doesn’t mean it
isn’t profoundly
important!
Remember
Soil is at the root of all
your plant problems!
And
Feed the Soil and It’ll
Feed the Plants!
It’s Alive!!!
Just like Plants and
Animals; The Soil is Alive!
We Have to Treat It the
Same As Other Living
Things
What We Dread
 Germs – Disease
 Bugs
 Weeds
The Outcome
If we win the war to
control Nature, we
WILL be on the losing
side!
Seven Organic Rules
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Always use the best adapted varieties for each
environment.
Plant in the preferred season.
Balance the mineral content of the soil.
Build and maintain the soil organic content –
humus.
Do nothing to harm the beneficial soil life.
Consider troublesome insects and diseases as
symptoms of one of the above rules having been
violated.
Be patient. Mother Nature gives birth, but Father
Time controls the cycles
- from Lessons in Nature by Malcolm Beck
The True Organic Rule
“Our task must be to free
ourselves
by widening our circle of
compassion
to embrace all living creatures
and the whole of nature in its
beauty.”
Dr. Albert Einstein
Principals of Organic Horticulture
 We focus on pollution of the:
 Atmosphere
- Air
 Hydrosphere - Water
 Biosphere – Flora & Fauna, Us
 But not the Lithosphere – The
Soil
Principals of Organic Horticulture
AgriChemistry
 The foundation of agriculture chemistry was
started by France's Jean Baptiste
Boussingault in 1834 with the German
scientist Justus von Liebig publishing his
famous monograph on agriculture
chemistry in 1840.
 Their belief was that because humus was
insoluble in water, it was insignificant to
plant nutrition. Additionally, their findings
indicated that plants basically needed only
N-P-K.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
 What do we mean by Organic?
 No
Chemicals
 No “–icides”
 No Growth Manipulated Organisms (GMO)
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Figure Out The Fertilizer
What’s This Good For?
10-10-10
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Figure Out The Fertilizer
And This?
3-36-9
The Questions
 Can You Figure Out
What Vitamins, Minerals,
Nutrients You Should
Take For A Week?
 Would You Want a
Weeks Worth of Meals
for Sunday Dinner?
Here Are The Basic Plant Needs
Carbon (C)
Hydrogen (H)
Oxygen (O)
Nitrogen (N)
Phosphorus (P)
Potassium (K)
Magnesium (Mg)
Calcium (Ca)
Sulfur (S)
Iron (Fe)
Boron (B)
Zinc (Zn)
Copper (Cu)
Manganese (Mn)
Molybdenum (Mo)
Chlorine (Cl)
Cobalt (Co)
= 17 Basic needs
Don’t Forget,
Those Are Just The Elementals.
Then You Have:
 Amino Acids
 Humic & Fulvic Acids
 Photosynthetic Sugars
 Mycorrhizal Fungi
 And Lots More Stuff In The Plant & Soil
Food Web
Principals of Organic Horticulture
You May Be Familiar With This Chart
• Importance of proper pH
Principals of Organic Horticulture
But This One Tells The Tale!!
• Importance of Proper Mineral Balance – If One is Out
of Balance, It Effects Others in a Detrimental Manner
Principals of Organic Horticulture
How did plants survive
B.C. (Before Chemicals)?
Principals of Organic Horticulture
It’s Alive!!!
The Soil Food Web is
comprised of
microorganisms that
provide nutrients and
health to the plants as
well as the soil.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Photosynthesizers - Plants,
Algae & Bacteria = Capture
energy, fix CO2.
 Decomposers – Bacteria & Fungi
= Break down residue, retain
nutrients in their biomass.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Mutualists - Bacteria & Fungi =
Enhance plant growth, fix N2,
deliver nutrients.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Pathogens, Parasites & Root-
feeders – Bacteria, Fungi,
Nematodes, Microanthropods =
Promote disease and consume
plant roots.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Bacterial-feeders – Protozoa &
Nematodes = Graze – Release
plant available nitrogen
(NH4+). Control root-feeding
and disease causing pests.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Fungal-Feeders – Nematodes
& Microanthropods=Graze –
Release plant available
nitrogen (NH4+). Control rootfeeding and disease causing
pests.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Shredders – Earthworms &
Microanthropods = Break down
residue and enhance soil
structure.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Higher-Level Predators –
Nematode feeding nematodes,
larger arthropods, mice, birds,
etc. = Control population of
lower trophic-levels and
improve the soil.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
 Bacterially dominant soils:
annuals, grasses and
vegetables – creates a pH
above 7 (alkaline).
 Fungal dominant soils:
perennials, trees, shrubs –
creates a pH below 7 (acid).
