Overview on some fisheries and aquaculture indicators in

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Overview on some fisheries
and aquaculture indicators
in the Black Sea
Dr.V.Raykov, IO-BAS
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
DIRECTORATE-GENERAL
ENVIRONMENT
Directorate D - Water, Marine Environment & Chemicals
ENV.D.2 - Marine Environment & Water Industry
French ministry for ecology, sustainable development, transport and housing 24-25 April, 2012
Aims and Background
 The satus and trends of Black Sea fisheries and
aquaculture production in Black Sea region have
been reviewed.The present state of fishing fleet,
catches and regulated fish stock biomass as
wellas trophic level of the catches have been
presented and analyzed. For proper fisheries
management it is important to know the fishing
effort. One of the main problems in the Black Sea
region is the lack of comprehensive information
on fishing activity, catch quantities and
composition and how they affect the current state
of fish stocks.
Aims and Background
 The Black Sea has been subjected to very serious




environmental impacts since mid 20th century due to
anthropogenic
dumping, huge chemical pollution mainly via Danube River,
invasive species, nuclear pollution, climate change, over
fishing, illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing.
Riparian countries use same fishery resources mostly in
migratory small
pelagics. In case of shared stocks, intergovernmental
agreement is unavoidable. After the accession of Bulgaria
and Romania
to the European Union, the Black Sea has become the
sovereign responsibility of Common Fishery Policy of EU
and GFCM.
Experimental
 In the present paper analysis of the trend of fishing
fleet capacity in the Black Sea region in terms of
number of fishing vessels were performed.
 Total catches of major commercial species by
countries, two species (sprat and turbot) commercial
fish stocks state and existent measures in the Black
Sea region were presented and analyzed.
 Trophic level of the main pelagic and demercal
species was recognized as an important indicator for
the contemporary state of the fisheries resources.
 The marine aquaculture production for the 2001-2008
were estimated as low, as Turkey and Ukraine hold
the first places as regards total aquaculture
production in Black Sea region.
Total catch in Black Sea
RESULTS and DISCUSSION
2002
2003
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
2004
2005
2006
2007
TI
ON
EY
RA
RK
SS
IA
N
FE
DE
TU
RU
UK
RA
IN
E
IA
RG
GE
O
AR
LG
BU
M
AN
IA
IA
2008
RO
No.vessels
Black Sea fishing fleet ,No of vessels
RESULTS and DISCUSSION
 The Bulgarian and Romanian Annual Reports
on the Efforts to Achieve a Sustainable
Balance between Fishing Capacity and
Fishing Opportunity during 2008 are prepared
in accordance with the rules laid down in the
Council Regulation (EC) No 2371/2002,
Commission Regulation (EC) No 1438/2002
and Guidelines for an improved analysis of
the balance between fishing capacity and
fishing opportunities.
RESULTS and DISCUSSION
Marine fishery fleet of both member states can be assessed as multi-component. The most
numerous group of vessels are small vessels (under 12m LOA) which are tackled with several
of nets and angling gears. Even they are equipped with engine, they move away from 3 mile
zone very rarely. Most of them are part-time used at sea, during the fishing seasons, peak
moments mainly. Besides, the small vessel owners are fishing at sea in their free time, as
supplementary activity.
Fishing fleet
Summarized data about the fishing fleet of the Republic of Bulgaria and Romania
2008-2009.
LOA
Number
Power, kW
Gross tonnage,
GT
Romania
Bulgaria
Romania
Bulgaria
Romania
Bulgaria
under 12 m
423
2 438
2 711
47 347
547
4 286
12 m – 15 m
5
38
447
3 856
66
601
15 m – 24 m
5
57
1 654
9 296
376
1 903
over 24 m
6
12
1 841
3 305
746
1 583
Total
439
2 545
6 653
63 804
1 735
8 372
The most of fishing vessels in Ukraine in 2002 was at the age of 11 to 30 years old
(70%), the vessels of the older building made up 23% and only 7% were relatively
new, not older than 10 years old. In this connection the reduction in number offishing
fleet since 2006 till 2008 made up 19 units or 13%.
In Turkey, 6 587 fishing vessels were registered in ports of Black sea. The total
number of trawlers was 543, while purse seiners was 526 and multi purpose
(trawler, purse seine vessels) was 469, carrier vessels was 269 and small boats was
15,460. Most of the trawler and purse seiners operated in the Black Sea during the
fishing season.
Indicator: Catches by major species
and areas:
Landings (thousand tons)
A significant decrease of total landings in 2008 up to 390 thousand tons in
comparison with 2007 total catch of 482 thousand tons have been observed.
