Seed dispersal

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Plant-animal interactions
•
•
•
•
Co-evolution?
Herbivory
Plant defense
Pollination
• Seed dispersal
• Interactions across
the life cycle
• Conservation:
butterflies/host
plants
Photos: Ricklefs (Economy of Nature), Bradshaw & Schemske, Kalko, http://www.inriodulce.com/links/ants.html
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5886553_life-cycle-pl
http://freeimagescollection.com/fruits/pap
http://activerain.com/blogsview/372556/
ar-authentication-words-what-do-theymeanhttp://www.esu.edu/~milewski/int
ro_biol_two/lab_4_seeds_fruits/im
ages/berry_kiwi.jpg
http://blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn?blogId=rkqrk
rakstp&logNo=60101838355&redirect=Dlog&widg
etTypeCall=true
http://xtine23.files.wordpress.com
/2012/07/passion-fruit-seeds.jpg
http://store.mancor.org/pomegranat
e-seeds-or-fruits-antioxidants-forcancer-prostrate-heart-attacks.aspx
http://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscienchttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flowering_plant
e/seed-swallower/
https://www.google.com/se
US:official&source=lnms&tb
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0&bih=557&imgrc=71BDdlR
4GdKbjzVx_JM%3Bhttp%25
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TODAY: Seed dispersal
• Definitions and issues
– Seeds, Fruits, Diaspores
– Dispersal Syndromes
• Abiotic
• Biotic
– Coevolution?
– Dispersal Kernels
• Seeds -> Seedlings
• Example
SEEDS, FRUITS, DIASPORES
•Seeds :
from ovules
•Fruits :
from ovaries
•Diaspores :
dispersal units
http://greenanswers.com/q/228460/forests-trees-plants/plants/how-do-plants-reproduce
CLASSIC REFERENCES
•
Sernander 1927, Ulbrich 1928
• Ridley 1930
The Dispersal of Plants
Throughout the World
(700 pp)
• van der Pijl 1969
Principles of Dispersal
in Higher Plants (153 pp)
Archidendron vaillantii
http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an67311471
DISPERSAL SYNDROMES
(van der Pijl 1969)
Biotic
Abiotic
• Saurochory: reptiles
• Epizoochory: animals
• Ornithochory: birds
•
•
•
•
(plus mimetic deceit)
• Dyszoochory: mammals
(scatter hoarding)
• Endozoochory: mammals
(accidental vs intentional)
• Chiropterochory: bats
• Myrmecochory: ants
• Piscichory?: fishes
Anemochory: wind
Hydrochory: water
Autochory: ballistics +
Barochory: gravity
DISPERSAL SYNDROMES
(van der Pijl 1969)
• Saurochory: reptiles
• Epizoochory: animals
• Ornithochory: birds
•
•
•
(plus mimetic deceit)
• Dyszoochory: mammals
(scatter hoarding)
• Endozoochory: mammals
•
•
•
(accidental vs intentional)
• Chiropterochory: bats
• Myrmecochory: ants
• Piscichory?: fishes
•
•
•
color, odor, ground-level, hard skin, ancient
waterfowl: hard seeds in mud
others: barbed, spiny, viscid, burrs
signaling color, protections against premature
consumption & digestion, odorless, sugar or oil,
no hard rind (birds do not have teeth), seeds
exposed in/dangling from fruit
hard capsules or hard seeds
accidental: small, swallowed with vegetation
intentional: color not needed, toxins against
premature consumption & digestion, signaling
odor, sugar or oil, hard rind OK (do have
teeth), large seeds, presentation varies by
animal group
drab color, musty odor, large seeds, strongly
attached, exposed outside foliage
white oil-bearing elaiosome , dark hard seed,
scattered in leaf litter, recent
amazonian flood plain forests
CO-EVOLUTION?
Fruit-frugivore network
in Brazilian Atlantic Forest
(Parque Estadual Intervales)
• Syndromes as
evidence that
animals select
on plant traits?
• Do plants
select on
animal traits?
• Extinct
dispersers? Silva et al. 2007, Ch 26 in
Seed Dispersal: Theory and its Application in a Changing World
CO-EVOLUTION?
No. of plant species in the diets of
manakins in 2 tropical rainforests
• Syndromes as
evidence that
animals select
on plant traits?
• Do plants
select on
animal traits?
• Extinct
et al. 2007, Ch 8 in
dispersers? Loiselle
Seed Dispersal: Theory and its Application in a Changing World
CO-EVOLUTION?
• Syndromes as
evidence that
animals select
on plant traits?
• Do plants
select on
animal traits?
• Extinct
dispersers?
Keystone
plant
species:
Figs?
DISPERSAL KERNELS
(probability of moving a certain distance during one time unit)
“Shoebutton Ardisia” in S. Florida
Horvitz, Koop &Erickson, unpublished
1.4
x 10
-3
Probability density
1.2
composite
catbird-dispersed
raccoon-dispersed
robin-dispersed
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
20
40
60
80
Distance from source, m
100
Model
Constant composite (ignore disperser structure)
Constant disperser structured (many catbirds, no robins, few raccoons)
Constant disperser structured (no robins, shift from catbird to raccoon)
Constant disperser structured (shift from catbirds to robins, few raccoons)
Time varying disperser structured (occassional robins)
120
Rate of spread, m/yr
3.9
11.4
17.9
34.7
21.6
• Seed shadow
• Does it
depend upon
dispersing
animal?