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
Fill a Swimming Pool with
Salt =
Osmotic Shock
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
Just Say No To Garden and
Lawn Drugs =
Osmotic Shock
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
Soil
Soil microbes
Plants
Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Everybody Feeds the Soil
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Function of Soil Organisms
If the microbes in the soil
are disrupted and the
nutrient cycle is out of
balance then we have the
recipe for Pest, Weeds
and Pathogens.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Caring For The Soil As A Living
System
 Three Aspects of Soil Health & Fertility
 Physical
 Chemical – Organic Chemistry: cations – anions
 Biological
 Requirements of a Living System
 Food
 Air
 Water
 “Shelter” – Soil structure & Conservation
 Living Organism - Biota
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Caring For The Soil As A Living
System
The Organic Matter Cycle
&
The Soil Food Web
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Feeding the Soil a Balanced Diet
 Compost
 Cover Crops
 Organic Mulches
 Other Organic Residues
 Lime, Other Natural Minerals and
Organic Nutrients
Questions?
Compost Happens
Don’t Do This At Home!
Do This, Instead
Why Compost
 Healthier Soil & Plants
 More Soil Biology
 No Chemistry 501
 Less –Icides (Pest, Herb, Fung)
 Less Chemical Fertilizers
 Less Chemical Stink
 Less $$$
Why Compost
Bottom Line
Cheap
Simple
No Chemicals which Kill
the Soil Organisms
Better Plant and Water
Quality
What is Composting?
What Are The Types Of
Composting?
Yard Waste (Thermal), Worm,
Biosolids
&
Compost Tea
Worm Your Way Into Composting!
Compost Can Be Used To:
 Add Beneficial Organisms
 Add Nutrients
 Help Sandy Soil Hold Moisture
 Loosen Heavy Clay Soils
 Make Potting Soil
 Mulch
Excellent Compost Materials
Excellent Compost Materials
"BROWNIES“
(Carbon)
Hay
Leaves
Straw
Nutshells
Shredded paper
Pine needles
Saw dust
Garden stalks
60%
“GREENIES“
(Nitrogen)
Coffee Grounds
Cover Crops
Seaweed
Vegetable scraps
Egg shells
Fruit
Weeds
Grass clippings
40%
Other Excellent
Sources
Of
Compost
My Friend Flicka
Elsie the Cow
Bugs Bunny
And all the Friends of the
Colonel
Don’t Use
Rin Tin Tin’s Residue
Sylvester’s Exhaust
Or Little Johnny’s John
Quests
More Problem Stuff
 Disease & insect infested plants
 Noxious weeds
 Meat scraps
 Dairy products
 Cooking oils & grease
Smaller compost materials increase compost
maturity.
Yard Waste Compost Bins
More of the Same
Piled Higher and Deeper
Alternate Carbon and Nitrogen
Materials
Add Soil or Compost
Add Water
Repeat Layers
Turning Speeds Compost
Troubleshooting
Problem-Solution
 Symptom
The compost is damp and warm only in
the middle.
 Problem
Compost pile too small.
 Solution
Collected more material and mix the old
ingredients into the new pile.
Problem-Solution
 Symptom
The compost pile is damp and sweet
smelling.
 Problem
Lack of nitrogen source.
 Solution
Mix in a nitrogen source like fresh grass
clippings, fresh manure or another
“green” material.
Problem-Solution
 Symptom
The center of the pile is dry.
 Problem
Not enough water.
 Solution
Chop course material; add green waste;
moisten and turn the pile.
Problem-Solution
 Symptom
The compost has a bad odor.
 Problem
Too wet and not enough air.
 Solution
Add dry material and turn the compost.
In-The-Garden Composting
Sheet Composting
Trench Composting
"Compostholing"
The End Result – Excellent
Additives
Questions?
Worming Your Way Along
What is worm composting
(vermicomposting) and why do
it?
Worming Your Way Along
Vermicomposting is employing red
wigglers, most often, (Eisenia
fetida) to process organic matter
into worm castings – the richest
compost material to use.
Worming Your Way Along
Location, location, location
They feed best at temperatures between 59-77°F
 How close do you want the worm bin?
 Are you the kind of person who will enjoy visiting?
 Will your household separate organics from other
waste only if a container for them is right at hand?
 Do you prefer a “healthy distance” between the
species?
Worming Your Way Along
Buying or building your worm
bin.
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving
in the worms.
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.
 Materials Needed to Make an Easy
Harvester Worm Bin:
 Two 8-10 gallon plastic storage boxes (dark,
not see through!) as shown in pictures Cost:
about $5 each
 Drill (with 1/4" and 1/16" bits) for making
drainage & ventilation holes
 Newspaper
 About one pound of redworms
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the
worms.
Step 1 Drill about twenty
evenly spaced 1/4 inch
holes in the bottom of
each bin. These holes
will provide drainage
and allow the worms to
crawl into the second
bin when you are ready
to harvest the castings.
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.
Step 2
 Drill ventilation holes
about 1 – 1 ½ inches
apart on each side of
the bin
 near the top edge using
the 1/16 inch bit. Also
drill about 30 small
holes in the top of one
of the lids.
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.
Step 3
 Prepare bedding for the
worms by shredding
Newspaper into 1 inch
strips. Worms need
bedding that is moist but
not soggy. Moisten the
newspaper by soaking it in
water and then squeezing
out the excess water.