Total landings by countries in Black Sea
3500000
3000000
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0
Bulgaria
Ukraine
Romania
Turkey
Rus s ian
Federation
Georgia
Countrie s
The highest landings in the Black Sea (2001-2008) have been reported by Turkey. All
the rest of the riparian countries have total amount of the catches, below 500 000 t.
Sub indicator:fish landings by major
fish type
Landings by major fish type (tonns), 2001-2008
600000
tonns
500000
400000
Shelfish
300000
Demercal
200000
Pelagics
100000
0
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Years
The greatest percent of the catch belongs to the pelagic species (E.encrasicolus,
Sprattus sprattus and Trachurus mediterraneus). The peak of the catches was in 2007.
From demercals, turbot has the highest economical value. In 2005 the landings were
20 530.81 t., the decreased in 2006 up to 9 286.07 t, and again increased in 2007 and
2008 (16 672.12 t (2007) and 17 407.32 t (2008).
Rapa whelk (R.venosa) landings are prevailing from shelfish species, as Turkey and
Bulgaria catches have been exported to the Asian market, mostly.
Catches of Sprattus sprattus by countries 2001-2008
Catches of Engraulis encrasicolus by countries 2001-2008
Bulgaria,
666.57
Russian
Bulgaria,
Federation,
Georgia, 74 36857.781
70320.80
Georgia, Romania,
43939.5
895.59
Russian
Federation,
18935.60
Ukraine, 4298
Georgia
Bulgaria
Turkey,
64819
Ukraine
Romania
Turkey
Romania,
9362.06
Georgia
Rus s ian Federation
Bulgaria
Ukraine,
252763.575
Turkey,
2157139
Ukraine
Romania
Turkey
Russian Federation
Catches of Tr.mediterraneus by countries 2001-2008
Georgia, 155
Romania,
Bulgaria,
119.14
874.7209
Ukraine,
Russian
2430.92
Federation,
385.40
Catche s of Ps e tta m axim a by countrie s 2001-2008
Russian
Federation,
59.10
Georgia, 130
Bulgaria,
397.9804
Ukraine,
1247.90
Bulgaria
Georgia
Romania,
266.61
Bulgaria
Ukraine
Turkey,
105058
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Romania
Turkey
Russian Federation
Romania
Turkey
Georgia
Turkey, 5313
C at ch e s o f M .m e r lan g u s b y co u n t r ie s 2001- 2008
Ukraine,
209.76
Russian
Federation,
1425.30
Romania,
923.32
Georgia,
135
Bulgaria,
57.414
C at ch e s o f Rap an a t h o m as s ian a b y co u n t rie s 2001- 2008
Geor gia
Georgia, 0
Bulgar ia
Ukr aine
Romania
Tur key
Turkey,
55269
Rus s ian Feder ation
Russian
Federation,
519.30
Bulgaria,
17269.226
Romania, 0
Ukraine,
1447.52
Georgia
Bulgaria
Turkey,
56972
Ukraine
Romania
Turkey
Russian Federation
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
SSB 10-3
SSB
Landings
Recruits
400
300
100
200
50
0
F 1-3
100
80
60
0.8
0.6
40
0.4
20
0.2
0
0
Recruits 10-9
A 700
Fishing mortality
B 120
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Catch 10-3
Biomass and fishing mortality
250
600
500
200
150
100
0
1.4
1.2
1
SPRAT
Length frequency composition of turbot
SSBvR, RvSSB, YvF and Yv SSB from landings with IUU catch included
(average of ages 4-8 y). F0.1+0.18 Fmax= 0.342.
16000
Bulgaria
Turkey
Ukraine
Romania
Georgia
10000
Monthly percentage (in terms of weight) of Sea snail
(including shell)
GSI
50
Sea snail landing%
12000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
40
4
20
2
10
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
0
J
F
M
150
A
M
J
CPUE-May
100,9
90
60
30
CPUE-June
70,0
57,2
CPUE-July
40,3
26,3
CPUE-Sept.
5,7
CPUE-Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Sept.
Sept.
