aflatoxin level (ppb)

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Aflasafe in Africa:
progress and prospects
for biocontrol in aflatoxin mitigation
R Bandyopadhyay, J Atehnkeng,
J Augusto, F Beed, T Dubois,
C Mutegi, S Boniface, V Manyong
International Institute of Tropical
Agriculture (IITA)
D Cassidy
United States Agency for International
Development (USAID)
P Cotty
University of Arizona/USDA-ARS
O Hasson, P Warrior
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
K Masha
Doreo Partners
M McDaniel, J Sandahl
United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA-FAS)
J Mignouna
African Agriculture Technology
Foundation (AATF)
Aflatoxin Stakeholder Workshop, TFDA and Abt Associates
December 3-4, Dar es Salaam Tanzania
Perfect aflatoxin storm in sub-Saharan Africa
susceptible
crops
susceptible
climate
35o N & S
suboptimal
production
systems
Aflatoxin levels in the market
Kenya
district
samples
total aflatoxin levels (ppb)
<20
21-99
100-1,000
>1,000
Makueni
91
35
13
40
12
Kitui
73
38
21
32
10
102
49
25
23
3
Thika
76
66
17
13
4
Total
342
47%
19%
27%
7%
Machakos
CDC and Kenyan Ministry of Health 2004
Mozambique
B1
B2
G1
mean
50.0 ppb
7.8 ppb
14.6 ppb
range
0–519 ppb
0–93 ppb
0–137 ppb
G2
total
3.9 ppb 76.3 ppb
0–65 ppb
Mozambique Ministry of Health 2004
Human health effects in Africa
acute
acute hepatic necrosis, cirrhosis,
carcinoma
chronic
carcinogenic
anti-nutritional
immune-suppressive
underreported
unknown
BBC 2004, Gong et al 2004, NIEHS 2010
Animal health effects in Africa
aflatoxin diet
(500 ppb)
40% reduction in live
weight (8 weeks)
aflatoxin-free
diet
aflatoxin levels in broiler feeds in
Nigeria
aflatoxin level
(ppb)
aflatoxin-free
diet
aflatoxin diet
(500 ppb)
samples
< 20 (safe)
38 %
20 – 100
14 %
100 – 500
41 %
500 - 1000
7%
IITA unpublished
Effect on trade
Malawi, Nigeria and Senegal groundnut exports to Europe decimated
EC 2007
Biocontrol of aflatoxins: principle
B aflatoxin (B1, B2)
G aflatoxin (G1, G2)
A. flavus ‘L-strains’
+/-
-
A. flavus ‘S-strains’
+
-
A. flavus ‘SBG strains’
+
+
A.Xparasiticus
+
+
A.Xnomius
+
+
A.xtamarii
-
-
shift fungal community from
toxigenic to atoxigenic
75
50
atox
field application of atoxigenic L
strain that outcompetes the
toxigenic ones
100
tox
“competitive exclusion principle”:
incidence of
toxigenic strains (%)
Species/strain
25
0
natural biocontrol
From Southern USA…
Registered and commercialized since 2004 in the US on maize,
cotton, pistachio as AF36 and Aflaguard (Syngenta)
AF36 in Arizona: 590 ton in 2012
82,000 ha cotton and 100,000 ha pistachio in 2012
Routine agronomic practice across counties effective and carry-over
in multiple crops over multiple years in various cropping systems
AF36 manufacturing facility
Arizona Cotton Research & Protection Council
… to Africa
biocontrol
strain
local
field
partners testing
biocontrol
strain
local
field
partners testing
biocontrol
strain
local
field
partners testing
biocontrol
strain
local
field
partners testing
biocontrol
strain
local
partners
Zambia 2011
biocontrol
strain
local
partners
Tanzania 2012
Mozambique 2013
Ghana 2013
Mali 2013
local
production commercialization
capacity distribution awareness
Senegal 2007
Burkina Faso 2009
Kenya 2004
Nigeria
2003
Strain selection prior to field testing
step 1
step 2
step 3
isolation
sequencing
(aflatoxin and CPA)
competition bioassays
toxin analysis
genetic profiling (SSR)
VCG profiling
Pre-field selection criteria
does not produce aflatoxin
can genetically not produce aflatoxin
can genetically not produce CPA
outcompetes toxigenic strains
belongs to different clonal lineages (SSR)
VCG with wide geographic distribution in country
VCG does not contain a single toxigenic member
~12 native strains are tested in the field
Selection of 4 strains
selection criteria:
superior
aflatoxin
reduction
superior
capacity to
outcompete
toxigenic ones
4 native strains formulated
into a registered product: 10 kg ha-1
www.iita.org
Performance of Aflasafe in farmers’ fields
B-aflatoxin reduction in maize at harvest, Senegal (2010)
village
fields
Diourbel
Nioro
Mean
19
19
aflatoxin conc (ng/g)
Aflasafe
control
1.9
29.7
4.4
17.6
reduction
93%
75%
87%
B-aflatoxin reduction in maize at storage, Nigeria (2010)
village
Maigana
Pampaida
Lere
Birnin
Mean
fields
22
10
9
10
aflatoxin conc (ng/g)
Aflasafe
control
17
646
9
171
49
271
14
96
reduction
99%
95%
82%
85%
90%
IITA unpublished
Aflasafe plant in Nigeria
5 t h-1
Develop cheaper, more effective formulations and manufacturing
methods compatible with Africa that can be transferred to private sector
Regionalization
strains: regional strains (PACA)
manufacturing: regional hubs
registration: regional protocols
Aflasafe-Nigeria
Aflasafe-Senegal
Aflasafe-West
Aflasafe-Kenya
Aflasafe-East
Aflasafe-Zambia
Aflasafe-South
Aflasafe-Mozambique
market demand for
Aflasafe
How to get Aflasafe to market?
animal breeders
incentives are
present
export-oriented aggregators
aggregation
market access
food processors
large commercial farmers
?
smallholder farmers
no regulation
enforcement
no demand
for aflatoxinfree maize
no supply of
aflatoxin-free
maize
no
awareness
Asante sana:
AATF
Abt Associates
ACDI/VOCA
ADA
Ag Dev Program, Nigeria
African Union
Animal Care, Nigeria
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
COMESA
Crop Research Institute, Ghana
Dalberg Associates
Doreo Partners
DPV, Senegal
ECOWAS
Elephant Vert, Marocco
FEPASO, Burkina Faso
Government of Mozambique
GIZ
ICRISAT
IFA-Tulln, Austria
IFAR
INERA, Burkina Faso
KARI, Kenya
KEPHIS, Kenya
Nigerian Mycotoxin Society
KNUST, Ghana
NISIR, Zambia
Livestock Feed PLC, Nigeria
Obasanjo Farms, Nigeria
Maize Association of Nigeria
PASO, Burkina Faso
Manufacturers Association of Nigeria PCPB, Kenya
PQPS, Zambia
Maslaha Seeds, Nigeria
Meridien Institute
Sokoine University, Tanzania
Mikocheni, Tanzania
Sylvain Bio, France
Millennium Village Program, Nigeria
TFDA
Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya
TPRI
Ministry of Agriculture, Tanzania
UNIDO
Ministry of Health, Nigeria
Université G Berger, Senegal
NAFDAC, Nigeria
University of Arizona, USA
NEARLS, Nigeria
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
NEPAD Business Group
University of Bonn, Germany
Nestle
USAID
Nigerian Economic Summit Group
USDA-ARS
Nigerian Export Promotion Council
USDA-FAS
… and of course the farmers
US Embassy, Kenya
ZARI, Zambia
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