Cover the bottom of the
bin with 3-4 inches of
moist newspaper, fluffed
up. If you have any old
leaves or leaf litter that can
be added also. Throw in a
handful of dirt for "grit" to
help the worms digest
their food.
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.
Step 4
 Add your worms to the bedding. One way to gather
redworms, is to put out a large piece of wet
cardboard on your lawn or garden at night. The
redworms live in the top 3 inches of organic material,
and like to come up and feast on the wet cardboard!
Lift up cardboard to gather the redworms. An
earthworm can consume about 1/2 of its weight each
day. For example, if your food waste averages 1/2 lb.
per day, you will need 1 lb. of worms or a 2:1 ratio.
There are roughly 500 worms in one pound. If you
start out with less than one pound, don't worry they
multiply very quickly. Just adjust the amount that you
feed them for your worm population.
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.
 Step 5
 Cut a piece of
cardboard to fit over
the bedding, and get
it wet. Then cover
the bedding with the
cardboard. (Worms
love cardboard, and
it breaks down
within months.)
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.
Step 6
 Place your bin in a wellventilated area such as
a laundry room, garage,
balcony, under the
kitchen sink, or outside
in the shade. Place the
bin on top of blocks or
bricks or upside down
plastic containers to
allow for drainage. You
can use the lid of the
second bin as a tray to
catch any moisture that
may drain from the bin.
This "worm tea" is a
great liquid fertilizer.
Worming Your Way Along
Setting up the bin and moving in the worms.
Step 7
 Feed your worms slowly at first. As the worms
multiply, you can begin to add more food. Gently bury
the food in a different section of the bin each week,
under the cardboard. The worms will follow the food
scraps around the bin. Burying the food scraps will
help to keep fruit flies away.
 What do worms like to eat? Feed your worms a
vegetarian diet. Most things that would normally go
down the garbage disposal can go into your worm bin
(see the list below). You will notice that some foods
will be eaten faster than others. Worms have their
preferences just like us.
Worming Your Way Along
Feeding your little waste managers!
Worms LOVE
Breads & Grains
Cereal
Coffee grounds & filter
Fruits
Tea bags
Worms HATE
Dairy Products
Fats
Meat
Feces
Oils
Worming Your Way Along
Tips On Good Worm Bin Care
These are a few good practices for the new worm bin. If
you do these, you need not worry about having any
significant problems.
 Do not add water to the worm bin unless a large part
of the bin material lacks water.
 Dig under the bedding now and again, and every few
weeks, to peek at the bottom-most material. If even a
little bit is becoming waterlogged, that’s a sign that
you need to promote more aeration and/or drainage.
Worming Your Way Along
Tips On Good Worm Bin Care
 Smell the worm bin. If there’s any foul odor, think
“what did I add or do differently, recently, that could
have led to this odor?”
 Check to see that the temperature remains
reasonably good. With changes in season, and the
amount of sun that shines, a worm bin can change
temperature significantly. Watch out you don’t cook
the worms!
 Watch for worm predators if this is an outdoor bin.
Moles find worms delicious, as do birds and some
dogs! Make sure the bin has a lid (and a secure
bottom, if necessary for your location).
Worming Your Way Along
Troubleshooting the bin
Problem
Worms are dying or trying to escape
Probable Cause/ Solution
Too wet - Add more bedding
Too dry - Moisten bedding
Bedding is used up - Harvest your bin
Worming Your Way Along
Troubleshooting the bin
Problem
Bin smells bad
Probable Cause/ Solution
Not enough air - Leave lid off or drill more
ventilation holes
Too much food - Do not feed for 1-2 weeks
Too wet - Add more bedding
Worming Your Way Along
Troubleshooting the bin
Problem
Fruit Flies
Probable Cause/ Solution
Exposed food - Bury food in bedding
Worming Your Way Along
Harvesting Worms and Using Castings
When to Harvest
 Generally, a worm bin will have produced a
significant amount of good vermicompost at between
two and three months along in the process.
 If you wait even longer, like 4-6 months, you’ll have
more finished looking vermicompost (it will look more
like soil and have more plant-ready nutrients in it).
Worming Your Way Along
Harvesting Worms and Using Castings
Harvesting Methods
1. Dump And Sort
 It’s just like it sounds! Dump the entire contents of your worm bin
down onto a table or driveway (you may want to protect the
surface with a sheet of plastic first.)
 Put a light bulb above the table (or use natural light.) Now
remove any very fresh-looking bedding, and toss it back into the
worm bin for the next go-round.
 Then, make many small mounds of vermicompost. Watch and
you’ll see the worms move downward, away from light, and bury
themselves in the bedding. After a few minutes, you can remove
the outer layer of this mound, and put it in your vermicompost
bucket. Again the worms will move downward.
 Just continue like this until you have many little piles of worms.
Worming Your Way Along
Harvesting Worms and Using Castings
Harvesting Methods
2. Worms Sort Themselves
 A very simple method indeed. You move all the vermicompost in
the bin over to one side, and add fresh bedding to, and begin
feeding on, the opposite side.
