ungulates week ten

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Hoofed mammals
Ungulates
• Ungulates: Refer to mammals with hooves
• Artiodactyla: even toed
• Perissodactyla: odd toed
Hoofed mammals (ungulates)
Order
Perissodactyla
Weight borne on one central toe
Order
Artiodactyla
Weight shared between two central toes
Hoof a modified nail?
Hooves, claws, and nails are all composed of two
structures: the unguis (a scale-like plate; our finger- and
toe-nails) and the subunguis (a softer layer, found as a
very fine layer on the underside of our fingernails) which
connect the unguis to the pad of the digit.
Hoof a good modification?


Ungulates account for the majority of the
herbivores in the world
Over 257 species
Skulls of ungulates
Perissodactyla
Ovis - sheep
Equus - horse
Artiodactyla
Camelus - camel
Sus - pig
Perissodactyla
Contains17 Recent species in three families:
Equidae (horses),
Tapiridae (tapirs),
Rhinocerotidae (rhinoceroses)
Perissodactyls: Equidae examples
Equus caballus
Feral horse (Mustang)
Przewalski’s Horse
Equus asinus
donkey
3 species
Zebra
Perrisodatyles are Herbivores


Unique digestive
system and
dentition to suit
their diet.
Special bacteria
in their intestines
to digest
cellulose.
Horse skull
Cusps of
cheekteeth joined
by ridges
Long diastema
Canines large in
males, small or
absent in females
Equidae: True wild horses are
called the Przewalski’s


Horses:
http://animal.discover
y.com/videos/jawsand-claws-2-wildhorses.html

True wild horses do not
look like the domesticated
horse which has been
bred by humans for over
4,000 years.
Equidae:
Zebra’s
3 species:
 Grevy’s
 Plains
 Mountain

http://animal.discover
y.com/videos/growing
-up-zebra-babyzebra.html
Perissodactyl: Tapiridae
(Tapirs)





Diet: Herbivore
Average life span in
the wild:25 to 30
years
Size:Height at
shoulder, 29 to 42
inches
Weight:500 to 800 lbs
Status:Endangered
Perissodactyl: Tapiridae = Tapirs
Mountain Tapirs
Bairds Tapir
Malayan Tapir
Lowland
Tapir
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceros)






STATUS:Endangered
DESCRIPTION:
There are five species of rhinos
The African species: white and
black rhinos.
Asian rhinos include the Indian
and the Javan
The five species range in weight
from 750 pounds to 8,000
pounds and stand anywhere
from four and a half to six feet
tall.
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae


POPULATION:
Black Rhino: 2,400 White
Rhino: 7,500 Sumatran
Rhino: 400 Javan Rhino:
fewer than 100 Indian Rhino:
more than 2,000
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae
(Rhinoceros)
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae
LIFESPAN: 35
years.
HABITAT:
 Rhino habitat
ranges from
savannas to dense
forests in tropical
and subtropical
regions.

Artiodactyla

Artiodactyls are the
most diverse, large,
terrestrial mammals
alive today. They are
the fifth largest order
of mammals,
consisting of
approximately 210
species.
Suborders and families of Artiodactyla
1 Domestic Cow Ruminantia
2 Cape Buffalo Ruminantia
3 White-tailed Deer Ruminantia
4 Pygmy (Hippopotaminae)
5 Caribou Ruminantia
6 Giraffe Ruminantia
7Hippopotamus (Hippopotaminae)
8South American LamaTylopoda
9White-lipped PeccaryTayassuidae
10 Common Warthog Suidae
11Domestic Pig Suidae
12 Camel Tylopoda 13Collared
PeccaryTayassuidae 14Bison Ruminantia
(Bovidae)
Artiodactyla
Ruminants
Upper incisors
absent, replaced in
life by a hard pad on
which lower incisors
bite
Suiformes
(non ruminants)
Male canines curl
upward
Artiodactyla: Herbivores
Artiodactyla are
also herbivores
 Most are
Ruminants
 Digestion in
ruminants
occurs
sequentially in a
fourchambered
stomach

Compared to the perissodactyla
Artiodactyla have cloven feet.
Why the difference?

artiodactyls - 1
Capra hircus – goat
Cervus timorensis - rusa
Camelus dromedarius – camel
Sus scrofa – pig
artiodactyls - 2
Bubalus bubalis –
buffalo
Antilope cervicapra
- blackbuck
Bos taurus x Bos
indicus – cattle
Bos javanicus – banteng
And finally, Cetacea
Two suborders:

Mysticeti

Baleen whales
Right whales
 Rorquals


Odontoceti

Toothed whales
Sperm whales
 Dolphins

How can whales be related to
artiodactyla?

Astragali of the Eocene
protocetids (left) and
Artiocetus clavis (right), as
compared to that of the
pronghorn Antilocapra
americana (centre). Note
the distinct double-pulley
shape.
Molecular
evidence now
indicates clearly
that cetaceans
are actually
artiodactyls that
have become
totally aquatic
Balaenopteridae - Rorquals
Mysticeti
Balaenidae – Right whales
Megaptera novaeangliae Humpback
Balaena australis
Southern Right While
Balaenoptera physalus –
Fin whale
Baleen is used to filter plankton
Long, fine baleen of Blue Whale,
suitable for filtering krill (tiny
crustaceans)
Baleen
hangs
down
from
palate
Short, coarse baleen of Minke Whale,
suitable for trapping small fish
Balaenoptera musculus – Blue whale
But when feeding,
the whale relaxes
the grooves and
takes in gallons of
water, which it
pushes through the
baleen and expels,
filtering out the
prey
Grooves on throat
of rorquals are
normally pulled
tight to make
mouth into a beak
Odontoceti – toothed whales
Orcinus orca – Orca or Killer whale
Sperm
whale tooth
Homodont
(teeth all alike)
usually dozens Physeter
in each jaw macrocephalus –
Sperm whale
Delphinus
delphis –
Common
dolphin
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