July
July
July
July
June
June
June
June
June
May
May
April
0
April
1992
1990
1988
0
CPUE-April
120
8
6
30
CPUEAvarage
CPUE (kg/h/dredge)
Landing (tonnes)
14000
Polinom
(CPUEAvarage)
J
A
S
O
N
D
Gonodosomatik indeks
Rapa whelk
Picked dogfish
Catch-curve analysis of Squalus acanthias from Black Sea
1.2
Total and Fishing mortality
1
Z
F
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1971
1973
1975
1977
1979
1981
1983
1985
1987
1989
2001
2003
2005
2007
Years
F zero
F0.1
Fmax
F 30% from MBP
F
Yield-per-Recruit, kg
0
0.2326
1.122
0.2866
0
324466.1
382488.6
341614.9
SSB-per-Recruit,kg
4011297
1421640
260967.6
1203448
TotalBio-per-recruit,kg
5171470
2553269
1300059
2328730
2009
TAC and quotas in Black Sea
Turbot - TACs
Sprat
(2007) 15000 t
(2009) 12750 t
(2009) 98 t
(2008) 15000 t
(2007) 100 t
(2008) 100 t
2007
2008
2007
2008
2009
2009
Management instruments
Bulgaria
States
Complete ban
Periodic ban
Total Allowable Catch
(TAC)
Total Permitted Catch
= Limit
Minimum
size
Periods
bans
admissible
for
fishing
Fishing Free Zones
Prohibited
gears
fishing
Allowable mesh size
for nets
Georgia
Romania
Russia
Turkey
Ukraine
Data Collection program 2007 – 2011
Pelagic surveys 2007 - 2011
Demersal surveys 2006 - 2010
Hydroacoustic survey 2010-2011
MSY – maximum
sustainable yield
MSY (t)
Biomass
Country
(t)
Bulgaria
Gulland
BH steepness, F0.1
35 663
75 080.20
Romania
59 643
in the survey area
28 330
45 526.80
12 500
21 625
extrapolated
134 723.20
SPRAT
63 994
Indicator: Trophic level
Trophic level of the landings (%) of main species 2001-2008
100%
E.encrasicolus
90%
3.11
80%
S.sprattus
T.mediterraneus
70%
S.sarda
%
60%
3
P.saltatrix
50%
Alosa sp.
A.boyeri
40%
4.37
P.maxima
30%
Mytilus sp.
4.5
20%
3
R.venosa
3.59
10%
3
0%
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Gobiidae
3.2
S.acanthias
M.merlangus
Years
Trophic level (www.fishbase.org) of the pelagic, demercal and shellfish species
landings, 2001-2008.
Indicator: Aquaculture production
Total aquaculture production in Black Sea
(2002) 1479 t
(2003) 244 t
2002
(2004) 2259 t
(2007) 745 t (2008) 1886 t
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
(2005) 4355 t
(2006) 1216 t
Figure 14. Total aquaculture production in the Black Sea
The aquaculture production increased in 2004 (2259 t) and in 2005 (4355 t). The
reported data are from Turkey, Ukraine and Bulgaria, mostly. Romania has no
developed marine aquaculture sector; some experimental investigations on
M.galloprovincialis exist. Georgia reported only for 2004, 400 t aquaculture
production. No data from Russian Federation for the In 2008 only Bulgaria, Turkey and
Ukraine reported for aquaculture production in Black Sea.(Table 7).
Turkey holds the first place in aquaculture production in the region. In 2005, a peak of
around 3 500 t has been r ecorded.
Aquaculture production by countrues, 2002-2008
2008
Annual production of major commercial species
2007
BULGARIA
400
4500
2006
GEORGIA
350
4000
3500
3000
Years
RUSSIA
2004
2003
TURKEY
2002
UKRAINE
250
2000
1500
150
100
1000
500
50
0
0
1000
2000
3000
Total productio n (tons)
4000
Blue
Mussel
2500
200
tonns
ROMANIA
2005
300
0
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Years
Fish+Nat
antia
 The Black mussel (Mytilus
galloprovincialis) is the most popular
species for artificial cultivation. In 2006
total blue mussel production increased,
then decreased toward 2007-2008. Major
fish species, object for cultivation in
Turkey were Sea Bream (Sparus aurata),
Sea Bass (Morone morone), trout
(Oncorhinchus mykiss), as the majority of
production came from the Aegean Sea and
small quantities from the Black Sea .Blue
mussel production in the Turkish part of
the Black Sea has been reported for 2008.
CONCLUSIONS
 For proper fisheries management it is important to
know fishing effort. One of the main problems in the
Black sea region is the lack of comprehensive
information concerning the fishing activity, catch
quantities and composition and how it affects the
current state of fish stocks. We are aware that in the
Fisheries sector is really difficult to produce
authoritative reports on the catch quantities and
composition on annual principle, which means that
we do not have a clear picture in this matter and the
analysis of the current state of the stocks is with a fair
approach to accuracy. The communication between
responsible authorities and data exchange on
regional level is not systematic.
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