 Then, just give the worms time to finish up all the nutrition on the
first side (give them a couple of months) and wiggle on over to
the fresher bedding and food.
 The advantage is that it’s really easy; the disadvantage is how
long it takes, and that for a period of time, you’re only feeding
one half of the bin.
Worming Your Way Along
Harvesting Worms and Using Castings
Harvesting Methods
3. Divide and Dump
 This is simplicity itself! Just harvest two-thirds of the worm bin,
leaving one-third for the next batch.
 Yes, you’ll be harvesting worms with the vermicompost you
remove, but that’s ok.
 When you feed your plants, these worms brought along will,
eventually, turn into extra nutrients. The worms left behind will
repopulate the bin in a few months’ time.
 Be aware that your worm bin will process less material while the
population of worms is diminished.
Save The Worms!
TEA TIME
The Soil Food Web and
Compost Tea
TEA TIME
 Why Use It - Soil Food Web – Adds
Beneficials to the leaves and roots of
plants.
 Where to Use It – Foliar & Soil Drench
 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
TEA TIME
Types Of Teas
 Manure Tea
 Compost Extract
 Compost Leachate
 Actively Aerated Compost Tea
(AACT)
TEA TIME







Components of Actively Aerated
Compost Tea:
Soluble Nutrients
Humic substances
Bacteria
Nematodes
Protozoa
Microbial metabolites
Goal = maximum diversity of “good
guys”
TEA TIME
Benefits of Compost Tea
 Inoculate rhizosphere (root zone) =
soil drench
 Inoculate phyllosphere (leaf zone) =
foliar spray
 Occupy plant surface with beneficial
organisms = colonization &
competitive exclusion
TEA TIME
Advantages of AACT
Beneficials use exudates & microbial
food source = competition = Enhanced
Pathogen Antagonist
Develop Disease Suppressive Soils
Biocontrol = induced resistance and
control of existing disease
Soluble nutrients, growth-promoting
substances, metabolites
TEA TIME
“Active” Components in Compost Tea
Yeasts: Sporobolomyces, Cryptococcus
Bacteria: Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia,
Penicillium, etc
Fungi: Trichoderma, Gliocladium, etc
Key:
1. Microbial Abundance + Biodiversity
2. Components of a healthy soil foodweb
3. Beneficial Bacteria, Nematodes, Fungi
and Protozoa
TEA TIME
Rhizosphere Benefits for Microorganisms
Root Excretions
1. Amino acids
2. Organic acids
3. Carbohydrates = Sugars
4. Nucleic acids
5. Growth factors
6. Sloughed-off tissue
Key: Food + Energy for Microbes
TEA TIME
Compost Teas as a Natural “Fungal
Deterrent”
Helps Prevent:
Gray mold – Botrytis cinerea
Downy & Powdery mildew – Plasmopora
viticola, Uninula necator
Apple scab – Venturia conidia
Late blight of potato and tomato –
Phytophthora infestans
TEA TIME
“Brewing” a Compost Tea
Bacterial Tea = Foliar Spray (Good for Annuals
and Veggies)
• Bacterial Compost
• Simple Sugars = Molasses, etc
• Kelp
• Plant extract (yucca, nettle, comfrey)
Fungal Tea = Soil Drench (Good for Perennials,
Shrubs and Trees)
• Fungal Compost
• Humic &/or Fulvic Acids
• Kelp
• Yucca Extract
TEA TIME
Compost tea Production Methods
Bucket-Fermentation Method: [aerobic + anaerobic]
 Compost in burlap sack immersed in water,
compost “extract’ vs. compost “tea”
Bucket-Bubbler Method: [aerated = aerobic]
 Small-scale buckets, aquarium air bubble
Trough Method:
 Farm-size tanks, sump pumps and trickle lines
Commercial Brewers:
Small to large scale
Tank, pump, aeration, leachate sock or basket
TEA TIME
Example of Compost Tea Recipe
Initial Recipe:
100 gallons of dechlorinated water
10 gallons of compost (worm or humus)
Add:
1 pound cold pressed kelp powder
1 pound fish powder
1 gallon black strap molasses
1 gallon barley malt
Fulvic and Humic acids as desired
TEA TIME
Compost Tea Application
Foliar:
 70% leaf Coverage
 5 gallons per acre
Seed Treatments:
 Mist or soak seeds prior to planting
Soil Drench
 Apply at transplant and seedling stages
 Apply to base of full grown plants
TEA TIME
Resources on Compost Tea
 The Compost Tea Brewing Manual (4th edition)
Elaine Ingham, Soil Foodweb, Inc
www.soilfoodweb.com
 Compost Teas for Plant Disease Control
Steve Diver, ATTRA
www.attra.org/attrapub/comptea.html
 Compost Tea Industry Association
http://www.composttea.org/
 International Compost Tea Council
http://www.intlctc.org/
TEA TIME
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TEA TIME
Questions?