• Community
context
• Community
consequence
DISPERSAL KERNELS
(probability of moving a certain distance during one time unit)
Dispruption by exotic animal species
From Fenner & Thompson 2005, Seed Dispersal
• Seed shadow
• Does it
depend upon
dispersing
animal?
• Community
context
• Community
consequence
DISPERSAL KERNELS
(probability of moving a certain distance during one time unit)
Janzen-Connell: recruitment “niches”
From Ricklefs , Economy of Nature
•
•
•
Intense enemies under mothers
Offspring need to escape
Suitable recruitment sites away from
mom (and others of same species)
• Seed shadow
• Does it
depend upon
dispersing
animal?
• Community
context
• Community
consequence
TODAY: Seed dispersal
• Definitions and issues
– Seeds, Fruits, Diaspores
– Dispersal Syndromes
• Abiotic
• Biotic
– Coevolution?
– Dispersal Kernels
• Seeds -> Seedlings
• Example
The
comparative life
histories of
ant- and birddispersed
Marantaceae
Lowland neotropical wet forest
Costa Rica
Dispersal biology:
A set number of seeds
(no. typically available to dispersers)
was observed during 90 minutes
• bird-seed
interactions
• on the plants
• during 495
trials
• total of 2279
seeds
• ant-seed
interactions
• in the leaf-litter
• during 524
trials
• total of 1440
seeds
Bird-dispersed species…
Pleiostachya pruinosa
Calathea lasiostachya
Calathea marantifolia
Calathea lutea
Calathea inocephala
Photo by D. Graham
M
io
%
ne
ct
e
Cl s o
ar le
av ag
is in
P
Cy
ip pr eu
an M ra et s
i
a
Ar oco na cor osa
c
re m u on
Ra mo ps s c ata
m no a c an
ph ps ya de
oc c no i
e l o n id
us iro es
Pi pa str
p s i
H
M a ra s e s
itr bi m ri
os a f en nii
pi us ta
ng ci lis
us ca
ca uda
ss
in
ot ii
he
r
of bird-seed interactions
Mionectes oleagineus
50
40
Corcovado (N = 516), H' = 1.50, 13 spp
La Selva (N = 390), H' = 1.92, 11 spp
30
20
10
0
(Horvitz, C.C., M. A. Pizo, B. Bello y Bello, J. LeCorff and R. Dirzo, 2002)
Good and bad birds
Gulpers
Mashers
Calathea lutea
Seed shadows of C. lutea differ by bird taxa
40
La Selva
Emberizidae
10
20
No. of seeds
0
-10
40
5
0
10
20
Pipridae
20
0
-10
40
0
10
20
Tyrannidae
0
10
20
10
20
10
20
Pipridae
0
-10
200
0
Tyrannidae
100
0
10
20
undispersed
20
0
-10
0
-10
100
50
20
0
-10
40
Corcovado
Emberizidae
0
-10
1000
0
undispersed
500
0
10
20
0
-10
Distance, m
0
10
20
Ant-dispersed species
Calathea micans
Calathea cleistantha
Calathea ovandensis
Ap
ha
en
og
as
Pa
te
ch E r a
y c c ta ra
on to ne
dy mm oi d
la
e
ob a gi s
sc bb
So uri um
c
Ec l en orn
Pa ta op
is
t
s
c h om is
y c m sp
Pa o
a
c h ndy ru .
y c la idu
on a
m
dy pic
la ali
s
O
P
h
do he ar
nt ido pa
om l e x
ac sp
O
hu . 2
do
nt Phe s b
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om id a
do
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nt
om O ac h l e s ri
d
u
ac on s p .
hu to lat 3
m ic
s
er ac ep
s
yt
h
hr us
oc
sp
e
Ph ph .
a
At e id l us
ta ol e
Pa
ce
aj
p
a
ch
y c Ph h al x
on e id ote
dy ol
s
la e s
W
as
co p .
m
n
1
an Phe s tr
ic
ni
i
a dol ta
au e
ro sp
pu . 4
n
Ec ctat
ito a
n
sp
.
ot
he
r
Photo by H. Kennedy
% of ant-seed interactions
Aphaenogaster araneoides
25
Corcovado (N = 206), H' = 2.76, 24 spp
20
La Selva (N = 453), H' = 2.56, 26 spp
15
10
5
0
(Horvitz, C.C., M. A. Pizo, B. Bello y Bello, J. LeCorff and R. Dirzo. 2002)
Good and bad ants
Pick-up and remove seeds
Odontomachus
Take aril bits, but leave seed
Solenopsis
cleistantha
Calathea cleistantha
Seed shadows of C. cleistantha differ by ant taxa
La Selva
Aphaenogaster
20
No. of seeds
10
0
-200
10
0
200
400
600
800
1000
800
1000
800
1000
Pachycondyla apicalis
5
0
-200
20
0
200
400
600
Pachycondyla harpax
10
0
-200
20
0
200
400
600
Pheidole spp and Wasmannia
10
0
-200
0
200
400
600
Distance, cm
800
1000
An hypothesis:
ant-dispersed species
are less gap-dependent
than bird-dispersed species
TODAY: Seed dispersal
• Definitions and issues
– Seeds, Fruits, Diaspores
– Dispersal Syndromes
• Abiotic
• Biotic
– Coevolution?
– Dispersal Kernels
• Seeds -> Seedlings
A chimpanzee giving into the temptation to eat a fig in
Kibale, as chimpanzees do very often.
Photo credit: Alaine Houle
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2012/08/02/how-to-eat-like-a-chimpanzee
/
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