Career Counseling: Foundations, Perspectives, and Applications edited by David Capuzzi and Mark Stauffer Chapter Three Toward a Holistic View: Decision-Making, Postmodern, and Emerging Theories Jane Goodman Holistic Approach • Career along with life planning • Individual as well as contextual and cultural • Masculine and Feminine • Relational approach to career counseling Barriers • Counselors help clients work through external barriers and Internal barriers. • Counselors advocate on behalf of clients and teach clients how to advocate on their own behalf. Pathways Peterson (1995) states that “most people entering the work force today will have three to five careers and eight to ten jobs.” Most unlikely to have one job or job field for life. Finding Meaning In Work and Career Two Tramps in Mud Time But yield who will to their separation, My object in living is to unite My avocation and my vocation As my two eyes make one in sight (Frost, 1930, p. 314) Finding Meaning In Work and Career Victor Frankl (1963)—meaning is essential to survival. Calling (Vocation)—“vocare” in Latin is “to call” Burnout and failure in the search for meaning through work Authentic existence with occupation Integrating Spirituality and Work Whole selves at work Spirituality as an answer to isolation, existential frustration, alienation, and violence in the workplace Defining Spirituality • Connectedness of history • Interconnectedness of life • Sense of transcendence • Spirituality of dwelling • Spirituality of seeking • Peak experiences • Sense of awe • Purpose and meaning by adhering to sets of larger beliefs • Exercise of faith • Experience of a connection with God • Spirituality of moral responsibility • Other? Cohen’s (2003) Existentialism and Career Development Key concepts Responsibility Evaluation Action Reevaluation Bloch’s (1997) “Right work” Implications for finding right work 1. Nature of meaning in life as it relates to connectedness 2. Forms of Stillness (e.g., meditation) 3. Intentionality Brewer’s (2001) Vocational Souljourn Paradigm “the ongoing interior process of discovering meaning, being, and doing and the expression of that discovery in the exterior world of work through four possible paths: job, occupation, career, and Vocation” (p. 84). Seligman’s Learned Optimism Optimism is a critical life skill, and that can be learned (Seligman, 1998). 1. Distraction 2. Disputation a) Evidence b) Alternatives c) Implications The Decision-Making Process Planned Happenstance • “Chance favors the prepared mind.” • Indecision as open mindedness • Curiosity, persistence, flexibility, optimism, and risk taking The Decision-Making Process Positive Uncertainty 1. Be focused and flexible about what you want. 2. Be aware and wary about what you know. 3. Be objective and optimistic about what you believe. 4. Be practical and magical about what you do (Gelatt, 1991, pp. 7-10). The Decision-Making Process Dealing with Change Gelatt’s (1991) “resilient” mouse: 1) change happens 2) anticipate change 3) monitor change 4) adapt to change quickly 5) change 6) enjoy change 7) be ready to quickly change again and again. Post Modern Approaches Narrative Approach Integrative life planning Constructivist theories Contextual action theory of career counseling Relational approach to career counseling Narrative Questions 1. Who do you admire? Who would you pattern your life after? Who did you admire growing up? How are you like this person? How are you different from this person? 2. Do you read any magazines regularly? Which ones? 3. What do you like to do in your free time? 4. Do you have a favorite saying or motto? 5. What are (were) your three favorite subjects in school? What subjects do (did) you hate? 6. What is your earliest recollection? (Savickas, 2003) Integrative Life Planning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Finding work that needs doing Attending to our health Connecting family and work Valuing pluralism and diversity Managing transitions and organizational change 6. Exploring spirituality and life purpose (Hansen, 2002, p. 61) Post Modern Approaches Constructivist theories Contextual action theory of career counseling Relational approach to career counseling Adult Career Transitions Schlossberg’s 4-S system for transitions Situation Self Support Strategies References Brewer, E. W. (2001). Vocational souljourn paradigm: A model of adult development to express spiritual wellness as meaning, being, and doing in work and life. Counseling and Values, 45, (2), 83-92. Cohen, B. N. (2003). Applying existential theory and interventions to career decision-making. Journal of Career Development, 29, 195-209. Frankl, V. E, (1963). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York: Washington Square Press. Frost, R. (1930). The poems of Robert Frost. New York: Random House. Gelatt, H. B. (1991). Creative decision making: Using positive uncertainty. Los Altos, CA: Crisp. Peterson, L. (1995) Starting out, starting over. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black.