Principals of Organic Horticulture
BioIntensive IPM
Pest and Weed Control
Without
Poisons
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
A Quick Review of Basic IPM
1. Recognize the problem
2. Identify the pest or pests and determine whether a control is
warranted for each condition AND identify any Natural Enemies
present
3. Determine your pest control goal(s)
4. Learn what control tactics are available
5. Evaluate the benefits and risks of each tactic or combination of
tactics
6. Choose the strategy that will be most environmentally effective
7. If you use chemical controls, follow the label directions for use and
storage of pesticide. ....the label is the law
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
Basic BioIntensive IPM
1. Physical
2. Cultural
3. Mechanical
4. Biological
5. Chemical – Plant & Organic
Extracts
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
Basic BioIntensive IPM
Host Resistance
The ability of a plant or animal to resist an attack by a pest
Cultural
Altering the environment, the condition of the host plant or animal or
the behavior of the pest to prevent or suppress an infection. This is
during the growth period of a plant.
Mechanical
Removal of a pest from the host through the use of physical
controls, traps, devices, and other objects.
Biological
Use of natural enemies, parasites, predators, and pathogens.
Chemical – Plant & Organic – Not Synthetics
To destroy pests, control their activities or prevent them from
causing damage.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
If You Can’t Say It
Don’t Spray It
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
Quiz Time Again
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
What’s This Used For?
* N-nitrosodiumethylamine
And This?
* trichloroallyidiisopropylthiolcarbamate
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
 Insects
 Birds
 Plants
 Plants That Attract Beneficial Insects
 Plant Extracts
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Everyone recognizes the familiar Ladybug, or
ladybird beetle. Many species have an enormous
appetite for aphids--one of our most common plant
pests. Others prefer scale insects and mites and are
very effective in reducing infestations.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Ladybug larvae are equally relentless predators.
Their colorful, but ferocious appearance often
causes unknowing gardeners to assume that they
must be harmful. Nothing could be further from the
truth.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
The Praying Mantis is another widely-recognized
insect predator. Nymphs and adults alike lie in wait
for an unlucky insect which strays too close, then
strike out to grab it with their modified front legs.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Ambush bugs use the same lie-in-wait tactic. Notice
that their front legs are also enlarged and modified.
The bright yellow colors of this species camouflage
them in their favorite hideout--goldenrod flower.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
The Lacewing Larvae are miniature monsters when
viewed at close range. They are deadly enemies of
small caterpillars, aphids, and other soft-bodied
insects.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
The lowly Ground and Rove beetles, so common
under logs and debris, is another friend of man. Both
larvae and adults are predaceous and feed on a
wide variety of insects.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Less common, but still important, Robber flies are
deadly enemies of grasshoppers, wasps, and other
flies which they capture on the wing. Some of their
prey are as large or larger than they are.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Tachinid flies are parasites of other insects. This fly
has laid its small white eggs just above the legs of
the caterpillar in front of it. Upon hatching, the fly
maggots will burrow through their hosts skin and
feed on its internal organs. The caterpillar will die
just as the larvae emerge and complete their
development.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
In addition to these flies, many Small Wasps are important
parasites of other insects. Adult parasites range in size from
very small. Most range in size from 2 to 15 mm. Larvae of
most parasites develop inside the bodies of their prey, but
some feed externally or pupate outside the host's body. These
parasites are important in suppressing populations of many
insects. They are important for control of loopers, cutworms,
and aphids.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Tiphia Wasps are important parasites of Japanese Beetles.
Adult parasites range in size from very small. Larvae of most
parasites develop inside the bodies of their prey, but some feed
externally or pupate outside the host's body.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Predaceous Stinkbugs
Three predaceous species.
This stinkbug is shown
feeding on a caterpillar.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
MINUTE PIRATE BUGS
Adults are oval shaped, about 3 mm long, very flat, and marked
conspicuously with black and white. Nymphs are soft-bodied,
yellow or amber colored. Pirate bug adults and nymphs are
very active predators and may be found on all above ground
parts of plants. Active stages feed by sucking the body fluids
from aphids, spider mites, and immature stages of many small
insects.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Predator mites control spider mites as well as
other pest mites.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Insects
Damselflies
Feed on aquatic insects like
mosquitoes, and midges.
Dragon Flies or Mosquito Hawks
Feed on aquatic insects and mosquitoes
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants that
Attract Beneficial Insects
There is a technique called Farmscaping.
Farmers plant a patch of plants that attract
beneficial insects at the end of crop rows. We
can use this same principle – Gardenscaping.
One bed or border that has exclusively plants
that beckon the good guys. That way we know
for certain that a majority of the bugs on those
plants are ‘our buddies.’
