Red Fox (Vulpes xxx)

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Coyote
(Canis latrans)
• Largest of “small canids”
(9–20 kg)
• tail posture dog vs. coyote
• highly variable behavior
& diets
• most vocal canid
Coyote
• solitary or cooperative hunters
• mates may stay together for
multiple years
• 1-19 pups (avg.=6) in dens
• female pups may stay with parents
• create “scent posts”
• Native to Americas
• Change distribution over past 200 years
• Historic wolf control  # of coyotes
• Potential effects on #s of snowshoe hares & bobcats
Red Fox
(Vulpes vulpes)
• Largest fox (3-10 kg)
• Solitary, partly territorial
• HR size varies with habitat
• Nocturnal or crepuscular
• Very adaptable – “urban foxes”
• Possibly not native to NA ??
Red Fox
(Vulpes vulpes)
• Monogamous
• Family dens + burrows
• 1-13 pups (avg. = 5)
• Sexually mature ~ 10 months
Color Variations
“Silver fox” – prized by
furriers
“Cross fox”
Arctic Fox
(Alopex lagopus)
• Smaller than red fox
(3-8 kg)
• Adapted to arctic
•Varied diet (small
mammals, eggs, carrion
from polar bears)
• Only in far north of NA
• Tundra in summer & ocean ice in winter
• Shorter dark pelage in summer
• Blue & white color phases
Arctic Fox
(Alopex lagopus)
Circumpolar distribution
Arctic Fox
• monogamous
• 2 litters of 5-8 pups
• large, complex dens
• flexible social system – family territories
• may form communal bands that scavenge together
Grey Fox
(Urocyon cinereoargenteus)
• smaller than red fox
(3-7 kg)
• more omnivorous
• tree climbers
• woodlands & rocky
areas (less agriculture
than red fox)
Grey Fox
• Southern & Midwestern states
• timing of breeding varies w/latitude
• monogamous family units
• 1-7 pups (avg.=4)
Swift Fox
(Vulpes velox)
• Smallest fox in NA (1-3kg)
• Occurs in south-central US
• Prairie grasslands & deserts
• speeds of 50 mph
Swift Fox
(Vulpes velox)
• 2-6 pups per litter
• nocturnal
• Endangered
• #s declined in past 50
years
• Threats: predator &
rodent control, habitat
change
Kit Fox
(Vulpes macrotis)
• Size of Swift fox (1-3 kg)
• Nocturnal – days in burrows
• Use multiple dens – switch
frequently
• Diet: small mammals, birds,
insects, some fruit
Gray Wolf
(Canis lupus)
• largest canid (23-80 kg)
• color variation (white – black)
• diet varies geographically
• habitats: tundra, forest, prairie,
desert, etc.
Gray Wolf
• territorial – aggressive defense by pack
• females sexually mature ~ 2 yr, males ~ 3 yr
• gestation ~ 2 mo.
• altricial pups born in den – 8 to10 wks
•1973 -- lower 48 listed
“Endangered” (except MN =
“Threatened”)
•2003 -- 3 DPSs
Eastern - Threatened
Western - Threatened
Southwestern - Endangered
Red Wolf
(Canis rufus)
Size: between coyote & gray wolf
(20-40 kg)
Color: brown, tan & black
• Red or tawny on muzzle, back of ears
& legs
• Longer, pointed ears & longer legs;
slender build; shorter fur (vs. gray wolf)
Red Wolf
Habitat: southeastern deciduous &
coniferous forests
Diet: small mammals (raccoons,
rodents, rabbits, muskrats, etc.)
& white-tailed deer
Social structure: packs = extended
families & defended territories
Red Wolf
• 1967 listed as Endangered under ESA
• 1970: < 100 survive in TX & LO
• Captive breeding & reintroduction
Mexican Gray Wolf
(Canis lupus baileyi)
• genetically distinct subspecies
Size: < northern gray wolf (~ red
wolf, 20-36 kg)
Habitat: SW deserts; arid
grasslands & shrublands
Diet: elk, deer, small mammals
• extinct in native habitat by
1950s
• 1998: 11 wolves reintroduced
to AZ & NM
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