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants that
Attract Beneficial Insects
Plants that attract lacewings:
Achillea filipendulina - Fernleaf yarrow
Anethum graveolens - Dill
Angelica gigas - Angelica
Anthemis tinctoria - Golden
marguerite
Atriplex canescens - Fourwing saltbush
Callirhoe involucrata - Purple
poppy mallow
Carum Carvi - Caraway
Coriandrum sativum - Coriander
Cosmos bipinnatus - Cosmos
white sensation
Daucus Carota - Queen Anne's
lace
Foeniculum vulgare - Fennel
Helianthus maximilianii - Prairie
sunflower
Tanacetum vulgare - Tansy
Taraxacum officinale - Dandelion
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants that
Attract Beneficial Insects
Plants that attract ladybugs:
Achillea filipendulina - Fern-leaf
yarrow
Achillea millefolium- Common yarrow
Ajuga reptans - Carpet bugleweed
Alyssum saxatilis - Basket of Gold
Anethum graveolens - Dill
Anthemis tinctoria - Golden
marguerite
Asclepias tuberosa - Butterfly weed
Atriplex canescens - Four-wing
saltbush
Coriandrum sativum - Coriander
Daucus Carota - Queen Anne's lace
Fagopyrum esculentum - Buckwheat
Foeniculum vulgare - Fennel
Helianthus maximilianii - Prairie
sunflower
Penstemon strictus - Rocky Mt.
penstemon
Potentilla recta 'warrenii’ - Sulfur
cinquefoil
Potentilla villosa - Alpine cinquefoil
Tagetes tenuifolia Marigold - lemon
gem
Tanacetum vulgare - Tansy
Taraxacum officinale - Dandelion
Veronica spicata - Spike speedwell
Vicia villosa - Hairy vetch
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants that Attract Beneficial
Insects
Plants that attract Tachinid Flies, Hoverflies Minute Pirate Bugs and
Parasitic Mini-Wasps :
Allium tanguticum - Lavender
globe lily
Alyssum saxatilis - Basket of
Gold
Aster alpinus - Dwarf alpine aster
Astrantia major - Masterwort
Callirhoe involucrata - Purple
poppy mallow
Chrysanthemum parthenium Feverfew
Lavandula angustifolia - English
lavender
Lobelia erinus - Edging lobelia
Melissa officinalis - Lemon balm
Mentha pulegium - Pennyroyal
Mentha spicata - Spearmint
Petroselinum crispum - Parsley
Potentilla recta 'warrenii‘ - Sulfur
cinquefoil
Rudbeckia fulgida - Gloriosa daisy
Sedum kamtschaticum - Orange
stonecrop
Sedum spurium & album - Stonecrops
Thymus serpylum coccineus Crimson thyme
Zinnia elegans – Zinnia (liliput )
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Landscape Examples of Gardenscaping
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Landscape Examples
of Gardenscaping
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Landscape Examples of Gardenscaping
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Landscape Examples of Gardenscaping
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
Purple Martin: Aerial feeders that forage over land and water,
purple martins eat a variety of winged insects. These swallows
range across the eastern half of the United States and parts of the
Pacific Coast and Southwest. West of the Rockies, purple martins
often nest in tree cavities and building crevices, while in the East
they typically nest with as many as 30 pairs in hotel-like boxes or
hanging, hollow gourds. The migrants often use the same nesting
site each year. In addition to providing nest boxes in the East,
attract the birds with ponds and wetland areas.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
Red-Eyed Vireo: Until recent population declines, red-eyed
vireos were one of the most common woodland birds in
North America. These migrants forage in trees, feeding
mainly on crawling insects--especially caterpillars--but also
on other invertebrates and berries. They range from the
upper Northwest to the East Coast, nesting in deciduous
shade trees. Plant Virginia creeper, spicebush, elderberry,
blackberry and dogwood to supplement insect diet.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
Chipping Sparrow: Well-adapted to various landscapes,
chipping sparrows are common throughout backyards in
most of North America, except for areas of Texas and
Oklahoma. They eat insects and seeds from the ground,
shrubs and trees. These common birds tend to nest in
evergreens, making nests out of grasses, weeds, roots and
hair. Attract them with pines, spruce, arborvitae and yew.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
Downy Woodpecker: Smaller than all other North American
woodpeckers, downy woodpeckers readily visit backyards
throughout the United States, excluding some areas in the
Southwest. Their diet consists mainly of insects, though they also
feed on sap, berries and seeds. The birds excavate nesting sites in
dead trees and stumps, which are later used by other birds. They
prefer deciduous trees such as aspen and willow, and may eat the
berries of dogwood, mountain ash, serviceberry, Virginia creeper
and poison ivy.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
Yellow Warbler: Known for their sweet songs, yellow warblers eat
a diet that is about 60 percent caterpillars. They also eat moths,
mosquitoes, beetles and some berries. Widely distributed
throughout North America, yellow warblers range from Alaska to the
majority of the lower 48 states, except for areas of Texas,
Louisiana, Alabama and Florida. They nest in small trees and
shrubs and often prefer willow. Plant berry-producing plants native
to your area.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
Eastern Bluebird: With their numbers increasing due to
nest-box projects along "bluebird trails," eastern bluebirds
occupy semi-open areas east of the Rockies. They eat a
variety of insects, other invertebrates and berries. Eastern
bluebirds nest in tree cavities, old woodpecker holes and
nest boxes. Plant elderberry, hackberry, dogwood, holly and
Redcedar to supplement their diet.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
Baltimore Oriole: Colorful migrants that readily visit
backyards, Baltimore orioles eat insects, fruit and
nectar. The songbirds range from the central Midwest to
the Northeast and nest in hanging pouches in
deciduous trees. Plant blackberry, serviceberry and
cherry for food, as well as elm, sycamore, tupelo and
other shade trees as nesting spots.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
House Wren: Regular backyard visitors, house wrens have
diets that consist almost exclusively of insects and spiders.
Not very fussy about sites, these birds may nest in nest
boxes, mailboxes, building crevices--even in pockets of
hanging laundry. House wrens range throughout most of the
lower 48 states during parts of the year. Include low-lying
shrubs (such as American beautyberry) or brush piles in your
yard--sources for cover, nesting materials and food.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
"Birds That Eat Japanese Beetles" --Although the Japanese beetle (Popillia
japonica) has for some years been one of the East's worst summer insect
pests, the only list of its bird enemies that I have been able to find is that of
Hadley and Hawley (U.S. Dept. Agric., Circ. 332:19, 1934), who term the Purple
Grackle, European Starting, Cardinal, Meadowlark, Catbird, English Sparrow
and Robin "some of the more important" feeders on adult beetles, and credit
the Grackle, Starling and Crow with feeding on larvae. I have already (Wils.
Bull., 55: 79, 1943) mentioned the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and
Louise F. A. Tanger (Bull. Lane. Co., Pa., Bird Club, No. 7: 5-6, 1945, miracog.)
mentions the Brown Thrasher (Toxostomar ufum) as feeding on adults.
Observations in Baltimore in 1945 and 1946 enable me to add the Red-headed
Woodpecker (Melanerpese ythrocephalus) Blue Jay (Cyanocittac ristata),
Kingbird(Tyrannus tyrannus) , Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olAyacesa) and
Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottost)o the roll of feeders on adult beetles. Of
these, the Red-headed Woodpecker has been the heaviest feeder; a few of the
birds visited a badly infested elm many times a day during more than a week
that it was watched, and single birds captured beetles at rates as high as 12 in
10 minutes. As for the other species, I have from two to a number of
observations for all but the Mockingbird, which I have only once seen eating
beetles"
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Birds
These birds, of course, are not alone in consuming
backyard pests. Many other species--such as the
northern cardinal and black-capped chickadee--eat
insects or feed them to their young during the
summer. Yet as summer winds down, your efforts to
attract birds shouldn't come to a halt. The natural
foods you provide in your yard throughout the year
will encourage these birds to visit again. As a result,
the birds may return and combat a new generation of
insects the next year.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
Basic BioIntensive IPM



Physical
Cultural
Mechanical
 Biological
 Natural Control
 Applied Control
 BioPesticides
 Microbial Pesticides
 Plant Pesticides
 BioChemical Pesticides
BioIntensive IPM




Biorational Pesticides
Although use of this term is relatively
common, there is no legally accepted
definition.
Biorational pesticides are generally
considered to be derived from naturally
occurring compounds or are formulations of
microorganisms.
Biorationals have a narrow target range and
are environmentally benign.
Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis,
commonly known as Bt, are perhaps the
best known biorational pesticide.
BioIntensive IPM
Particle film barriers
A relatively new technology, particle film
barriers are currently available under
the tradename Surround WP Crop
Protectant which is a kaolin clay.
Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is a
standard product used as a barrier.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
TRUE LAVENDER Lavandula
The most fragrant lavender. Beautiful
lavender flowers on long stems and narrow
green leaves. When planted in the garden, it
will deter pests with its fragrance. When dried
and placed in closets and drawers with
clothes, it will deter moths and lend its
wonderful fragrance to the clothes.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
PYRETHRUM PLANT - Pyrethrum cocconeia
A beautiful daisy that is hardy and blooms
throughout the spring and summer. It’s
flowerhead is used to make probably the best
natural pesticide available.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Garlic
There are several types of garlic. Ornamental garlic is
prized by flower arrangers for twisting stalks and
large flower heads. Garlic has other uses in the
garden. It is considered a companion plant to
cabbage, eggplant, tomatoes, and lettuce, since it
controls aphids. It may inhibit the growth of peas and
beans growing nearby. Planted around fruit trees, it
controls leaf curl and discourages borers. Controlling
aphids, as well as deterring Japanese beetles, makes
it a good companion plant for roses. I would also try
the wonderful ornamental garlic around the roses.
BioIntensive IPM
Botanical Pesticides
 Botanical pesticides are prepared in
various ways. They can be as simple
as pureed plant leaves, extracts of
plant parts, or chemicals purified from
plants. Pyrethrum, neem formulations,
and rotenone are examples of
botanicals.
BioIntensive IPM
Botanical Pesticides




Some botanicals are broad-spectrum
pesticides.
Others, like ryania, are very specific.
Botanicals are generally less harmful in the
environment than synthetic pesticides
because they degrade quickly, but they can
be just as deadly to beneficials as synthetic
pesticides.
The manufacture of botanicals generally
results in fewer toxic by-products.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plant Extracts
 Neem Tree Extracts and Neem Oil
 Only
effects insects that feed on plants
treated with Neem.
 Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) – Disrupts
the larval and instar stages.
 Interferes with insect reproductive systems.
 Outright kills some insects.
 Fungal Deterrent
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficials
 This
is just the beginning of good stuff out
there. The ‘To Be Continued’ includes:
 Beneficial
Bacteria, Fungus and Nematodes
 Essential Oil Extracts
 Trap Crops
 Trap Ravines
 And Many More In The Gaia Brigade
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky
Weeds
How to Purge Them Without
Poisons
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
Where Do Weeds Come
From?
Who Discovered
Weeds?
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
The Scientists
and
Grass Seed
Salesmen
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
What’s The Major Cause of
Weeds?
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
The Home Owner
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
The Causes






Disturbing the Soil
Too Much Fertilizer (Mainly N)
Too Much Watering
Too Much Compaction
Too Much Bare Soil = Mulch
The Right Soil Conditions For the Weeds
 Too Wet
 Too Dry
 Something’s Out of Balance in the Soil = C:N-P-K-Mn-CaO2-CO2
 Upsetting the Soil Biology/Foodweb = Chemical Interference
 And, of course, Cutting the Turf Too Short
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
 Too Short Mower settings (Less Than
2 ½”- 3”)
 Not Enough Organic Matter Return
(Green Manure/Grass Clippings or
Compost)
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
Solutions
a Weed Map – Only Treat
Where You Get Weeds
Soil Test = Balance The Soil
Organic Content – Compost
Avoid All Chemicals
Proper Height of Mower
Make
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Those Wild and Wacky Weeds
How to Purge Them without Poisons
Alternative Solutions
 Corn
Gluten Meal as pre-emergent
deterrent but remember, this is a source of
Nitrogen (N)
 Weed Flamer
 Vinegar (vegetable base) and Vinegar
Based Weed Products for Spot Treatment
 Boiling Water
 Soil Balance – biologically and nutrients
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Organic Mulches – Why Use It?
 Conserve Moisture
 Suppress Annual Weeds
 Moderate Soil Temperatures
 Protect the Soil from Compaction
 Feed the Soil Life and Modify Nutrient Levels
 Harbor Insects
 Protect Plants from WeedEaterisium
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Organic Mulches - Types
 Hay – Straw
 Pine Bark – Shredded & Nuggets
 Pine Needles
 Wood Chips
 Crushed Oyster or Crab Shells
 Grass – Mulching Mower Cool Season Fescue
 Leaf
 Rice Hulls and other Grain Hulls if available
 Rock
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Lime, Other Natural Minerals and
Organic Nutrients
The “vitamins” in a soil’s “diet.”
 Aragonite - Naturally mined, volcanic mineral with
over 66 minerals and trace elements
 Lime
 Elemental Sulphur
 Rock Phosphate (0-3-0)
 Colloidal Phosphate (0-3-0)
 Greensand – Ocean-deposit iron-potassium silicate
 Gypsum – Calcium sulfate
 Vermiculite – Lightweight mineral
 Perlite – Specially processed volcanic material
 Humates – Mineralized and stabilized decomposed
prehistoric plant and animal matter
Questions?
A Rind Is A Terrible
Thing To Waste
Principals of Organic
Horticulture
JCC/Wmbrg Master Gardeners
Training Course
January 2007
presented by
Bill Garlette
[email protected]
www.nnmastergardeners.org
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE
Gymnocladus Dioica
A large shade tree with long leaves that
are pinkish in spring, green in summer
and yellow in fall. The seeds can be
roasted and eaten like nuts or made into
a coffee substitute. The bruised foliage
when sprinkled with sweetened water
will attract and kill flies.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
Allelopathy - Allelopathic
BLACK LOCUST, FALSE ACACIA Robina
Beautiful ornamental loaded with white
fragrant flowers. An excellent shade tree with
acacia type foliage. The fragrant flowers can
be smelled for hundreds of ft. in spring. The
bruised foliage mixed with sugar will attract
and kill flies.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
CHINABERRY TREE Melia Azedarach
A handsome and dense tree. The profuse berries are
used to make necklaces and insecticides. Also called
Lilac Tree, Pride of India and Bead Tree. To make
flea repellent for lawns, mix 1 tablespoon of dry,
powdered berries with one teaspoon of dishwashing
detergent to a gallon of water and spray on lawns
with a sprayer. This will also repel flying insects as
well.
Principals of Organic Horticulture
Beneficial Plants
OSAGE ORANGE Maclura
A fast growing shrub often grown as a
hedge. Pretty foliage with greenish
flowers. Good as a background or
border plant. The crushed fruits of this
plant are said to attract and kill
cockroaches.
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